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The International UFO Reporter (IUR) of the Center for UFO Studies has been published continuously since 1976. Most observers consider IUR the leading English-language UFO journal, and the articles in ...

The International UFO Reporter (IUR) of the Center for UFO Studies has been published continuously since 1976. Most observers consider IUR the leading English-language UFO journal, and the articles in IUR have chronicled the changes in the UFO phenomenon and the interests of those who have studied it.

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International UFO Reporter v30 International UFO Reporter v30 Document Transcript

  • Volume 30, Number I International UFO Reporter ·THE AR..M/ !<E>ER.V£S. ARno�v. wGr. ff. v}.: PENN fJJt. IMT l lJf"l ;0 11 vERY MV t-1 A:-AR.r vi 1-{f IJ.vitOI/...1$. Af111 IT .JJl r•ttp_r1v·�11" /)r1!J/: ;1F VJJ-/r LE4.1f, r�:.;, wAr; At"ff2. 1 S(-1 ,; -;I" f tti71W t-rr .·[> TMC.I� 11--l.A f J-AD Tiff 013Jft ., 1-r. 1, u.1rl, vMC"Vrr?c /t./lfE. 9/ ">[ .> • ))JOVE , �. I "� :;f• Ttfl- 1Vf 3EfiJ J1AN1 f1R�1/ fi(L A;, oNE J!Ai! .4 w�Ji-;" dAr7 "1/ .,.._, ll . Artist ·s conception (above) by Charles Hanna of the object that crashed near Kecksbtug, Pennsylvania. December 9. 1965. Statement o.fja:::::: musician .Jern Betters (left). who was ordered at gunpoint to leave the area q(ler he and hisji-iends sail a 1(//ge acorn-shaped object on the back ofan Army.flatbed tmck the night of the alleged UFO crash. Nearbr resident Bill Bulebush sa w the object John Podesta, While !-louse chief of staff under descend and located it be.Jore the militarv arrived President Clinton,backs the Kecksbwg initiative. FORTY YEARS OF SECRECY: NASA, THE MILITARY, AND THE 1965 KECKSBURG CRASH
  • INTERNATIONALUFOREPORTEREditors:Jerome ClarkGeorge M. EberhartMark RodeghierContributing Editors:Bill ChalkerRichard F. HainesKe v in D. RandleJenny RandlesChris RutkowskiWeb site:www.cufos.orgE-mail:I n focenter@cu fos.orgAnswering machine: c/4��0 ()1-(773) 27 1 -3 6 1 1 191 - 1986FoRTY YEARS OF SECRECY: NASA, TilE MILITARY, Ai>;O THE 1965 I<ECKSBURG CRASH by Leslie Kean . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 3As GREAT A: E:IGMA AS THE UFOs THEMSELVES by Michael D. Swords ............................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10VE:"USJAN DREAMS by Jerome Clark ....... . . ....... . . . . . .. . . . . . . ................. . . ........ . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . ......... 1300TY AND THE OODY SNATCHERS by Rober/ Duran/ ..... ...... . . . . ....... . . . .......... ........ . . . ....... . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19PtJJLIP .1. KLASS, 1919-2005 by Jerome Clark . . . ...... . . . . . .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Published in October 2005. ln!ernalional UFO Reporler ( I SSN 0720-174X) is pub­ Ill inois 60659. Address all s u bsc r i ptio n correspondence to lnler­l ish ed quarterl y by the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies, nalional UFO Reporter. 245 7 West Peterson Avenue. C hi cago .2457 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60659. All rights I l linois 60659.reserved. Reproduction without permiss i on is st rictl y prohibi ted . The lntemwional UFO Reporter is a benefit publicationCopyr ig ht © 2005 by the J. Allen Hynek Ce n ter for UFO Studies. ma iled to Associates of the Center for a co ntri bu t i on ofS25.00 orThird-class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois. more. Fo re ign Associates add S5.00 for de l i very All amounts in . A dvert i sem ents acc epted f publication i n this magazine do or U.S. funds. Other publications also ava ilable lor contributors ofnot n ecess ari ly refl ect th e v ic wpo i n tsofth e J. Allen H y ne k Center larger amounts. r:or deta i l s. write to the J . Allen Hyn ek Center lorfor UFO Studies. UFO Studies, 2457 West Peterson Avenue. Ch icago. I l linois Address all article submissions, letters to the editor, and 60659, USA.other editorial correspondence to lmemalional UFO Reporler. Postmaster: Sen d Form3579to CUFOS. 2457 West PetersonCenter lor UFO Studies. 2457 West Peterson Avenue. Ch icago, Avenue, Chicago. I l linois 60659. IUR + 30:1 2
  • FORTY YEARS OF SE CRE CY: NASA, THE MILITARY, AND THE 1965 KE CKSBURG CRASH BY LESLIE KEAT h i s December marks the -lOth anniversary ofone Rft fl fT n1r .. nr ,n,no ro 1 ... • •lrr-T- of the most thoroughly researched and intrigu­ ing crash/retrieval cases in America. Despite a top-notch mvcst1gat10n spannmg more thanthree decades and world-wide attention in recent years from Headlines.fi·om thea new campaign probing the case, the Kecksburg, Pennsyl­ CreeiiSbwg Tribu11e-Revie11·. December 10, 1965.vania, UFO crash of 1 965 remains unsolved, due mainly tothe stubborn silence of American government agencies. firefighters, newspaper reporters, and a radio news d i rector U n l i ke the Roswell crash. this case has been relatively at radio station WHJB (who was on the scene taping inter­uncontaminated by commercial ism and the popular media. views )- describe the large mil itary and police presence atIt does not feature bodies found at the scene; it involves an the impact site and the cordoning o rf of the area. Observersatypical object. suggesting a range of explanations: and it provided detailed descriptions of an object being trans­incl udes many living itnesses. The central witnesses re­ ported out on a flatbed truck. Many witnesses have signedmain unknown to most people i nterested in UFOs, and none statements for investigator Stan Gordon of Greensburg,of them have benefited from coming forward. Also i n Pennsylvania. who has been working on the case for overcontrast t o t h e Roswell case, t h e dramatic m i litary response three decades. (See h i s website at www.stangorclon.com.)to the crash was reported by television. radio, and newspa­ To this day. no one knows what triggered the i n terest o fpers as it developed, and was witnessed by hundreds of the U . S . m i l itary, o r why the Army was s o intent o n hidingpeople who descended on the tiny town from miles around. the object that it threatened c i v i l ians with weapons. TheU n fortunately. no high-level Army, A i r Force, or intelli­ subsequent A i r Force denial that anything at a l l came downgence personnel involved with the Kccksburg retrieval have is even more perplexing, and has led to heated speculation.come forward in any way that can be or use to the case, as In the ensuing 40 years. members of the once tightly knitthey did for the Roswell case many years after it occurred. community i n rural Pennsylvania have been torn apart by the The sheer volume of witness and local news reports cont inuing unanswered questions about what happened. Asshow that on December 9. 1965, an object landed near the American citizens, they have not been granted the intorma­vil lage of Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, about40 miles south­ tion clue them by law under the Freedom o f l n formation Act.east of Pillsburgh, after being observed as a fireball in the This case addresses issues that go beyond the question ofsky across several U.S. states and Canada. Some Pennsylva­ determining the origin of the strange object that-as indi­nia residents saw the object moving slowly in the sky; others cated by so many accounts-was recovered by our govern­saw smoke and brilliant bluish-white lights l i k e an electric ment that night.arc when it first crashed. Five witnesses eventually provided H owever, two exciting breakthroughs occurred i n 2003independent, corroborated descriptions of the object and its that have moved the investigation forward many steps: aexact location in the woods. Dozens of others including scientists discovery of physical evidence showing that something crashed through the trees i n 1965 at the location Leslie Kean is an im•estigalive jour­ designated by witnesses; and the e l imination ofthe possibil­ nal is/ 111ho has published pieces ity that the object was a Russian satellite or any man-made related to the UFO suhjecl fur the object at all. according to the worlds leading authority on Boston Globe and the Providence Jour­ space systems. These two developments demolish the two n a l , and through 11·ide distrihution by preferred explanations used by the skeptics-that the object the Nell York Times and Knight Ridder­ was either a meteor (the Air Force explanation) or a Russian Tribune H1ire services. sate l l ite-and heighten the mystery by further reducing I U R + 30:1 3
  • ought to do it because the American people quite frankly can handle the truth; and we ought to do it because its the law. "Clinton Aide Slams Pentagons UFO Se­ crecy was the headline on the CNN story that day. "The new in itiative is not setting out to prove the existence ofaliens. Rather the group wants to legitimize the scientific investigation of unex­ plained aerial phenomena," C N reported. "Podesta was one of numerous political and The f CFi 1eam, including Larr)l Landmwn (far leji). Lee Helfrich ull media heavyweights on hand in Washington, (second from le/i). and Sian Gordon (ar righl), at a Washing/On, D.C., . f D.C., to announce a new group to gain access to press CO!?ference in Oc10ber 2003. secret government records about UFOs."possible conventional explanations. "UFO FALLS NEAR KECKSBURG" These breakthroughs occurred after the Sci Fi Channellaunched its historic UFO Advocacy I n itiative" in which, The CFi campaign could not have proceeded without thefor a few years, unprecedented resources were applied to the solid base o f meticulous work on the Kecksburg caseinvestigation of a UFO case. As an independent journalist, performed by researcher Stan Gordon for close to 40 years.I was asked by Larrry Landsman, Sci Fisdirector ofspecial Gordons curiosity was piqued when, as a teenager i nprojects, to spearhead an effort seeking new government nearby Greensburg, h e spent the evening o f December 9,records on a well-documented American U FO case that 1 965, glued to the radio and television as events unfolded.included the retrieval of physical evidence. The Kecksburg He heard reports that something crashed in the woods nearincident satisfied these and other criteria used to select a the tiny v i l lage of Kecksburg at approximately 4:45 p . m .case, and the Washington law firm Lobel, Nov ins & Lamont that evening. after being seen over a number o f other statescame on board to assist with FOIA appeals and lawsuits, i f and Canada. "Many persons in the Greensburg area saw thethey should become necessary. "This was, and s t i l l is, a phenomena. State pol ice say there is a fire in the Kecksburgfreedom of i n formation story," says Landsman. "Many area. They are investigating," said the 9 oclock news onwitnesses say something occurred that night. and so we KDKA radio in Pittsburgh.provided our support to those investigating." On his black-and-white TV, Gordon watched the local I n addition, a private investigator who formerly worked news and occasional special bulletins that broke into regularfor the congressional General Accounting Office and an programming to state that the m i litary had arrived on theindependent archival research fi rm joined the team, expand­ scene and that the area was cordoned off. A search wasing the scope of the investigation beyond F O I A . Working underway to locate the object.with the Washington pub! ic relations firm Podesta Mattoon, "Unidentified Flying Object Falls near Kecksburg,the core group undertaking this project called itself the Army Ropes offArea" exclaimed the front-page headl ine onCoalition for Freedom o f l n formation (Cfi ), for which I was the Greensburg Tribune-Review the next morning. Theappointed director of investigations. See our website at article said that "the area where the object landed waswww. freedomofinfo.org. i m mediately sealed off on the order of U . S . Army and State The CFi Kecksburg i n i t i a t i ve won the support o f Police officials, repo1tedly in anticipation of a close inspec­Washington insider John Podesta, President C l i nt o n s tion o fwhatever may have f llen." U . S . Army engineers and aformer chie f o f staffand member o f the 1 9 9 7 Moynihan scientists were brought in.Commission o n Protecting and Reducing Government "Excitement caused bySecrecy, who at the t i m e was a l a w professor at the apparent landing pro­Georgetown U n i versity and now heads the Center for duced a massive trafficAmerican Progress. Podesta was instrumental i n the de­ jam," as hundreds drovec l a s s i fication of800 m i l l i o n pages o f documcnts during to the site from surround­the Clinton a d m i n istration and i s an outspoken critic o f mg areas.u n necessary government secrecy. "This i n i tiative w i l l Tribune-Review re­he l p keep the pressure on," he explained. poner Robert Gatty in­ " I think i t s time to open the books on questions that terviewed an eight-year­have remained in the dark, on the question of government old boy who saw the Tribune-RevieH· reporterinvestigations of UFOs," Podesta told the media at C F i s object fall into the woods, Robert Catty (left) with newsfirst press conference launching the Kecksburg i n i t iative in and h i s mother, M r s . anchor B1yant Gumbel,October 2002. Its t i m e to find out what the truth really is Arnold Kalp, who saw host of the Sci Fi Channelthats out there. We ought to do it because its right; we blue smoke rising and documentm:v on Kecksburg. R + 30:1 4
