Agriculture is the mother of all economic development in India.
It is a ladder through which a common man has found its destination.
But since Independence in 1947,the GDP has declined in comparison to the growth of industrial service sector.
In mid 1990’s it provides approximately 1/3 of the GDP and employ roughly 2/3 of the population.
We are covering 3 areas-
Modern technology and intensive marketing can the agriculturist exploit both the domestic market as well as international market to the fullest extent.
Various types of technologies: Plough (also ‘plow’):
Ploughing is the first preparation for plan for planting. The plough is primarily designed to prepare the ground for the cultivation by turning it over.
Prairie ploughs were heavy. Weighing at least 125 pound and enquiring from 3 to 7 yoke of oxen. Cutting only 3 inches into the soil, farmers could break 8 acres a year.
After a span of few years, ploughs maintaining a polished wrought iron moldboard and steel share were invented.
Harrow: After ploughing, other elements were used. The harrow was necessary to smoothen the soil in areas where the soil remained rough. In modern times , harrows are of varied types. some are simply dragged behind a tractor or draft animal; Some are suspended on wheels; many have leavers to adjust the depth of the cut.
Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Agriculture:
Industrial revolution brought about drastic changes in the farming process.
Few of the inventions include:
Electric and diesel pumps can be used to extract groundwater for irrigating any large acres of land.
It is foot operated water lifting device & needed by small farmers.
Drip Irrigation Technology:
It is a water saving technology which enables slow and regular application of water directly to the root of the plants.
agriculture finance Finance or credit is an essential requirement for every productive activity. Types of agriculture finance: Productive unproductive short-period medium- long term credit credit credit period credit credit
Sources of finance: The various sources of finance are as follows:- Institutional Non-institutional
Institutional sources: It consists funds available to the farmers by various institutions .The various institutional sources are as follows:
Land development bank
Regional rural bank
Non-institutional sources: It has been traditional sources of agriculture credit in India. The main sources are-
WORLD BANK: (various schemes)
$ 1332 million crore for U.P.
$ 444 million to Orissa.
Rural finance scheme to help Indian farmer.
$ 20 million bill for bank.
SEISIMIC BELT Scheme for regions which are under earthquake effect such as Himalayan, Gujarat, Maharashtra etc.
Agriculture economy:- The growth rate of the agriculture sector in India GDP grew after Independence. The government of India placed special emphasis on the sector in its 5 yrs plan. Years Total production(us $)
2001-2002 212 million tones
2002-2003 179.2million tones
2007 1.09 trillion
The growth rate of India GDP was 9.4% in 06 -07.
The Agriculture contributed around 18.6% to India GDP in 2005.
In India GDP grew rate is 1.7% each year between 01-02 & 03-04.
The various extension programmes are being held in the various phases which are as follows: :The first phase dates from 1948-1960,which includes
Grow More Food Campaign- 1948
Community Development Programme-1952
The 2nd phase (1960-1974),includes
Intensive Agriculture District Programmes-1960
Intensive Agriculture Areas Programmes-1966
High Yielding Variety Programme-1966
The 3rd phase(1965-1979),includes
National Demonstration Programme-1965
Operational Research project-1971
Lab To Land Programme-1979
The 4th phase ,introduced the World Bank aided training & Visit Approach
Role of agriculture in export India rank 2 worldwide in farm output Agriculture & allied sectors accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007. Yield per unit area of all crops have grown have grown since 1950. It is the second largest producer of wheat, rice ,sugar.