Biometric encryption

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Basic presentation about Biometric Encryption, Algorithm used and its advantages.

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Biometric encryption

  1. 1. BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION PRESENTED BY Divya Kottikkal
  2. 2. • INTRODUCTION • BIOMETRICS • CRYPTOGRAPHY • BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION • BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM • ADVANTAGES • APPLICATION • SUMMARY
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. • There are billions of computers in the world and they are connected to each other. • Security becomes a critical problem that must be solved by new reliable and robust identification, verification or cryptographic techniques • Traditional password or user-id systems are not secure enough to provide full access control to a system. • In order to improve the security of such systems biometric information could be incorporated into the passwords.
  5. 5. BIOMETRICS
  6. 6. • A biometric is defined as a unique, measurable, biological characteristic for recognizing or verifying the identity of a human being. • Statistically analyzing these biological characteristics is known as the science of biometrics.
  7. 7. • Biometric technologies for security includes recognition of • Faces • Fingerprints • Voice • Signature strokes • Iris and retina scans • Keystroke patterns • Ear shape • DNA • Body odor • Gait.
  8. 8. • Biometric identification consists of two stages Enrollment Verification/identification
  9. 9. ENROLLMENT • In enrollment stage, a sample of the biometric is acquired. • In order to decrease the high dimensionality ,a feature extraction phase is applied and form a template of the biometric.
  10. 10. VERIFICATION • In verification phase, these features are compared with the previously generated biometric template.
  11. 11. CRYPTOGRAPHY
  12. 12. • Cryptography is an important feature of computer security. • Encryption refers to algorithmic schemes that encode plain text into non-readable form or cyphertext using a “key” providing privacy. • The receiver of the encrypted text uses a "key" to decrypt the message, returning it to its original plain text form.
  13. 13. • In this scheme ,the security is dependent on the secrecy of the secret or private key. • Security of the cryptographic key is weak due to practical problems of remembering various passcodes or writing them down to avoid data loss. • Since the passcode is not directly tied to a user, the system is unable to differentiate between the legitimate user and the attacker. • Solution for this problem is ‘Biometric Encryption’.
  14. 14. BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION (BE)
  15. 15. • Biometric Encryption is a process that securely binds a PIN or a cryptographic key to a biometric, so that neither the key nor the biometric can be retrieved from the stored template. • The key is re-created only if the correct live biometric sample is presented on verification.
  16. 16. • Two phases ENROLLMENT VERIFICATION
  17. 17. ENROLLMENT 110011001011… ……………..110 01011001…01 Randomly generated key Biometrically-encrypted key is stored Biometric Image 100110100010… ………………010 Biometric Template BE binding algorithm
  18. 18. VERIFICATION 101100101010… ………………000 Fresh Biometric Template 110011001011… ……………..110 Biometrically-encrypted key BE retrieval algorithm 01011001…01 Key retrieved Fresh Biometric Image
  19. 19. BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
  20. 20. • The objective of the Biometric Encryption algorithm is to provide a mechanism for the linking and retrieval of a digital key using a biometric. • Biometric might be fingerprint, palmprint, face, iris or retina. • The resulting digital key is then used as a cryptographic key.
  21. 21. ALGORITHM • Correlation function • Enrollment phase • Verification phase
  22. 22. CORRELATION • Algorithm uses the entire image instead of using a feature-based approach. • In order to present the biometric input ,a correlation mechanism is applied.
  23. 23. • The correlation between the input image f1(x) and the obtained image during the verification phase f0(x) is formally defined as c( x) = FT− 1 {F1( X) F0( X) } FT -Fourier Transform
  24. 24. • The process of the Biometric Encryption does not extract a simple True/False system • It produces a more sophisticated output pattern which is linked during enrollment with a digital key and subsequently regenerated during verification to retrieve the same key.
  25. 25. ENROLLMENT • Enrollment phase contains three stages. E-1: Image Processing E-2: Key linking E-3: Identification code creation
  26. 26. FT FT-1 Hstored(u) id0 filter function identification code Link Algorithm STAGE E-2 k0 n-bit key of filter c 0(x) output pattern S bits of filter STAGE E-3 Identification code creation STAGE E-1 IMAGE PROCESSING
  27. 27. • E-1: Image Processing Combine a series of input fingerprint images with a random (phase) array to create two output arrays: Hstored (u) and c0 (x). • E-2: Key linking Link a cryptographic key, k0 , to the pattern, c0 (x), via the link algorithm. • E-3: Identification code creation Create an identification code, id0 , derived from the key, k0 .
  28. 28. VERIFICATION • Verification phase contains three stages V-1: Image Processing V-2: Key Retrieval V-3: Validation
  29. 29. Retrieval Algorithm FT STAGE C1(x) output pattern STAGE V-1 IMAGE PROCESSING STAGE V-3 k1 bits S of filter id1compareid0 Hstored(u) filter function FT -1 V-2
  30. 30. • V-1: Image Processing Combine Hstored (u), from the Bioscrypt, with a new series of input fingerprint images to create an output pattern, c1 (x). • V-2: Key Retrieval Extract a key, k1 , from c1 (x) using the retrieval algorithm. • V-3: Validate the key.
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES
  32. 32. BE technologies can enhance privacy and security. Some key advantages offered: 1. NO Retention of biometric image or template 2. Multiple / cancelable / revocable identifiers 3. Improved authentication security: stronger binding of user biometric & system identifier 4. Improved security of personal data and communications 5. Greater public confidence, acceptance, use à compliance with privacy & data protection laws
  33. 33. 1.No Retention of biometric image or template • Most privacy and security concerns derive from storage and misuse of the biometric data. • User retains control and use of their own biometric
  34. 34. 2.Multiple / cancelable / revocable identifiers • BE allows individuals to use one biometric for multiple accounts and identifiers without fear that identifiers will be linked together. • If an account identifier becomes compromised, there is less risk that all the other accounts will be compromised, i.e., no need to change one's fingers. • BE technologies make possible the ability to change or recomputed account identifiers; identifiers can be revoked or cancelled, and substituted for newly generated ones calculated from the same biometric.
  35. 35. 3.Improved authentication security • Stronger binding of user biometric & system identifier • Results are much stronger account identifiers: – longer, more complex identifiers – no need for user memorization – less susceptible to security attacks
  36. 36. 4.Improved security of personal data and communications • Since the key is one's own biometric, used locally, this technology could place a powerful tool in the hands of individuals
  37. 37. APPLICATIONS
  38. 38. • Biometric ticketing for events • Biometric boarding cards for air travel • Identification, credit and loyalty card systems • “Anonymous” (untraceable) labeling of sensitive records (medical, financial) • Consumer biometric payment systems • Access control to personal computing devices • Personal encryption products • Local or remote authentication to access files held by government and other various organizations
  39. 39. SUMMARY
  40. 40. • BE technologies exemplify the fundamental privacy and data protection principles • Although introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits, it can also introduce many new security and privacy vulnerabilities, risks, and concerns. • Novel Biometric Encryption techniques can overcome many of those risks and vulnerabilities, resulting distinct advantages to both security and privacy.

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