  • alerted the authorities. Gattys December 10 story, head­ i n i t i a l l y excited by the mysterious event as was M u rphy,lined "Unidentified Flying Object Report Touches off Probe raises the poss i b i l ity that they too were visited by i n t i m i ­near Kecksburg," recounts that he was denied access to the dating officials.)site, by order of the Army. After airing the documentary, M urphy clammed up and Gattys stories were quickly superseded by reports in would no longer talk about what had i n i t i a l l y been the storynumerous late-edition papers with the headlines "Searchers of his l i fetime, according to his wife. Yet M u rphy had noF a i l to F i n d Object " and "Fireball a Meteor, Astronomer idea how important his special documentary report wouldExplains." Reports said that 25 state policemen and mem­ become to i n vestigators years later, providing an intriguing,bers of Army and A i r Force searched a 75-acre area until 2 first-hand window into the drama as it unfolded. The reso­a.m. and found nothing. The A i r Force explained the inci­ lute reporter did everything he possibly could to probe anddent as "a meteor or meteors," adding that "there has been document the story. In the beginning of the piece, forno evidence of space debris . . . and all aircraft and missiles example, he provides the crucial fact that "the control towerhave been accounted for." at the Greater Pittsburgh A i rport definitely confirmed the In a recent interview, Gatty said that his editor sent fact that there was an object in the sky at that time, 13him out that night to cover "the story of the century," and minutes before 5 . "that he i s convinced something did i n deed come down in "Object i n the Woods" chronicles Murphys move­the Kecksburg woods. "The Army appeared to be pro­ ments and encounters throughout the evening i n great deta i l .tecting something," he wrote in a 200 3 statement for a At 8:30 p.m., after arriving on the scene at Kecksburg, heC F i press conference. "At this point in time, nearly 40 saw State Police Fire Marshal Carl Metz and another inves­years later, what poss i b l y could be the reason for continu­ tigator go into the woods with a Geiger counter and flash­ing this cover-up?" light, returning up the h i l l 1 6 minutes later. W h i le Metz Report e r .John M u rphy, headed for his car, M urphy stopped him where no news director for local radio sta­ one else could hear and asked if he had found anything. "He tion WI-IJB. made it down to the looked puzzled for a second and said, I m not sure, Murphy site before the authorities ar­ says in the broadcast. M urphy then decided to ask the rived, in response to a nood of question i n a different way. "After you make your report to c a l l s from alarmed citizens to the captain, do you think you or the captain, perhaps. may the station. 1-lis former w i fe have something to tell me? And he [Metz] said, · You better Bonnie M i l slagle ( M urphy died get your information from the Army." Sounding a bit in 1 96 9 ) and W H J B office man­ stunned by this statement, Murphy makes the point that i t ager Mabel Mazza both later was "very unusual for the fire marshal, examining a fire in Mabel lvfaz::a reported that Murphy had pho­ almost a clear blue sky," to turn him overto the U n i ted States tographed the object. Army, indicating that something there in the woods "showed "He got down there before the police, before any of the some significance of m i l i tary value."armed forces were there,"said M i l slaglc. "l-Ie called me and A little later, at the Greensburg State Police barracks,told me hed gotten pictures of it. but some of the film had Murphy reports that he saw members of the anny and the a i rbeen confiscated. But hed gotten one roll through." force there i n u n i form, along w i t h Carl Metz. The captain Mazza says she saw one picture. "It was very clark and told him that he had an official statement for the record: theit was with a lot of trees around and everything. And I dont state pol ice had conducted a thorough search and "there wasknow how far away from the site he was. But I did see a nothing whatsoever in the woods." M u rphy called this in topicture of a sort of a cone-like thing. I t s the only time I ever W I - I J B headquarters for broadcast during the stations on­saw it," she said. going news coverage of unfolding events. When Metz and In the weeks that followed, M u rphy became obsessed others then got ready to leave the barracks and return to thewith the case and developed a radio documentary called wooded area a second time. Metz told M urphy that he could"Object i n the Woods that included interviews conducted go with the group to the location.that night. One day, he received an unexpected visit from While Murphy waited in his carlo follow the caravan ofauthorities i n plain clothes. W H J B employee Linda Foschia vehicles heading to Kecksburg, a state police officer camerecal l s that some of Murphys tapes were confiscated; no from the barracks and approached him. We got somethingone knows what happened to the photographs. A week out there." the o fficer told the radio news director, onlyafter this visit, which left him at first very agitated and then moments after the release of the offic ial statement to theuncharacteristically despondent and depressed, M urphy contrary. "Its blue and its pulsating and theres a light onaired a censored version of the original documentary. it," he said, adding that the military wanted to go see thisSome interviewees had requested he remove them from pulsating light. Murphy notes that this report matchedthe broadcast clue to fears of getting i n trouble with the earlier eyewitness descriptions of blue l ights emanatingpolice and the Army. M u rphy explained on the air. (The from the woods right after the object landed and that, i n fact,sudden fear of these previously forthcoming sources, several people said they saw a light. "I myself did not see any I U R + 30:1 5
  • Pholos of damaged lrees near rhe crash localion 1rhich were used by scienlisls in 2003 lo locale rhe sire and conducl a .forensic invesligalion §-o revealing new. phvsical evidence......00 young John Hays watched a spectacle of flashlights, cars. and trucks going into the woods w h i l e m i l i tary officials gathered in h i s living room downstairs, talking in small particular light that I could have definitely said was the light groups and using h i s parents· telephone. These are j ust a few everybody was referring to," he adds. ofthe many independent reports Gordon acquired following When they finally arrived back at the scene of the crash, the event, all in great detai I. Metz firmly forbade Murphy to accompany them into the Later that night, witnesses saw an object transported woods, and, despite Murphys pleading for permission out of the area at great speed on the back of a m i I itary flatbed based on his earlier invitation, Metz offered no explanation tractor-trailer truck. "Not only did we see the flatbed going for the sudden change. up empty, we saw the flatbed coming down-loaded," reports Mike Slater, who said that Army officials asked h i m t o provide false directions t o people looking for the crash T H E WIT NESSES site. Sometimes these officials pointed guns at civi lians During the following decades. Stan Gordon, interviewing when they were too close to the barricades. countless people with varying levels of involvement. be­ Jazz musician Jerry Betters said he was harshly ordered came increasingly unable to accept the official explanation at gunpoint to leave the area after he and h i s friends caught that what was seen in the sky was a meteor. and that nothing a glimpse of an acorn-shaped object, "a little bigger than a at all came down. For example, Pennsylvania residents saw Volkswagen,· on the back of an Army flatbed truck as i t the object moving slowly and making turns, as i f under struggled u p through a field. For some reason, i t was not intell igent control. Randy Overly told Gordon that the ful l y covered. "I could see this hieroglyphic stutTall on the object passed about 200 feet over h i s head and stayed level, back," Betters said. "I would swear on the B ible and take a maintaining the same height the whole time, moving about lie detector test," he wrote in a notarized statement with a as fast as a single-engine plane. The acorn-shaped, brownish drawing, for one o f C Fis FOIA requests to the Army. object made a hissing sound as it spewed greenish fire from its rear, which terrified the young Overly and his friend. B i ll Bulebusb said he was working on his car in nearby Mammoth when he saw the object hesitate and make a turn before descending into the woods. He and other observers saw the object go down slowly, as i f controlled. Hundreds of people, along with the media, w itnessed di fferent aspects of the extensive m i litary and state police presence in the area that night. Fireman Bob B i tner saw a small convoy of m i l itary trucks going into the ravine and coming out later, and was refused permission to go into the woods himself. From his nearby upstairs bedroom window, I U R + 30:1 6
  • F i refighter James Romansky saw the flatbed truck "it was like no object he had ever seen before" and he wasspeeding down the h i l l i n a m i litary convoy, past the ordered not to talk about it. Burns says Metz wasnt reveal­Kecksburg firehouse. "I and many others could see the ing everything he k.new by keeping the details secret. H eobject and its shape under the tarpaulin. There is no meteor­ wouldnt say what it was-only that i t was l i k e nothing heite i n the world that looks l i k e that," Romansky said in a had ever seen before. Both Kovaleskie and Burns toldrecent interview. Gordon on tape that Metz was highly respected, honest and Romansky, one of the very first to see the object on the had great integrity, and that they would believe anything heground before the m i l itary arrived, has been a crucial said.witness. providing a detailed description from a few feet In April 2005, Gordon interviewed another retired pol iceaway. He said he saw a bronze-colored, acorn-shaped object officer with an extensive and distinguished law enforcementwith no windows, doors, or seams, partia l l y buried in a background who verified that he also spoke to Metz, a goodgully. It was about I 0- 1 2 feet tall, large enough for a man to friend at the time, within a day or two of the incident. Metzstand up in, and 8- 1 2 feet i n diameter. Romansky said he told him that he had seen the object in the woods.saw strange symbols that looked like Egyptian hieroglyph­ "Multitudes of people had some association with t h i sics on the back, or "bumper area" of the acorn. He stayed on incident," says Gordon. Most do not accept t h e governmentsthe scene with a group of firemen unti I ordered to leave by explanation." I f this were simply a meteor, then thesetwo men in trench coats fol l owed by uniformed m i l i t ary. witnesses to the acorn-shaped object-in the sky, on the In August 1 987, Romansky was the first witness to take ground, and on the flatbed truck-are either lying or suffer­Gordon to the impact site, which turned out to be the same ing from some kind of mass hallucination. Neither