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Biomedical waste and its management

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  • 1. Biomedical waste and its Management
  • 2. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE Definition – Anything tested or used on an individual, or any trash from biological experiments are medical waste Generated from – Waste generated by health care facility – Research facility – Laboratories Hazardous health care waste – 85% waste is non infectious – 10% are infectious – 5% are hazardous
  • 3. BIOMEDICAL WASTE HOSPITAL WASTE INFECTIVE SOLID LIQUID NON- INFECTIVE SOLID HOSPITAL WASTE INFECTIVE SOLID LIQUID NON- INFECTIVE SOLID LIQUID
  • 4. Biomedical waste Statistics • Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations among countries. In India- • 1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among Govt. and Private establishments. • Approximately 506.74 tons/ day wastes generated • Out of which only 57% waste undergoes proper disposal
  • 5. Classification of Waste Category as per WHO standard WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE Examples Category No. 1 Human anatomical waste Tissues, organs, body parts Category No. 2 Animal waste Generated during research/experimentation, from veterinary hospitals Category No.3 Microbiology and biotechnology waste Laboratory cultures, micro-organisms, human and animal cell cultures, toxins Category No. 4 Waste sharps hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpels, broken glass Category No. 5 Discarded medicines and cyto-toxic drugs X-rays, Cancer chemotherapy
  • 6. Cont…. WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE Examples Category No. 6 Soiled Waste Dressing, bandages, plaster casts, material contaminated with blood Category No. 7 Radioactive Components Radiotherapy/lab research liquids Contaminated glass wares, packages, absorbent papers Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Generated from any of the infected areas Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Category No. 10 Chemical Waste Alcohol, Sulphuric acid, chlorine powder, Glutaraldehyde, Picric acid, fertilizer,
  • 7. PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMW ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM VIRUSES HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A,C, Arboviruses, Enteroviruses AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne fevers, etc. Infected needles, body Fluids, Human excreta, Blood. BACTERIA Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium Tetani, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus, Wound infections, septicemia, rheumatic fever, skin and soft tissue infections Human excreta and body fluid in landfills and hospital wards, Sharps such as needles, surgical blades in hospital waste.
  • 8. ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM PARASITES Plasmodium Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Malaria Human excreta, blood and body fluids in poorly managed sewage system of hospitals.
  • 9. OBJECTIVE OF BMW MANAGEMENT • To minimize the production/generation of infective waste. • Recycle the waste after to the extent possible • Treat the waste by safe environment friendly/acceptable methods. • Adequate care in handling to prevent health care associated infections. • Safety precautions during handling the BMW.
  • 10. COLOUR CODING OF BAGS COLOR CODE TYPE OF CONTAINER WASTE CATEGORY TREATMENT OPTIONS Yellow Plastic bags 1, 2, 3 and 6 Incineration Red Disinfected container/plastic bag 3, 6 & 7 Autoclaving/Micro Waving/Chemical treatment Blue/white transparent Plastic bags/puncture proof container 4 & 7 Autoclaving/Micro waving/chemical treatment, Destruction & shredding Black Plastic bag 5, & 9, AND 10 (SOLID) Disposal in secured land fills
  • 11. LABEL FOR BIO-MEDICAL WASTE CONTAINERS/BAGS Note : Label shall be non-washable and prominently visible.
  • 12. Transport Transport by wheeled trolleys/containers /carts only in vehicles authorized for the purpose They should be Easy to load and unload No sharp edges Easy to clean  Disinfect daily
  • 13. Double Chambered Incinerator
  • 14. Autoclave  Temperature -not less than 121 0C  Pressure -15 pounds per square inch (psi)  Residence time - not less than 60 minutes
  • 15. Micro wave • kill bacteria and other pathogenic organism. • not be used for cytotoxic, hazardous or radioactive wastes, contaminated animal carcasses, body parts and large metal items.
  • 16. Disposal of Sharps • disposed in circular or rectangular pits. • covered with a heavy concrete slab • When the pipe is full it can be sealed completely after another has been prepared.
  • 17. ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION  The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986  The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998  The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000  The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989  The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995  The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981