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# Relativity (1)

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### Relativity (1)

1. 1. TIME DILATIONLENGTH CONTRACTIONTWIN PARADOX
2. 2.  Theory of relativity :Encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein special relativity and general relativity.
3. 3. Albert Einstein:Description :was a Germanborn theoreticalphysicist who developedthe theory of generalrelativity, effecting arevolution in physics. Forthis achievement, Einsteinis often regarded as thefather of modernphysics and one of themost prolific intellects inhuman history. He alsocontribute the paper “Onthe Electrodynamics ofMoving Bodies” (AnnusMirabilis) that is publish inthe scientific journal in1905.
4. 4.  Special Relativity :  General Relativity:Is a theory of the Is a theory of gravitation structure of space develop by Einstein in time. It was introduce the year 1907-1915. by Albert Einstein’s the development of 1905 paper “On the general relativity Electrodynamics of began with Moving Bodies” equivalence principle under which states of accelerated motion being at rest in gravitational field are physically identical
5. 5.  The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another. (Principle of relativity) The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observation, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of light.
6. 6.  Relativity of Simultaneity: two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observers on relative motion. Time Dilation: moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observers stationary clock. Length contraction: objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. Mass-energy equivalence: E=mc2, energy and mass equivalent and transmutation. Maximum speed is finite: No physical object,
7. 7. Time:Is not anabsolute butis relative tothe motionbetween theobserverand theevent that isbeingobserved.
8. 8. Lightclock:Light clock:light willbounce upand downbetweenparallelmirrors andtick-off equalintervals oftime.
9. 9. “The apparent slowing down of time for an object moving at relativistic speeds.”
10. 10.  Formula:to = time interval of flash to bounce between two mirror.v = velocity between the observer and the objectc = speed of light
11. 11.  Leo and Christian are twins. At the age of 30, Leo left for a round trip to a distant star in a spaceship with a speed of 0.95 c relative to earth. The trip took 20 years according to the ship.
12. 12.  Isa experiment in special relativity in which a twin makes a journey into space in a high- speed rocket and returns home to find he has aged less than his identical twin who stayed on earth. TwinParadox
13. 13. The apparentshrinking of anobject moving atrelativistic speed
14. 14. Lorentz- FitzGerald contraction FitzGerald is better knownfor his conjecture in his shortpaper "The Ether and theEarths Atmosphere" (1889)that if all moving objectswere foreshortened in thedirection of their motion, itwould account for the curiousnull-results of the Michelson-Morley experiment.FitzGerald based this idea inpart on the wayelectromagnetic forces wereknown to be affected bymotion. In particular,FitzGerald used someequations that had beenderived a short time beforeby his friend the electricalengineer Oliver Heaviside.The Dutch physicist HendrikLorentz hit on a very similaridea in 1892 and developed itmore fully into Lorentztransformations, inconnection with his theory ofelectrons.
15. 15. Lorentz-FitzGeraldcontractionHendrick Lorentz In 1895,with the attempt to explainthe Michelson-Morleyexperiment, Lorentzproposed that moving bodiescontract in the direction ofmotion (see lengthcontraction; GeorgeFitzGerald had alreadyarrived at this conclusion,see FitzGerald-LorentzContraction). Lorentz workedon describingelectromagnetic phenomena(the propagation of light) inreference frames that movedrelative to each other. Hediscovered that the transitionfrom one to anotherreference frame could besimplified by using a newtime variable which hecalled local time.
16. 16.  Formula: L0 is the proper length (the length of the object in its rest frame), L is the length observed by an observer in relative motion with respect to the object, v is the relative velocity between the observer and the moving object, c is the speed of light,
17. 17. A spaceship travelling at 0.50 c relative to earth is 45 m long as measured by its crew. How long is the spaceship as measured by the mission control in Texas?