possibil­area where Gordon had previously photographed damaged ity seems plausible.trees. Six months later. John Hayes esc011ed Gordon to the In the I 980s, investigators obtained copies or the A irsame location, where as a boy he had seen the disturbed area Force Project Blue Book fi le on the case. A handwrittenaround the wash the morning after the object was removed. memo stated that a "three man team" was sent out fromIn 1 988, Gordon received a tip that Bulebush had also Oakdale, Pennsylvania. "to investigate and pick up anapproached the object at close range. A rter providing Gordon object that started a fire." The tiles say that members of thewith a detailed description, Bulebush went into the woods to 662nd Radar Squadron searched until 2 a.m. and foundfind the location from a different entry point than that used nothing.by Romansky. H e found a particulartree that he remembered, Maxwell A i r Force Base sent C F i the December 1965and pointed to the exact same spot in the streambed that H istorical Record of the 662nd Radar Squadron based i nRoman sky and Hayes had previously identified. Oakdale-the same document released t o Stan Gordon The most extraordinary part of t h i s story is that years earlier-that provided the relevant names. The squad­Romansky. Hayes, and Bulebush independently took Gor­ ron had a l i aison officer with Project Blue Book, and it wasdon to the same location, without having ever discussed the from the Oakdale base, about 50 miles from Kecksburg, thatcase among themselves, and each had no idea what the other the "three man team" was sent to search for the object. Onehad said to Gordon. The descriptions ofthe object provided officer, James Cashman, later called Blue Book headquar­by Romansky and Bulebush (who had never even met at the ters from Oakdale to report that nothing was found, accord­time) were extremely similar. Since then, three additional ing to the Blue Book files, although he was not one of thosepeople have reported to Gordon that they too saw the object sent out on the search.before it was removed from the ground, although they are Our private investigator was able to locate Cashmannot w i l l ing to go public. State Police Fire Marshal Carl Metz, whom John Murphyw itnessed going into the wooded impact area twice thatevening, apparently saw something extraordinary but keptthe i n formation close to h i s chest until his death in I 989.Former Pennsylvania State Trooper Bob Koveleskie, whowas working in eastern Pennsylvania that night, says that heasked Metz shortly after the event what had happened, andMetz rep I ied that he was sworn to secrecy by the Army andcouldnt discuss it. Years later. former Greensburg PoliceDispatcher Howard Burns reported i n a videotaped i n ter­view with Gordon that Metz took part in a group discussionat the G reensburg police station in the early 1 980s. Burnssays that Metz told the group that he was one of the first atthe Kecksburg impact area and initially thought he had came Sketch by Charles Hanna o the Kecksburg object seen in fupon a crashed aircraft due to the tree damage. According to a building at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. based onBurns, Metz reported that when he saw the object close up, an eyewitness account. IUR + 30:1 7
  • sometimes confusi ng reports are simply a question ofjumbled A model ()/the object that sits behind the memories after a l l these years. or if other factors are at play. Keckshurg Volunteer Is it possible that this small group was taken to a different Fire Department. made location from the one that was cordoned off by the Army, f the Unsolved or and that they search eel the wrong site? I fthis did occur, was tvlvsteries TV series in the state trooper who took the Air Force team to the wrong / 990. According to site instructed by someone to do so? J f so. the officers are James Romanst.y. the honestly reporting that nothing was found. Would it there­ buck, or bumper end fore have been possible-since Project Blue Book clid not (bottom of the acom). have access to cases higher than a secret clearance-that is too 1ride in Blue Book actually never knew about an object retrieved proportion to the rest. from another location by the Army? On the other hand, M u rphy reports seeing what ap­ peared to be members o f the 662nd Radar Squadron at the edge ofthe woods after leaving the police barracks where heand three other key personnel from the 662nd, and Gordon had tirst encountered them. If the lieutenant was one o ftheseinterviewed a fifth in 1 99 1 . Only one of these, a lieutenant men, he could not possibly have missed the surTounclingwhom I w i l l not name to respect h i s privacy, said he actually m i litary and civilian activity. Were these officers perhapswent out to search for the object that night. This officer said sworn not to reveal what happened for national securityhe did not observe any Army presence in the area, any excess reasons, and thus their cover stories have di f-ferences? Wecivilian activity, or the large spotlights in the woods ob­ dont know. and we wont know until the governmentserved by witnesses and reporter John Murphy. This seems releases the records.impossible if he was anywhere near the correct location and After the Air Force search for the object was com­directly contradicts press reports about the large m i l itary pleted, the I ieutenant who searched prepared a handwrittenpresence and civilian crowds. He said he and three other investigation report as required by Air Force regulations,members of the 662nd searched the woods with tlashlights which was then typewritten by an administrative specialistand found nothing. (the same person who told me he believed the object was a I t is revealing that puzzling discrepancies exist among Russian satellite, oddly enough). For reasons unknown, thiskey points of the various accounts, as well as between report. which documented the unsuccessful search for theaspects of the statements of these officers and reports from object, was not included with the Blue Book case files on theboth the media and Project Blue Book. For example, the Kecksburg incident at the National Archives. "It was anlieutenant who searched the woods said there were fou r in inconclusive report that it could have been a meteorite," thehis search team; another ofticer told us that he had driven former lieutenant. now 62, told me in a 2003 telephonewith the team to a nearby barrack while two from Oakdale interview. He provided C F i s attorney with a signed affida­conducted the search with a state trooper. ( Th i s could have vit regarding his writing and filing of this report, and webeen the "three man team referred to by Blue Book, submitted the affidavit to the A i r Force requesting a copy o falthough Blue Book said that the three were all from Oakdale.) t h i s crucial document. "Because t h e investigation was underAnother officer told me there was no search at all, and that Project Blue Book. a copy o f my report would have eventu­the reports coming in to the Oakdale base concerned only an ally been forwarded to the Project Blue Book headquarters,object in the sky and not an object on the ground. He Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, he wrote in the affidavit.remembers very well the high volume o fcalls from the local So far, no response has been forthcoming to t h i s request.area and speaking to some o f the callers, and says that i fthere had been a search, he detinitely would have known. l-le WHAT WAS-OR WASNT-THE OBJECT?was adamant that there wasnt one. And yet another told methat the object was a Russian satellite, but insisted that he "Based on the accounts of the many eyewitnesses whom Imade that determination only fl·om newspaper and televi­ have interviewed, I am convinced that an object did fal l fromsion reports. the sky and apparently was removed by the m i l itary," said According to Project Blue Book records, Cashman called Stan Gordon. "Many have asked me what I believe theBlue Book headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base object was, and m y reply still is I dont know.· A s I havetwice from the Oakdale base, including a final call at 2 a.m., stated in the past, the most I i kely possibi l ities are ( I ) a highlyto report that nothing was found. Oddly, Cashman says he has advanced man-made space probe with some controlled­no memory of any event, phone calls, or heightened activity reentry capability, ( 2 ) a secret m i litary or government ex­at that time. He stated that he was the Blue Book liaison officer periment, ( 3 ) an extraterrestrial spacecraft."(as stated in the Blue Book fi lcs). as opposed to the I ieutenant In looking at item ( I ) above, many have proposed thatwho told me he was the Blue Book ofticer. the object may have been some kind of Soviet satellite or We are not certain whether these contradictory and debris that was secretly hidden away during the cold war. IUR + 30: 1 8
  • The leading contender, argued mainly by space consultant software package, I was able to reconst ru c t the possibleJames Oberg, has been Cosmos 96, a failed Russian Venera !light path (groundtrack) of Cosmos 96 on 9 Decemberprobe that the U . S . Space Command reported reentered the 1 965. I sent to Ms. Kean on I 0 October [2003] an em ailearth s atmosphcre over Canada at 3 : 1 8 a.m. the same day­ con ta i n in g two graphics dep i cting the on ly possiblefar from Kecksburg and more than 1 3 hours earlier. southbound pass of Cosmos <)6 on 9 December 1 965 , i r In 2003, I conducted a series of decisive interviews i t had not a lready reentered the atmosphere. N o pan o fexploring this question with Nicholas L. Johnson, chief Cosmos 96 c o u l d have landed in Pennsylvania i n thescientist for orbital debris at the ASA Johnson Space local afternoon o f 9 December 1 965.Center, who is recognized internationally as the leadingauthori ty on orbita l debris and foreign space systems. Among Even more intriguing than the fact that the Kecksburgmany other works, Johnson authored the book Handbook of object could not have been any part of Cosmos 96 is thatSoviet Lunar c111d Planetarv Exploration ( A merican Astro­ Johnson stated that Cosmos 96 was the only cataloguednautical Society, 1 979), in which he wrote about Cosmos 96 object to reenter on December 9, and that no other man­and related spacecraft. made ob ject .from any col/lillY came dolln that cia. He At my request, Johnson examined the orbital data for explained that anything not catalogued would have been soCosmos 96 and was able to calculate when it would have small that it would not have survived reentry, and anythingpassed over Pennsylvania i f it had continued in orbit that day larger would have been detected. " I cannot absolutely con­(which means d isregarding the U . S . Space Command i n for­ firm that it was not some completely unreported event, butmation). That time, when it would have traveled from north the chances or that are virtually n il," Johnson said. "Youto south, was approximately 6:20 a.m. "I can tell you cant launch something without somebody seeing i t . Bycategorically that there is no way that any debris from 1 965 the U . S . and Soviets were both reporting their launches."Cosmos 96 could have landed in Pennsylvania anywhere The possibility of a U . S . reconnaissance satellite drop­around 4:45 p.m.:· Johnson told me. "That"s an absolute. ping a large film canister for recovery on that day has alsoOrbital mechanics is very strict." One part of Cosmos 96 been ruled out. These capsules were dropped followingcould not have stayed i n orbit unti 1 4:45 p.m. after the object secret missions over the Soviet Union. and Johnson said thatcame apart hours earlier in Canada, as some had speculated. sometimes they fel l where they werent supposed to. The In an April 2005 email to Towers Productions during its C I A recently declassified data on the reconnaissance nights,production of a documentary for the 1-1 istory Channel, and by checking launch and retrieval times. Johnson deter­Johnson summarized his investigation as follows: mined that there was no secret mission that could have led to an inadvertent reentry of a capsule on that day. "This was I n response to a request by Ms. Kean. I researched the the only other thing 1 could think of that could have fal len out NASA Orbital Debris Program Office data files for of space and was