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Apple and sugar feeding in adult codlingmoths, Cydia pomonella : Effect on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility
Attraction of adult codling moths to sweetbaits has been well documented. However,beneficial effects of sugar feeding on mothfitness have not been demonstrated.
Introduction• C. pomonella larvae do not exhibit normal development on the flesh or seeds of ripe apples. – Adults are attracted to traps baited with ripe apples or pears. * Codling moth response to ripe fruit might be explained as the seeking of feeding sites.
Introduction• Females fed honey water laid twice as many eggs as starved moths. (Weisman)• Neither fecundity nor egg fertility was enhanced by access to water, but feeding did increase longevity. (Howell)• The number of fertile eggs laid by C. pomonella decreases with increased female age. (Deseo,Vickers)
Materials and methods• Codling moths were held in 473 ml plastic cups with lids modified with a fine mesh screen• placed 70 mm diameter piece of filter paper on the bottom• Affixed yellow sticky note on the inside of wall of each cup• Obtained adult moths within 24 hours of enclosion
Treatments1. STARVED – no food or water2. WATER – deionized water3. SUCROSE SOLUTION4. HONEY WATER5. APPLE JUICE6. APPLE FLESH
Materials and Methods• ANOVA – Analysis of Variance – Used to compare adult longevity among feeding treatments and between the sexes – Used to compare total number of eggs laid and the percentage of eggs laid that were fertile
ResultsLongevitySucrose water, honey water, andapple juice yielded the highestoverall longevity.
Results Fecundity Total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice
ResultsEgg fertility tended todecline with increasingfemale longevity.
ResultsThe interaction between feedingtreatment and time factordisplaying a decline in fecundityper day across all feedingtreatments over time.
Results• Sugar feeding by females, enhance fecundity and egg fertility directly, and increased longevity from feeding extend oviposition periods.• In males, enhanced longevity from feeding might lead to more mating opportunities.• Sugar consumption could enhance moth dispersal.• Attraction of moths to sweet baits was because of the beneficial effects of adult feeding.
Cydia pomonella show enhanced longevityand reproductive output from sugar feeding.It explains that the attraction of adult mothsto sweet baits and odors from ripe fruit, whichmay be a natural source of food in the field.