The uncertainty principle 2


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The uncertainty principle 2

  1. 1. Werner Karl Heisenberg(5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976)
  2. 2. Introduction(Biography of Werner Karl Heisenberg ) A German Theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics. A very well known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. He made contributions to nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics. he formulated the Uncertainty Principle at Niels Bohr’s institute in Copenhagen, while he was working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics.
  3. 3.  The main body of Werner’s 1927 paper (German), he used the word “ Unbestimmtheit” (indeterminacy)to describe the theoretical principle. In his endnote he switch to the word “Unsicherheit”(uncertainty). In his book The physical principles of the quantum theory (english- version) was published in 1930, the word uncertainty was used and became the commonly used term in english language.
  4. 4. Heisenbergs gamma-raymicroscope Heisenbergs gamma-ray microscope for locating an electron (shown in blue). The incoming gamma ray (shown in green) is scattered by the electron up into the microscopes aperture angle θ. The scattered gamma-ray is shown in red. Classical optics shows that the electron position can be resolved only up to an uncertainty Δx that depends on θ and the wavelength λ of the incoming light.
  5. 5. Heisenberg’sUncertainty Principle In the latter part of the 19th century, Newtonians mechanics, Maxwell equations of electromagnetism, and thermodynamics were thought no basic laws were left to discover. In 1927 , Werner Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle, which describes the nature of this determinacy. the uncertainty principle states that the position and velocity cannot both be measured,exactly, at the same time. uncertainty principle derives from the measurement problem, the intimate connection between the wave and particle nature of quantum objects
  6. 6. The Two Uncertainty Relations Position-Momentum Relation-can be precisely derived from the Schrodinger equation- x - the uncertainty in the x-coordinate of theposition of an object.p- the uncertainty in the x-component of the momentum of that object.h- Planck’s constant.
  7. 7.  Energy-Time Relation- referred to as an uncertainty relation for energy and time.E – energyt- timeh- Planck’s constant
  8. 8. Big Bang Theory
  9. 9. Big Bang Theory It is a explanation of what happened at the very beginning of our universe. ( back) According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as "singularity" around 13.7 billion years ago. Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics.-They are thought to exist at the core of black holes
  10. 10.  Black holes are areas of intense gravitational pressure. The pressure is thought to be so intense that finite matter is actually squished into infinite density . These zones of infinite density are called "singularities." Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something - a singularity. (back) It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside of an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.