man-made," he said. tracking data (aka two-line element sets from the U.S. Before consulting Johnson. I had spoken with P h i l l i p S . Space Survei llance Network ) on Cosmos 96 ( U . S . Cata­ C l ark of Londons Molniya Space Consultancy b y tele­ log Number 0 1 742): however, no data for that object phone in the U . K . Another renowned expert who studied the were found. I later contacted A i r Force Space Com­ Soviet and Chinese space programs for more than 20 years, mand and received h i storical tracking data for Cosmos Clark also e l i m i nated Cosmos 96 as a possibility, based 96. Using these data and an A i r Force Space Command simply on the comparison with the many eyewitness reports providing almost identical descriptions or the object. The Cosmos capsule was only three feet in diameter-much smaller than the object reported by Kccksburg witnesses. Clark also pointed out that the Cosmos capsule could not have made turns or descended slowly at an angle, since it would have been propelled only by the p u l l of gravity cc c towards earth, and it most I ikely would have created a crater upon impact. The letters CCCP ( Russian for U S S R ) which appear prominently on the body of Cosmos capsule would have been easily recognized by the witnesses, i f the letters had not burned off upon reentry. I n 1 965, unlike today, the U . S. government did not have the technical means of detecting natural bodies. such as a meteor, suddenly coming into the earth " s atmosphere, so NOR A D space surveillance radar could not detect meteors. A drawing o the Soviet space capsu/e.fiom Cosmos 96. f Therefore, u n fortunately, we do not have tracking data that about three feet in diameter. which reentered the can t e l l us anything about the 1 965 fireball shooting across atmosphere /3 hours before the Kecksblllg incident. (colllinued on page 28) I U R + 30: 1 9
  • As GREAT AN ENIGMA As THE UFOs THEMSELVES BY MICHAEL D. SwORDSW eve been in the UFO research business for A t a Center for UFO Studies board meeting, Jerry Clark a long time now, and probably all of us who said to me that as of the early summer of 1 952, this matter read fUR are convinced that this statement should have been settled once and for a l l . H e was, i n part, is true: "A large number of witnesses have thinking of the Nash-Fortenberry incident. I agreed. In fact,observed apparently technological devices i n the skies that ! thought that it should have been settled even earlier. (Notehave occasionally landed on the ground and are i n no way that neither Jerry nor I were adding Roswell into t h i sexplainable by mundane natural or current human technol­ equation. Why? Speaking for myself, Roswell could wellogy." When I m asked the naYve, m isleading, and rather have been managed uniquely; that is, buried in a level ofstupid question, "Do you believe in UFOs?" I say that I secrecy and cloaked handling where almost no one waswont bother responding to that, but i fyou want to ask me i f privy to any ofthe detai ls. I t was not only secret to the public,I believe i n something l i k e t h e statement above, I say "No, but was also closed to the general intel l i gence community.I dont believe that. I kno111 it to be true." As such, it would remain i n a perpetual gray area, whether I know i t to be true because there are so many cases in you believed in i t or not. But regular cases, like Nash­which the quality and h u m i l ity of the witnesses, the details Fortenberry, were completely out ofthe can, in the open, andobserved, the convincing contexts of the sightings, the could not be rationally denied.)surprises i n the "little t h ings" reported, and the absence of Previous to Nash-Fortenberry, one recal l s the Generalother embellishments when those would be so easy to add, M i l l s balloon cases of Charles Moore, Commander Robertproduce a powerful and undeniable set of narratives that are McLaughlin, J. J. Kaliszewski, among others. Those inci­simply and overwhelmingly inexplicable. dents should have ended the debate as well, given the caliber Meditating on this while browsing through three terri fie of the witnesses, back i n the late 1 940s. And even, onresources for the U FO scholar ( Loren Grosss series t i t led reflection, so should the Kenneth Arnold case and a fewUFOs: A Hisl01y; Tom Tulien s oral h i story project video­ others ofthattime, such as Captain E . J. S m i t h . These shouldtapes; and the personal files of James McDonald), the have ended the matter in July 1 947 and, as weve seen withenigma of the t i t l e of this article crystall ized for me. Why Garrett and McCoy, they did. So why is the matter stillhasnt this problem-that apparently technological objects debated, and t h e question not answered, i n 2005?have graced our skies-been dispensed with long ago? Thequestion ofwhether there really are U FOs should have been T H E E DWARDS A I R FORCE BASE FILMset aside as a no-brainer a l most as soon as the phenomenonbegan flapping in 1 947. What i nspired this hair-puller was the May 3, I 95 7, Edwards For some of those first individuals who seriously tried A F B case, first noticed by Max M iller in h i s Saucersto study it, it was. For George Garrett i n J u l y 1 947 i n the magazine, then pursued, as usual, by James McDonald andPentagon, the disks were real. For Howard "Mac" McCoy at then i mmortalized in print and video by Loren Gross andWright-Patterson AFB in the summer of 1 94 7, the same was Tom Tulien. Perhaps fUR readers are fam i l iar with the case,true. forthose in Project Sign, l i kewise, and Dewey Fournet, but I II bet many of you are not. 1t is another powerhouseat the Pentagons UFO intelligence desk-to say nothing of case, another debate-ender, in my view. Heres how it went:Donald Keyhoe, Coral Lorenzen, Isabel Davis, and on and On the morning of May 3, 1 957, the supervisor o fon. But in 2005 a debate still exists, and we are generally on civilian camera operators a t Edwards A F B i n C a l i forniast h e losing side as portrayed by media, academia, and the Mojave Desert, frank E. Baker, sent the standard two-mangovernment. Pat answers to this enigma are not very cogent. crews out to their Askania tracking telescopes for their 8-5This isnt a simple cover-up or the Robertson Panel. shifts. A normal day for the teams would be photographing airplanes on speed runs to accurately measure their veloci­Michael D. Swords is pro essor emeritus o the Environ­ f f ties, or to fil m a dummy bomb drop, or perhaps even thementa!lnstiture. Weslern Michigan University. Kalamazoo. U-2 h i gh-altitude spyplane. Previously the telescopes were I U R + 30: 1 I0
  • 0. 10� ol !ilatioo ·c 111 me Col deurt. !be AUo�lo lhtod O:ll• h "WGtlaq alto 10 •U"olly loUow tt11d r•tord. �n 111m lh• Jo�o�roer o! U.• Molltn Vlllllla t.E:I0HOUR! Vokltwf So. 12 It c t!to•cn� Ill• lo:o•pher• L-------� Sh• • o qood =. l•dl•t rrie• 0111 tb• ru��· Solely Cootrol moa throua� tk• loudtp•ohu Various tvpes ofAskania tracking telescopes in use by the U.S. mi/itw�v.calibrated by focusing on stars, and sometimes even by while the film rolled at a rapid pace ( probably eight framesballoons deliberately launched for this purpose. The opera­ per second, as B ittixk recounted to McDonald I 0 yearstors were fam i l iar with all types of aerial technologies. later). They shot about I 00 feet and stopped. When they The master station fort he telescope crews was I h miles started filming, the object began to move away from itsoutside the main area of Edwards. and the five telescope estimated distance of one m i le. When they quit filming, itinstallations a little further into the surrounding desert. The was about five miles distant, and its motion had been fast and •crews drove out to their positions. Veterans James Bittick steady with no wobbling. e c )and Jack Gettys were i n their pickup expecting a normal clay. What they saw was a disk­As they approached their station, they saw an object in the shaped object (a "cigar" fromsky, shining brightly. I t was, initially, at about 45° elevation the side) with a low dome onand seemed to be hovering. Gettys. who was very interested top. Gettys f the edges were elt Gettys s memOJT of1he -in UFOs, immediately stated that they had a UFO on their more rounded, while Bittick UFO (I 0 1·ears later)hands. thought them more pointed. > < The crew had to get permission from Baker before The dome had l it t l e portstrying to photograph t h e object. So they called in, began around it, perhaps five or six,readying the scope, loaded the film (as they would have and the device was spinning.done regardless to begin the day). and waited for the OK. I t was shiny metallic in ap­ Bittick s mem01:v of the This interlude lasted f a few m i nutes while they or pearance, but whether i t was UFO (40+ years late!) . .. . .. ......... .. ;> ...� ..worked at the scope and snuck peeks at the hovering object. gold in color or silver with the .,Gettys, who looked through the side-mounted spotting scope, golden morningsunlightglint­ .., ,.····said that the base of object had a c i rcular appearance when ing off it was not obvious. .• .. .. ehigh in the sky. Bittick apparently didnt look at it through Gettys thought i t was defi­ Baker ·s memo1:v ofthethe spotting scope u n t i l it was lower in the sky, as he nitely gold-colored. Guessing UFO ( ! 0 years late1),remembered only the side view. at its size, he thought it was with ha::.v dges The go-ahead from Baker came in time, and they began "parking lot sized," about I 00fil m ing, each viewing the object through the spotting scopes feet i n diameter. A t no t i m e did t h e men hear any engine sound from the UFO. AF Studying Gettyss account eli ffers fro m Bitticks in A I R F O R C E STU D I ES P H OTOS only a few details. First, he said he could see Cameras Track F l y i n g S a u cer Photo? , the underside of the object, which was circular to Object Over Desert (planiform) when a t i t highest elevation angle. e EDWARDS A I R F 0 R C E BASE, Callr M&y 10 C!!ISl.­ . Also, he didnt see any ports on the dome. V1... Camer a .!tUriiCS Cll an u n - special ize-d c a m � r a eqt�:ip- . j Offlcers &� Edwards Air Force They contacted t h e base and ultimately . JCCt menl Films and mformalton Base y da were �tudylng tllms irlcntHi ed ftymj; 0 b h · P : were d ispa tched immediat ly made or a purported "unldentl· two jets were scrambled. By the time these tograph e d at Edwards Atr to the intelligence center. �r the ei fied flying obJect·• 3<en o force Base last Friday a re Unofficial reports said the base. {i J { came overhead, the U FO had disappeared i n being analyzed by the Air ob ect appeared round, that The obJect "as photographtd it c�ught lhe mornmg sun an easterly direction. T h e jets never caught up hjcec: }l Technica l Intelligence Center by two civilian technicians who h at w r i s h t·Patterson AFB, and that !! moved but not at used speclol equipment l<J �rack b to it or even saw i t . a Day ton . 0.. The T m e s . any s�e at speed There were and record lt. no esumates as to >ts size or learned yesterd�y. Unofficial source.s said the ob­ A flerGettys a n d Bittick turned i n the film, l Spokesmen at th secret altitude. t Ject a P p e a r e d circular and nter north a( es Edwards officers would not 1 d eser l tc�L ha� rd a guess as to what the ty rig l In the momlng i t apparently stayed at Edwards to be devel­ ) l-os Angeles would say only glln� c - sun when observed la.st Friday, 1hat the o e l was spotted obJCCl was, although one sa td oped, the normal procedure. Following the w l t,.,·o ca,•than hoto theodo- t could have been a weather However, lnt.elllrence offlctra at Edwards base, a hush-hush air 1 balloon. incident, possibly even the next work day, I h e operators. They Lracked the object "This d ert air does crazy, force kst cent.cr, would say al­ mo&t nothlni or the lnclden t. three o fficers showed up at Frank Bakers and lOOk pi tures with the things," he added. station: a major, a captain, and a lieutenant. Left, Los Angeles Times. May 9. /95 7: Bittick and Gettys were interrogated sepa­ right . New York Journal-American. May 10. 1 957. rately. but their stories matched and neither JU R + 3 0 : 1 I I
