Geothermal energy
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Geothermal energy

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Geothermal energy  Geothermal energy Presentation Transcript

  • Geothermal Energy
  • CONTENTS o What is Geothermal Energy? o History o Resources o Direct Applications o Geothermal Electricity o Advantages and Disadvantages o Conclusion
  • What is geothermal energy?  Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Geo: earth Thermal: heat  It originates from: the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).  At the core of the earth, temperatures reach over 5000°C  High temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt, creating upward magma convection. The magma heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 370 °C
  • History • Hot springs have been used for bathing since centuries. The oldest known spa is a stone pool on China’s Lisan mountain built in the 3rd century BC. • The world's oldest geothermal district heating system in France, has been operating since the 14th century. • In 1911, the world's first commercial geothermal power plant was built at Larderello, Italy. • In 1960, Pacific Gas and Electric Co. began operation of the first successful geothermal electric power plant in the USA. • In 2010, 10715 MW of geothermal power was developed in 24 countries.
  • The oldest known pool fed by a hot spring, built by the Qin dynasty in the 3rd century BCE. Today, Chevron Corporation is the world's largest private geothermal electricity producer.
  • then and now… 1904 2010
  • Resources •The Earth's internal thermal energy flows to the surface by conduction at a rate of 44.2 TW. •These power rates are more than double humanity’s current energy consumption from all primary sources, but most of this energy flow is not recoverable. •The geothermal gradient of temperatures through the crust is 25– 30 °C per kilometer of depth in most of the world. •The conductive heat flux averages 0.1 MW/km2. •Estimates of the potential for electricity generation from geothermal energy vary from 0.035 to 2TW depending on the scale of investments.
  • Direct Applications • It includes district heating, greenhouses, fisheries, mineral recovery, and industrial process heating. • Low-temperature (149C or less) geothermal resources are typically used in direct-use applications. • Today, approx. 70 countries make use of geothermal heating. • Iceland is the world leader in direct application of geothermal energy. 93% of its homes are heated with geothermal energy. • Reykjavík, Iceland has the biggest district heating system on the globe.
  • Borehole Heat Exchanger •Borehole heat exchanger is used for space heating. •Water is sent down a well to be heated by the Earth’s warmth. •Then a heat pump is used to take the heat from the underground water to the substance that heats the house. • Then, after the water is cooled, it is injected back into the Earth.
  • Geothermal Electricity The International Geothermal Association (IGA) has reported that 10,715 MW of geothermal power in 24 countries is online, which is expected to generate 67,246 GWh of electricity in 2010. This represents a 20% increase in online capacity since 2005. IGA projects growth to 18,500 MW by 2015, due to the projects presently under development. In 2010, the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 3,086 MW of installed capacity from 77 power plants. The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California.
  • Power Station Types Geothermal power stations are similar to other steam turbine thermal power stations - heat from a fuel source is used to heat water or another working fluid. The working fluid is then used to turn a turbine of a generator, thereby producing electricity. The fluid is then cooled and returned to the heat source. •Dry steam power plants •Flash steam power plants •Binary cycle power plants
  • Installed Geothermal Electric Capacity Country Capacity (MW) 2007 Capacity (MW) 2010 Percentage of national production United States 2687 3086 0.3% Philippines 1969.7 1904 27% Indonesia 992 1197 3.7% Mexico 953 958 3% Italy 810.5 843 1.5% New Zealand 471.6 628 10% Iceland 421.2 575 30% Japan 535.2 536 0.1% Iran 250 250 El Salvador 204.2 204 25% Kenya 128.8 167 11.2% Costa Rica 162.5 166 14% Nicaragua 87.4 88 10%
  • •Chhattisgarh government has decided to establish the first Geothermal Power Plant of the country in the newly formed Balrampur district of the state. •NTPC has already started exploratory and preparatory work in this area. It has also started talks with Oil and Natural Gas Corp and other international organisations for drilling operation. •Construction work will begin in 2014. •Around 340 hot springs have been traced in India by the GSI over the last 3 decades. India's 1st geothermal power plant to come up in Chhattisgarh
  • Conclusion Advantages • Non conventional energy source • It is replenished by radioactive decay of minerals • Unending source • Continuous supply • Cheap operation Disadvantages • Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases, notably carbon dioxide , hydrogen sulfide and ammonia which contribute to global warming, acid rain • Construction is too costly • Noise pollution • Land survey can be unreliable.
  • Thank you