  • would back off what they had seen. The officers were K l e i n s analysis. Nevertheless, Project B l ue Book wroteinsulting, suggesting that the desert sun does things to ones the incident off as a balloon with total disregard for theeyes (despite the fact that they had film), and wondering how facts. Someone at Edwards may have been UFO-sympa­late theyd been out the previous night or how long theyd tl1etic, as the story was quickly leaked to C a l i fornia newspa­been i n the sun (despite the incident occurring at about 8 pers. The A i r Force was very unhappy about this. The horse,a . m . ) . Bittick got angry enough to turn to Frank Baker and thereby, was let out of the barn enough that we didntask: "Do I have to put up with this crap?" Renecting back on entirely lose t h i s case.this 49-odd years later, he told Tom Tulien, " l l s a funny Well, there we are again: Expert, multiple witnessesthing how they try to cover up what they know, and use a and hundreds of frames of f i l m . The deputy of staff forstupid answer for it. operations knows that i t was not a balloon, and is thereby an The stupid answer was a balloon. Both men knew that unidentified physical object in the air near the base-j ustit wasn · r a balloon. Not only did they have the evidence of l i k e K a l i szewski, Moore, and McLaughl i n knew the sametheir eyes checked against the years of experience with the after their sightings. But, somehow, U S A F intell igencetracking telescope, but also there was the film itself. A friend refuses to know. And it cant be just Project Blue Book andof theirs who worked at Edwards knew the fellow who an understaffed and not-a-little-incompetent project officerdeveloped the Askania films. He got the guy to clip off a there. This i n formation is passing through other offices asstrip that he ultimately gave to Bittick (who kept it for well, including A i r Defense Command, the A i r Force of­several years then burned it because he shouldnt have had fices at the Pentagon, very probably the Office of Navalit in the first place). Other clips from the f i l m apparently got Research. and/or the Office of Naval Intel l i gence, and ourto Baker as wei I. The f i l m showed a cigar shape with a bump friends in the C I A . And people inside these organizationson top. (A few prints from the film are in the B l ue Book files, are hearing about these expert-witness cases, here and there,but they seem to be more distant examples and are I ittle more in at least a constant trickle, if nor a now. Doesnt anyonethan light blobs. See them in Brad Steigers I 976 paperback, have any memory? Doesn t an accumulation of anomaliesProjecl Blue Boo/c) Baker later said that he saw closer build up in anyones mind? Why doesnt this stuff stickphotos that definitely showed what Bittick and Gettys anywhere? Of course, it sticks with us, but we obviouslyclaimed. dont count. And, what about the balloon? Well, there was a balloonreleased from Edwards at about 7:40 a.m. on May 3. It was AN EXPLANATION, PLEASE?very well tracked. Lt. Col. Raymond Klein, the deputy chiefof staff for operations at Edwards, compared it to what the The explanation for this rather astounding selective amne­observers saw and where they were located, and wrote: sia is something that Id very much l i ke someone to clearly"Based on the above track made and the location of the elucidate for m e . What i s it about an organ ization l ikeobservers at the time of the sighting [al l known quantities], U S A F I n t e l l i gence, or the Pentagon, or the C I A , or a fuzzythe weather balloon released at Edwards could not have concept l i ke "the media" that allows something of t h i sbeen the unidenti tied object reported. potential importance and clear evidence t o b e constantly J i m McDonald rechecked the data and confirmed fuzzed out of existence, despite incidents that just can t be so discarded? A colossal example: How can the General UFO SIGHTINGS M i l l s balloon cases of the late 1 940s and early 1 950s not I N THE NEW M I LLENNIUM even be presented at the C I A s Robertson Panel i n January I 953? My eyeballs start revolving independently in my T h i s revised edition of Richard H a l l s monograph on s k u l l i f I t h i n k too long about that! I f the most undeniable 2 1 st-century UFO sightings is now available from expert witness, m u l t i ple witness, device-recorded inci­ C U FOS. This is a report for those who like to read about dents are not even resident enough i n the consciousnesses s i g h t i ngs, showing that of Ruppel!, Fournet, or Hynek to bother to sell them to UFOs are still around and Robertson, what explains that? Richard H. Hall doing amazing things. Wit­ I ve bored my colleagues at CUFOS for several years nesses are seeing all the with the statement that ufology is not a field of study because classic types of UFOs re­ it never establishes anything. l t has no real history, no ported over the years, and foundation of "givens." This is despite Nash-Fortcnberry, there is a special section on Father G i l l , Lawrence Coyne, and the General M i l l s and large triangular objects. Edwards A F B boys. But why arent these "givens"? They Send a check for $ 1 2.00 are, for any intellectually honest student oft he phenomenon, ( $ 1 5.00 i f you reside out­ certainly "undeniables." But they dont stick together and side the U . S . ) to CU FOS, L--�-�����J 2457 W . Peterson, Chi­ they dont allow utology to "stick" in the consciousness of the government, m i l itary, and academy. Please educate m e cago, IL 60659. o n this, dear readers. + I U R + 30: 1 12
  • VENUSI AN DRE AMS B Y JEROME CLARK0 nly slightly smaller than the earth and once called its sister world, Venus is the second Uranus and Neptune, not discovered until the following century, or Pluto, not until 1 930, so in the Kantian cosmic planet from the sun. Often I ikened to hell, it is no scheme ofthings, the smat1ncss ofthe people ofJupiter ( fifth place you would want to live or even visit. Its in the solar system) was exceeded only by that o f Saturn (thedense atmosphere, shrouding the entire planet under a cloud sixth and, to mid- 1 8th-century knowledge, the last).cover and consisting of 96% carbon dioxide and a minute On the other hand. to Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelleamount of water vapor, traps s urface heat i n a fierce green­ ( 1 657-1 757), author of a widely read 1 686 book on l i fe onhouse effect. The average temperature is a tropical 840° F. other worlds, Venusians are "I ittle black people, scorch d-bl istering enough to melt lead. The atmosphere also with t h e Sun, witty, ful l o r Fire, very Amorous." I n theproduces surface pressure 90 times what we experience on generally comparable imagining ofJacques Henri Bernardinearth. unless we happen to be standing on the ocean floor at de Saint-Pierre ( 1 737- 1 8 1 4). Venusians live in a paradisal,a depth of 3000 feet. It rains droplets of sulfuric acid. The pastoral real m . The mountain people are shepherds, whilepresence of sui fur-dioxide concentrations may imply ongo­ the others, on the shores o r their fertile islands. giveing volcanic activity. themselves over to dancing, to feasts, divert themselves with This scienti fie description of the Morning Star and the songs, or compete for prizes in swimming, like the happyEvening Star, as earthlings have called this bright and islanders ofTahiti."beaut i fu l presence (which the ancients thought were two An observer in 1 743 reported seeing "ashen light"­separate celestial bodies) i n our heavens, would not have mysterious illumination-on Venus dark side. Since thenbeen possible i fnot for space probes and technical advances other astronomers have described the phenomenon, sti II notin astronomy in the mid- to latter 20th century. Before that, conclusively ex.plained though generally thought to be theit was possible to imagine just about anything about Venus, consequence of electricity in the atmosphere. To Germanincluding the beings and creatures that l ived on it, and astronomer Franz von Paula Gruithuisenhuman beings did precisely that. (right) ( 1 774- 1 852 ), however, the phe­ nomenon could be explained as light givenTHE DREAMS OF THE SCIENTISTS offby "general festivals of fire" in which the Venusians periodically participate,Among the most notable of the early corresponding with "changes in govern­s p e c u l ators w a s t h e p h i l os o p h e r ment" or perhaps to religious celebra­I m manuel Kant (right) ( 1 724-1 804 ). I n tions. This and other luminous a noma I iesUniversal Natural Historv and Theo1y led French inventor Charles Cros ( 1 842- 1 88 8 ) to wonder i fo the Heavens ( 1 75 5 ) he outlined the f Venusians were trying t o signal the earth and t o proposeastronomically and logically dubious ways of sending signals back.hypothesis that distance from the sun Using earthly population-density figures as a guide,determines the intelligence level of a Scottish clergyman and amateur scientist Thomas Dickworlds inhabitants; thus, the people who ( 1 774- 1 85 7) startlingly pegged the Venusian population atlive on Mercury are the stupidest, and Venusians are only a densely packed 53.500.000.000. Popular science journal­dimly brighter. Kant and his contemporaries knew nothing of ist Richard Proctor ( 1 83 7- 1 88 8 ) wrote i n Other Worlds Than Ours ( 1 870), "On the whole, the evidence we haveJerome Clark. co-editor o I UR. is author o the multi­ f f points very strongly to Venus as the abode of living crea­volume UFO Encyclopedia ( 1 990-1 998) and other 1rorks. tures not unlike the inhabitants of eatth."His latest book, Unnatural Phenomena, published by ABC­ Because the clouds covering the planet rendered tele­CLIO in 2005, examines the Fortean landscape o 9th- and f/ scopic observation of its surface impossible, much aboutear/1· 20th-cent111:1· America. Venus remained unknown even i n the first half of the 20th IUR + 30:1 13
  • century. Thus. the sorts of speculation in which even main­ Still. no one had glimpsed Venus· surface. so thosestream astronomers sometimes engaged look outlandish in i n c l i ned to do so continued to imagine everything from aretrospect, more science fiction than science. massive dust bowl to lush vegetation to a planet-encirc l i n g For example, in common with his French colleague ocean. Writing i n The Universe We Live In ( 1 95 1 ), J o h nEdmond Perrier ( 1 844- 1 92 1 ) and others, Harvard U n iver­ Robinson revived t h e venerable vision of Venus-mostsity astronomer W i l liam H . Pickering ( 1 858- 1 938)-inci­ prominently put forth more than three decades earlier bydentally an a l l y ofPereival Lowell i n the Mars canal contro­ Swedish chemist and Nobel laureate Svante AIThenius( 1 859versy-argued that Venus is a tropical planet teeming with 1 927 )-as a place like "the far-off Carboniferous Period ofwater and humid swamps, harboring giant repti les of the sort the earths geological hist01y" with "seas and swamps and thethat roamed the earth during the age of dinosaurs. "As to the steamy, heavily carbonated atmosphere. . . . Venus has everyquestion of intel l i gent l i fe," he added in a 1 9 1 1 interview appearance of being a world something like our worldwith a Boston Post reporter. "the question is still open." hundreds of m i l l ions of years ago."Around the same time another then-prominent astronomer, Donald H . Menzel ( 1 90 I 1 976), ofthe Harvard Obser­Thomas Jefferson Jackson See ( 1 866- 1 962 ), of the U.S. vatory, had a reputation as a fierce debunker of U FONaval Observatory at Mare Island, Cal i fornia, declared the reports, but he was also a wildly imaginative theorist aboutissue of intelligent Venusian l i fe a settled one, based on his Venus, i n one instance i n the same book (F�ling Saucers,years of observation. 1 953 ). He envisioned "warm seas" i n which l i fe forms of all Beginning i n the 1 920s. a handful of astronom ical kind, from the m icroscopic to large invertebrates and verte­investigators were collecting more realistic data that sug­ brates, flourish. "It is somewhat interesting to note that, hadgested, first. fierce surface temperatures and then ( i n 1 93 2 ) we ourselves developed on Venus instead of on the earth,"t h e absence of oxygen a n d water vapor, plus an abundance he reflected, "it is not at a l l unlikely that we might haveof carbon dioxide in Venus· atmosphere. This sparked an developed into a race of mermaids and mermen." On theinevitable skepticism about l i fe, even vegetable l i fe, among other hand, i n the same decade Soviet astronomer Gavriil A.scientists who were paying attention. Tikhov ( 1 875- 1 960) pictured Venus as a world ofglimmer­ Others, however, acted as if oblivious to the new ing, ray-emitting flowers. In a December 1 959 presentationdevelopments, treating the planet as it had always been to the year-old National Aeronautics and Space Adm inistra­depicted: as a warmer earth. I n 1 922 Salt Lake City meteo­ tion ( N A S A ), the C a l i fornia Institute of Technologysrologist A l fred Rordame, speaking before the American Harrison Brown ( 1 9 1 7 1 986) spoke o f a Venus of mostlyMeteorological Society. argued that spectroscopic findings seas, harboringjellyfish-like creatures.which appeared to show no oxygen or water vapor could not From February 1 96 1 and through the next two decades,be trusted; in reality, he contended, the "spectroscope is the U nited States and the Soviet Union launched a series ofincapable of penetration below these clouds around Venus, space probes. Some sailed near the planet, others entered itsas the light is reflected from the upper surface of them. The atmosphere, and a few successfu l ly landed on its surface.bulk of whatever oxygen and water vapor exists must be The discoveries ended all talk that intell igent Venusians, orbeneath this veil in the stormy atmosphere nearer the planet." even l i fe forms larger than microbes, populate that world.That same year Charles G. Abbot ( 1 872 1 97 3 ) of theS m ithsonian Institution remarked that Venus i s the only THE OCCULTISTS VE� Snonearthly planet likely to harbor intell igent l i fe because ithas. he claimed, both ··water vapor and water clouds." As In his 50th year the Swedish scientistlate as 1 946, Abbot fantasized about radio communication Emanuel Sweden borg (right) ( 1 688-with Venusians "brought up completely separate [ from 1 772), the author a l ready ( i n theearth I ings], hav ing their own systems of government, socia I words of one biographer) of " 1 60usages, rei igions, and surrounded by vegetat ion and animals works and [founder of"l six new sci­entirely related to any here on earth." ences," began experiencing mysti­ I n his best-sel l i ng Astronomy ( 1 93 5 ) astronomer/cler­ cal visions which occupied him thegyman (and, in subsequent decades, creationist hero) Arthur rest ofhis l i fe. Among other spiritualM. Harding( 1 884-1 947) wrote,·· o one would imagine for adventures he traveled to the moonan i nstalll that afterthe Creator had constructed this magni fi­ and a l l the planets known in thecent solar system . . . He would have neglected our little eighteenth century. A l l or these bodies, he reported i nglobe to be the abode of l i fe and overlooked its twin sister Earths i n Our Solar System ( 1 758), are populated b y intel­and neighbor, Venus. Surely there must be some forms of ligent beings, sometimes by more than one kind.l i fe on Venus that are not so very different from what we find Venusians, he wrote, "arc oftwo kinds; some arc gentleon the earth. The objection has been raised that Venus is too and benevolent, others wi I d. cruel and of gigantic stature.near the sun to have l i fe on it. It is true that Venus is a little The Iauer rob and plunder. and live by this means; thewarmer than the earth, but this is no barrier. We have l i fe at former have so great a degree of greatness and k indness thatthe tropics and also l i fe at the poles. " they are always beloved by the good; thus they otien sec the IUR + 3 0 : 1 14
  • Lord appear in their own form on their earth." The bad guys Masters are former humans who used the divine energy ofnot only robbed their victims but ate them. Gods light that exists in each of us to ascend to Gods leve l . ) Another i n fluential mystic who spoke The group, albeit dimin ished, survives t o the present, evenwith certainty of Venusians was Helena after Ednas death in 1 97 1 and son Donalds retirementPetrovna Blavatsky (right) ( 1 83 1 - 1 89 1 ), from the movement in 1 957. Guy Ballard died on Decemberfounder of Theosophy. Blavatsky, with 29, 1 939.Swedenborg one of the most important I n the 1 930s the Ballards roamed the nation with whatfigures in the history of Western occult­ amounted to a mediumistic road show, producing extrava­ism, proposed an enormously complex gant pageants, thrilling fol lowers with communicationscosmic order and alternative history, in­ from Saint Germain and others, and enraging others whocluding " Lords of the Flame" on Venus. saw them, with some j u stice, as charla­Blavatsky had not much to say about them, perhaps because tans and fascists. The Ballards had bothshe had so much else to invent. been enthusiasts of American Nazi It was Martians, not Venusians, whom people of the W i l l iam Dudley Pelley (right) ( 1 890-1 9th century were more likely to claim they had met or heard 1 965). I n the wake of an out-of-bodyfrom. Martians either commun icated through mediums or, encounter with Ascended Masters whichas dubious late-century newspaper accounts alleged. flew, he detailed i n a widely read J 929 maga­sometimes landing, airships (see my "Conversations with zine article, Pelley had assembled a para­Martians," fUR 29, no. 3, pp. 1 9-23). For the most part, m i l i tary army ofpro-H itler, anti-Semitic low! i f known as esVenusians existed only as abstract possib i l ities, not as Silver Shirts because they wore, well, silver shirts in theirentities one might encounter. faux-German uni forms. When the Ballards broke with Pel ley I n the 20th century, Guy Wan·en to form their own organization, they borrowed many ofBallard (right) ( 1 878- 1 939 ) set a dubi­ Pelleys political precepts and ambitions but-whateverous precedent for a later generation of their other intellectual, philosophical, and moral fai lings­claimants to extraterrestrial contact (by did not traffic in anti-Semitism.the early 1 950s being called "con­ Among the otherworldly entities Guy Ballard inter­tactees"). Ballard was a man with a acted with were Venusians. He first met them i n Saintcheckered past and I ittle claim to per­ Germa i n s company when the two attended ( i n out-of-bodysonal accomplishment until in the last states) a convention of Masters in their gold-laden retreatdecade of his l i fe he came forth with bizarre and escalating beneath the Grand Tetons in Wyoming. Twelve of them­claims about his interactions with Ascended Masters, com­ men and women-showed up for the confab, appearingmencing with a 1 930 visit to Californias Mount Shasta suddenly in a blaze of light. They were beautiful, golden­(whose interior, mystical legend has it, harbors survivors o f haired, and violet-blue-eyed, all in all looking very muchthe lost Paci fi e continent Lemuria). like the Venusians who would become standard issue in As he told the story in Unveiled Mysteries (pseudony­ tales of the saucer-contactee era. They entertained themously bylined "Godfre Ray King," 1 934), Bal lard-well assembled mystical masters with a violin and harp concert.versed in Theosophical and other occult writings-had Perhaps not coincidentally, in consensus reality Edna Ballarddecided to take a day off from his job as a m i n ing engineer was a harpist.to investigate the alleged presence of a supernatural group Venusians were enlisted into the Ballardss unendingof deities called the Brotherhood of Mount Shasta. He was crusade against the s i nister forces, including press criticstaking a drink at a mountain stream when a young-looking and disenchanted former I AM followers (one of whomstranger approached to pour a creamy I iquid into Ballards remarked dryly that the couple had a "well-defined persecu­cup. Ballard drank it without question. The substance had tion complex"), who sought to frustrate Guy and Ednasan "electrical v i v i fying effect in my mind and body," he struggle to bring humans to divine light and ascension. Awould report. regular communicant in their mediumistic demonstrations Soon the mysterious figure introduced himselfas Saint was the "Tall Master from Venus," a Lord of the Flame. ToGermain, an Ascended Master, and proved it by supernatu­ rapturous crowds the Tall Master, speaking through Guy.ral demonstrations. Ballard had been chosen, he said, to be praised Guy and Edna as "the most precious Beings on thethe Messenger of the Masters. With h i s wife Edna ( 1 886- face of this earth today." Another Venusian, Sanat Kumara.1 97 1 ) he went on to form the I AM Religious Activity grumpily scolded the faithful, "The greatest mistake of("AM" standing for Ascended Master), an intensely contro­ mankind today is to think that they must have physicalversial group, formed in Chicago and later moved to Los contact i n order to express love." The Ballarcts and theirAngeles, the Ballardss home base, in 1 932. ("I A M " also otherworldly associates f orbade all forms of sexual expres­is an allusion to Exodus 3 : 1 4, where God says to Moses, " I sion. even hand-holding and kissing.a m who I am." I n the Ballardss Theosophy-based theology Many prophets, even ones who claim experiences of a-Saint Germain is borrowed from Blavatsky-Ascended fantastic and outlandish nature, are si ncere visionaries, and I U R + 30:1 I5
  • some arent. More than a few observers think that the Thompson, a poorly educated, unsophisticated man,Bal lards consciously and deliberately concocted an elabo­ was returning from a visit to relatives when he pulled overrate hornswaggle, its particulars cobbled together from to take a break in a wooded area between Morton andBlavatsky and other sources. A par­ M i neral, Washington. As he walked into the trees, he cameticularly prominent influence is the upon a clearing in which a large globe-shaped structureoccult novel A Dweller on Two Plan­ hovered just above the ground. He noticed several strikinglyets, by "Phylos the Tibetan" ( right, the beau t i ful c h ildren playing on steps which led from a door onsupposed channeler of the contents to the side of the craft. They had a deeply tanned appearance,automatic writer Frederick Spencer with long blond hair which came a l l the way to their waists.Oliver [ 1 866-1 899], composed in the They were naked. Soon sim i I ar-appeari ng adults came to them id- 1 880s but u n p u b l ished u n t i l door and watched h i m , apparently uneasy about his inten­1 90 5 ) . T t i s certainly t h e model­ tions. Thompson managed to persuade them that he meantBallard barely changes the language no harm.-for many of Ballards adventures with the Masters. He ended up, he said, spending some 40 hours ( includ­( O l ivers hero Walter Pierson is taken to Venus whose ing one overnight) in their company over the next two days,i nhabitants have, it turns out, "splendid physiques . . . interrupted only by a quick trip home for a camera ( w h i c hgraceful and perfect [ i n ] every line.") recorded nothing except a bright glow a s i f from overexpo­ A second, W i l l L . Garvers 1 894 mystical novel The sure). The Venusians were innocents who seemed to haveBrother o he Third Degree, features as a leading charac­ ft stepped out of an interplanetary Garden or Eden, withoutter the Comtc de St. Germain. The Comte de St. Germain sin, shame, or even technological knowledge; all they knewwas an actual h i storical figure, an 1 8th-century dabbler in about their ship was its four buttons took one up or down orthe mystic arts and a notorious charlatan who h i n ted that he to earth from Venus or the reverse. The Venusians had comewas immortal i n the most l i teral sense. Voltaire famously to spread peace and good w i l l, though they had not receivedsneered that the attention-obsessed count was "the man who it from earthlings, whose aircraft had shot at their ship. A l lnever dies." planets of the solar system are inhabited. the V cnusians told In the March/April 1 96 1 issue of Englands F�ling him. but only Martians are more warlike than the people ofSaucer Revie1r, W . R . Drake deduced exactly who St. our world. Thompsons companions consumed only nuts.Germain rea l l y was: vegetables, and fruits, and their exemplary dietary habits kept them from ever suffering i l l ness; they died only of old Viewed i n our flying saucer context. the appearances age. They lived not by intellect but by instinct, yet "theyre and disappearance across the centuries of this fantastic really smarter than we think they are. Theyve got a gift that man with phenomenal talents and inexhaustible wealth. is so much greater than ours that there is no comparison." without o rig i n or social background. which so baffled According to them, Jesus Christ w i l l return i n A . D . I 0,000. h i s contemporaries. become suddenly i l l umined i n one The Arnolds did not believe Thompson had a l i teral startling wondrous revelation. Is it not plausible to physical encounter. Kenneth Arnold. who considered much suggest that Count St. Germain was a m issionary from of the story absurd to the point of comedy. thought it was Space. an avatar from Venus with remarkable powers. something like a vivid dream or hallucination. They did not who t hro ughou t the ages has s el fl ess ly descended to doubt, however, that Thompson believed every word he was Earth to d i rect Man·s evolution, and who period ica l ly saying. Anyone who hears the tape-recorded interview is returns to d i rect Mans evolution. and who pe ri odi c a l l y l i kely to agree. It is hard to overstate Thompsons naivete, returns to Venus in spaceships to rec u pe ra t e? H i s ex­ evinced, for example, i n his struggle to describe concepts traord ina ry longevi ty may be n o rmal for that lovely (vegetarianism, reincarnation, and sun signs) f which he or planet. the source of his diamonds: his spiritual ideals lacked a vocabulary. and nob i l i ty of l i f acknowl edged by all witnesses. e, After the newspaper article and the Arnoldss interview tcstifying to a c i v i l ization there far transcend ing our own. (the contents of which were not released until three decades later), Thompson disappeared from history. h i s vision­V ENUSIANS AND FLYING SAUCERS arguably literal as much as metaphorical-of VenusianI n a l ittle-noticed story published i n a Washi ngton newspa­ visitors casting no shadow on the saucer tall tales that wouldper, Ce/1/ra/ia Daily Chronicle, on April I , 1 950, an elderly surface i n the next few years. U n l ikeman related his recent meeting just days before with the Thompsons, the Venusians of thecrew of a Venusian spacecraft. It was not an April Fools contactee movement would be techno­Day joke. Kenneth Arnold (whose June 24. 1 947, sighting logically sophisticated and scientificallyover Mount Rainier brought flying saucers into public advanced.consciousness) and h i s w i fe Doris interviewed the claimant, No evidence indicates that Georgean elderly retired railroad worker named Samuel Eaton Adamski ( right) ( 1 89 1 - 1 965) ever heardThompson, soon a fterwards and taped h i s account. of Thompson, but as a longtime figure I U R + 30: 1 16
  • on the California occult scene he knew ofBiavatsky and was Space Ships ( 1 95 5 ) he recounts his travels in "Scouts" fromconversant in Theosophy, and he may or may not have Venus and Saturn and conversations-whole pages o fdron­known the Bal lards personally. What is certain is that the ing ( a l l of it inexplicably transcribed verbatim) by assortedgolden-haired. peace-loving, long-winded Venusians he spacemen. I n the last chapter he boards a Venusian eraft oneclaimed to know personally had been heard of before, but August day in 1 954 to meet with, among others. Orthon,this time there was the additional element of flying saucers, who-using laser! ike images-shows him scenes from Ve­heretofore unmentioned even in mystical l iterature dealing nus. "I saw magnitlcent mountains . . . some not veryspecifically with interplanetary intelligences. The UFO di fferent from those of Earth," Adamski wrote. "Some werecontroversy that erupted in the summer of 1 94 7 and contin­ thickly ti mbered and I saw water running in streams andues uninterrupted to the present changed forever the land­ cascades down the mountainsides." Orthon noted that Ve­scape of alternative realities; from then on, no talk of people nus has a system of canals which link the planets sevenfrom other worlds could fail to mention the nuts-and-bolts oceans and many lakes. ( l n the science-fictional Pioneers ofvehicles in which they arrived. Space the "Venetians" tell the narrator that they have ·nine Adamski came to modest public visibility in the 1 930s oceans, many lakes and rivers, majestic, towering moun­as a kind of low-rent guru, founder of the Royal Order of tains.") Adamski also saw cities consisting of dome-shapedTibet and the teacher o f a doctrine he called ·Universal bui ldings and houses "radiating in prismatic colors that gaveProgressive Christianity." Known to h i s followers as "pro­ the impression of a revitalizing force . . . . The people I sawfessor," he set up a tiny observatory, with a 1 5-inch tele­ on the streets of these cities seemed to be going about theirscope, on the southern slope of Mount Palomar, causing him business in much the same manner as Earth folk, except forto be mistaken-or perhaps that was the intention-as a the absence of rush and worry so noticeable with us."professional astronomer from the Palomar Observatory a Cylinder-shaped cars glided just above the ground. (Pio­few miles away. I I is emergence on the international scene neers: "Venetian" cars "seem to be gliding right over theawaited the saucer craze, however. By 1 949 he was adding surface of the ground.")juicy items about official cover-ups of UFO flights from He also observed an ocean and a beach, animals and·the other side of the moon" and about secret government flowers. The clouds surrounding the planet, Orthon ex­knowledge that all planets are inhabited. That same year he plained, are a "filter system·· counteracting ·the destructivepublished a didactic novel. Pioneers o Space. which pre­ f rays which otherwise would enter its atmosphere." That isviewed interplanetary tales sometimes much like those he why the average Venusian lives a thousand earth years.would soon peddle as actual events. In h i s last four years Adamskis claims grew even more In 1 950 and 1 95 1 , in Fate, a digest popular among outlandish, ifthat is imaginable, so extreme that even thoseenthusiasts of the paranormal, Adamski published pictures who had swallowed in their entirety all the previous yarnsof alleged spaceships. The photographs stirred considerable started to suspect that he was now making up stories. Eitherinterest. but nothing compared to what would happen in late that, or the CIA was setting him up. Or maybe it was evil1 952-November 20. speci fically-when Adamski, ac­ space people; after all, Adamski had acknowledged thatcompanied by s i x "witnesses," lately a "new set ofboys" had come onto the scene, replacingwatched a saucer land in the Cali­ the beloved and always trustworthy Orthon and associates.forn i a desert near Desert Center; In 1 96 1 , in any event, Adamski reported that he tlnally gotalone, he went on to speak with its to make the trip to Venus. After a 1 2-hour flight the shipoccupant, the Vcnusian Orthon landed on the surface. I t s earthly passenger wandered about( right). Orthon · s essential message for five hours before boarding the Venus-California expresswas that earthlings warring ways for the return trip.were generating concern through­ Naturally, this was all exhausting. Adamski fel t fa­out the solar system. tigued after a short walk, but that was not just because o f his That was only the start. There were other photographs, tiring travel schedule. I t also had something to do with theother contacts with Venusians, Martians, and Saturnians, a atmospheric pressure, which was comparable to what onetrip into space and around the moon, and finally (and might encounter "at the altitude and in a comparable loca­unacceptably to his followers) voyages to Venus and then tion with Mexico City." He noted that "80% of the planet isSaturn. He reported most of this in three books, in pam­ covered with water. The cloud cover that does not permit usphlets, in private conversations, on lecture platforms around to see the surface of Venus is caused by constant evapora­the world. To some he was "earth · s cosmic ambassador," tion of moisture. This permits a large tropical area whereand to others he was a shameless con man. He did not get fruits and vegetables are plentiful."rich, but he did get famous in a way. Soon enough a small Though many contactees have told tales of adventuresarmy of contactees joined him in friendship and solidarity with Venusians, only a relatively small number have claimedwith Venusians. actual visits to Venus. None have had much, i f anything, of Initially, Adamski had to be contented with pictures of interest to say about it, though one anonymous Americanthe Venusian surface. I n his remarkably tedious inside the wrote to the Australian Saucer Record in 1 96 1 to state that IUR + 3 0 : 1 17
  • his space friends denied Adamskis contacts; Venusians do A NIGHTMARE OF VENUSIANSnot exist, they said, and to prove it they flew the writer toVenus, where he saw a swampy planet with oceans and The contactees Venusians have been a tediously virtuousjungles. The reason there is no human life on Venus is that lot, with very, very rare exception. The unsettling storiesa human being could only live for a few days on that planet. told by a Swedish man known only as Helge. whose apparenthe said. ·Everything grows very fast and dies fast. sincerity in t h e face of his highly improbable testimony Another Venusian traveler, who re­ puzzled some observers, including investigator Hakanported the more typical paradisal, inhabited B lomqvist, are perhaps the sole exception. Helges al legedworld, was 1 950s contact claimant Buck adventures are hard to read as either literal truth or deliber­Nelson (right). A n Ozark farmer, Nelson ate fiction, but whatever their ultimate ontological nature,attracted even more ridicule than most with they are undeniably more interesting-quite a lot morehis stories-always related in a kind ofback­ interesting-than the competition in the ET-contact section.woods Eng I ish-which fused a naive homo­ Like Thompsons tale, it leads one to reflect that t hings areeroticism (beautifu l Venusian men who shed neither true nor false. The story is long and complex, andtheir clothing for reasons that never manage to make sense) what follows necessaril y kips over a great deal of detail towith racist notions (a Venus segregated by skin color) and get to the core.laughable swindles (the marketing of packets of Venusian Born in 1 9 1 3, Helge (not h i s real name), a rock blaster bydog hair). profession, lived with his wife Anna in Uddeva lla, near The more obscure John Langdon Watts interacted with Goteborg. He is said to have been an atheist and an openVenusians, who, he learned, live to 2,500 of our years scoffer at UFO reports. though he did believe he possessed abecause. like Thompson s friends, they eat good vegetarian talent f telepathy. In the late autumn of 1 965 kidney stones orfood. They are here, he wrote in the 1 970s, to prepare us for were causing h i m discomfort, and he was to undergo ana planet-wide cataclysm that will occasion massive damage operation on December I 0. On impulse he abruptly left thein the seminal year 2000. He took up residence for a time on house with his dog and took a walk along a nearby li·ozen lake.Venus, living in a domed city with a female resident, Mara. Something disturbed the dog, which began running inFrom his earthly home in Florida, he published books circles and acting up. l l elge put the animal on a leash, anddetailing cosmetic and diet tips he had picked up from the then he heard a whirring sound above h i m . Looking up, helovely Mara. spotted a disc-shaped object with a translucent surface The E n g l i s h man through which he could g l impse moving figures. The UFOG e o rge K i ng ( ri g h t ) descended until it was a few feet above the ice. A tube camezipped t o Venus i n his out of the bottom, and through it four humanlike entitiesastral body, arriving in floated as i f on an invisible elevator. Once outside, theythe Valley of the Sun at approached him. They were one older man, two youngerthe Temple of Solace. A men, and a woman, all covered in a transparent overallguide named Patana took which revealed their nude, unblemished bodies. Entirelyhim to another temple, hairless, they had big dark slightly slanted eyes and perfect .from w h i c h spiritual vi­ teeth. Their ears were pointed, the openings inside so bigbrations were beamed into the brain o f every Venusian. that Helge thought he could see inside their heads. On theirFor his part King experienced "a supreme, pulsating, wrists each wore a broad dark bracelet with a yellow buttonscintillating, living brilliance which knew me more com­ on it. The men were thick-necked and built like wrestlers.pletely t h a n I had ever known mysel f. " King subsequently Over the next hour the beings commun icated withmoved to Los Angeles, where he continued to channel Helge via drawings in the snow. They were curious aboutassorted space communications. 1-1 is Aetherius Society­ such earthly activities as hunting and dancing, and at onenamed after h i s principal contact , a Venusian-is one of point the oldest of the group retrieved a cy l inder-shapedthe most successful and long-lasting of the contactee sects. device from the ship, gliding it along Helges back. HelgeK i n g h imse l f died in 1 997. felt a warm sensation. then a cessation of the pain from his Another astral visitor, A llen Noonan (whom a cosmic kidney stones. The four then returned to their craft, whichvoice had asked to be "Savior of the World"; he assented), took off at a dizzying rate of speed.noticed architectural marvels which somehow escaped the The next day, when Hclge was X-rayed prior to hisattention o f other pilgrims to earths sister planet. "There is operation, medical personnel were puzzled to discover thata city on Ven us that would be called the New Jerusalem if h i s physical problem had been cured. ot long afterwards ait were here," he told journalist Lloyd Malian. "The cities of Stockholm u fologist interviewed him about his encounter.our own planet are obsolete. On Venus there i s most striking In August 1 966 l lelge had a second contact. Againcity. The City ofSpirals. It has no streets. Everything is built drawn outside by some mysterious instinct, he again ob­ofbeautiful spirals. The people and the traffic move around served the UFO hovering above the lake. This time, how-on elegant spirals." (continued on page 26) IUR + 30: 1 I ll
  • DoTY AND THE BODY SNATCHERS L3Y ROBERT DU RANTGreg Bishop, Projecl Bela: The S101: o Paul Bennellil::. f stories were concocted by the U.S. government and inserted National Securi�1·. and the Creation o a Modem f UFO into the UFO community and thus into the public domain by Jlft•th. ew York: Paraview, 2005. the U . S . government. Your tax money was put to work on a disinformation project that achieved amazing success. The late Peter Jennings sneeringly dismissed Roswell This was a serious project. carried out systematicallyas a "myth" on his two-hour ABC network UFO show in over a period of at least five years, and used as its primaryFebruary 2005. How often have we modality"disinforming a numbcrofkey figures, includingurologists impotently squirmed ufologist W i l liam Moore, journalist Linda Howe, and ofas the mainstream brushes us off special importance to this discussion, an Albuquerque UFOas p u rveyors of myth and enthusiast named Paul Bennewitz.fairytales? Let me adopt the mainstream PAUL BENNEWITZm i ndsct for a moment. I w i l l tellyou a myth, a fa irytalc. Project Bela recounts the harrowing story o f the central Once upon a time, an alien figure in this drama, Paul Bennewitz. Unlike the aliens inwas held captive by the U . S . gov­ underground bases scenario. this part is a l l true. But it is soernment for many years at a secret nearly impossible to imagine as true that I am forced to beginlocation in the Southwest. The by saying that "Once upon a time" there lived in Albuquer­ET was telepathic. transferred que, cw Mexico. in a fa irly fancy house in a fairly fancytechnology to us, and managed to salvage from h i s crashed neighborhood. a man named Paul Bcnnewitz. And he was asaucer a device that showed the past and future history of successful businessman, married with two c h i ldren. and anthis and other planets. Regardless o f the viewers native entrepreneur who started and ran Thunder Scientific, a firmlanguage. the i n formation was conveyed i n that language. selling humidity-sensing devices to various c l i ents, includ­That is. a Russian heard Russian, and an American heard ing the m i litary. He was studying for his doctorate in physicsEnglish. The alien liked Tibetan music and savored straw­ when the business suddenly became so successful that heberry ice cream. Through the captive aliens intervention, quit school to devote fu ll time to it.diplomatic relations were i n i t iated between the U . S . and Bennewitz had two hobbies. He llew light airplanes ashis race. Eventually, a treaty was signed, allowing the a private pilot, which is expensive but neither controversialaliens free reign to carry out experiments on this planet. nor dangerous. 1-1 is other hobby was U FOs. This turned outPursuant to the treaty, large numbers o f aliens moved to to be disastrous, leading to the near-collapse ofhis business,another location in the southwest U.S., specifically, a huge which was saved only when his sons were forced to takefaci l ity under Archuleta Mesa north of Dulce, New Mexico. over, and the total collapse ofhis mental health culminatingBut t h i ngs went sour when it was d iscovered that the al icns with three months in a psychiatric faci l ity. Paul Bennewitzhad been abducting humans and had vats ful l o f human died a broken man.body parts i n their lair. Our m i l itary forces allacked the His house was located nearthe fence separating Kirtlanda l iens, and eventually prevailed, but only after massive Air Force Base from the city of Albuquerque, and a ffordedcasualties on both sides. a view deep into the m i l i tary fac i l ity. It was around 1 979 that Readers o f fUR are not likely to believe any of this. he began to see strange lights Oying in that vicinity. In aProbably only some wi II have heard these stories. But they arc mannertypical ofhis skills and scientists mentality, he tooktaken as gospel by multitudes who follow the UFO contro­ still and motion picture photographs of the lights. Eventu­versy not from the pages of serious books and journals, but ally, he accumulated 6,000 feet of movie film. At about thefrom Coast to Coast AM and similar radio talk shows. same time, he began detecting unusual radio signals, and he And it would come as a shock not just to U F O special­ custom-built special electronic equipment to enhance andists, but to the general public as well, to learn that these record these signals. IUR + 30:1 19
  • STRANGE LIG HTS Bennewitz, establishing a social bond. emphasizing h i s A i r Force ·intelligence insider" connections and spec ial knowl­Strange l ights and strange electronic pu lses- h is U F O ob­ edge about UFOs. With Bennewitz entranced, Doty begansession came into play, connecting the dots. The lights plus to relate the preposterous "aliens in underground bases" I iethe radio signals equaled alien spacecraft. Or so he specu­ concocted by OS! officials. which they continued to tell h i mlated, but Bennewitz took the logical and responsible step, in increasingly grisly elaborations unti I h e was institutional­and called K i rtland, eventually explaining the data he had ized and no longer available to listen.collected to Major Ernest Edwards, commander of the Apparently, Bennewitz died i n the firm belief that thesecurity police contingent at the base. Edwards passed the l i ghts he photographed were ET craft landing at K i rtland inproblem on to the A i r Force Office ofSpecial lnvestigations cooperation with the U . S . government, and the radio signals( OS ! ), the unit responsible for counterintelligence. were communications between the ET neet and A i r Force As a consequence, Bennewitz was invited to the base officials.for a meeting. A group of about 20 m i l itary and civilianofficials heard h i s presentation, including the movies, sti l l USEFUL IDIOTSphotos and the recorded radio signals. Soon thereafter. OS! decided that they had to know As Dory fed the stories, and Bennewitz evangelized, spread­more about t h i s gentleman. From that point forward, ing them far and wide, the lies were enthusiastically re­Bennewitz was treated as i f he were a Russian spy. He had ceived by multitudes, mainly l isteners to the very popularmounted an extremely efficient data-gathering program Art Bell and similar talk radio programs. It seems that in theincluding photography and detection of electromagnetic intelligence profession people like Bennewitz are knownsignals. Was he sending that data to Moscow? Or was he dismissively as "use ful idiots." This idiot proved exception­innocent. but were real spies i ntercepting his data? Could h i s ally useful, and spawned a generation of equally usefulnetwork o f U F O a n d cattle-mutilation enthusiasts harbor idiots.Soviet spies? Eventually, personalities such as John Lear and W i l l ­ So far, so good. with Bennewitz and the Air Force iam Cooper took these tales t o new heights. Always theacting responsibly. i n formation was attributed to "highly placed sources i n the But at this point a critical decision was made by OS!. intelligence community." But the real fountainhead was anRegardless o f what they discovered about Bennewitzs otherwise nondescript junior sergeant, Richard Doty.status as a Russian agent, they would treat him as if he were Soon after going to work on Bennewitz, Doty met andone, or as i f h i s i n formation could be intercepted by a spy. recruited mainstream u fologist W i l liam Moore, who had(No hint of malign intent or connections was ever found.) already been approached by the Defense Intelligence Agency. The alternative was to take Bennewitz aside. thank h i m Moore was coauthorofthe first book on Roswell and was anfor h i s d i l igence, b u t s i m p l y say that the lights and the officer of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organizationsignals were "ours." And please, Sir, turn offyour radios and (APRO), based in Arizona. Dorys offer to Moore wascameras, because your data could fall into the wrong hands. simple: Go to work for us, and we will let you in on what theWhy this second option was not taken remains a profound government really knows about UFOs.mystery. M oore accepted the offer. and immediately began pass­ ing to Doty all he knew about other u rologists, as well asDoTv GETS A JOB giving him access to the APRO files. and even going so far as to recruit A PROs secretary to provide instant notice o fThe plan was to feed Bennewitz "disin formation, meaning new developments t o Moore, s o that h e could better servefalse i n formation mixed with true i n formation. He would Doty. Several years later, Moore found himself, innocentlythen communicate the lies to others, and eventually the KGB or otherwise, in the midst o fa major UFO controversy, whenmight waste valuable resources trying to confirm the lies, or a roll of fi lm was received by his colleague Jaime Shandera.even get reckless enough in their quest to be caught in the act The film showed the MJ- 1 2 documents, a briefing al legedlyo f spying. prepared for President Eisenhower describing UFO crash Author Greg Bishop tells us that no plausible explana­ retrievals. stamped with top-secret security classificationtion for the strange lights has been forthcoming. But h i s caveats.sources attributed t h e anomalous radio signals t o a top­ In 1 989, apparently having gotten the short end of thissecret project at K i rtland that concerned attempts to neutral­ Faustian deal, Moore stunned the UFO community i n aize Russian "spy satellites" by beaming specially coded speech in which he told the details of h i s association withtransmissions at them. I ronically, we were trying t o Doty and other intelligence community characters. Of par­"disinform" t h e Russian satellites. ticular interest here is that M oore admits that they knew OS! assigned the Bennewitz job to a sergeant named Bennewitz was psychologically marginal to begin with andRichard C. Doty, on his first assignment with OS!, fi·esh steadily deteriorating under pressure of the unremittingfrom counterintell igence school. Doty began by befriending disinformation from Doty. Further, Moore said that Doty IU R + 3 0 : 1 20
  • and others had surreptitiously entered Bennewitzs house as a New Mexico state trooper. With regard to recentand rearranged the furniture in the living room as a deliber­ employment, he claimed to be an investigator for the A lbu­ate ploy to further destabilize him. querque District Attorney, and then that he was an attorney. Doty says his efforts t o befriend Bennewitz had a very But the New Mexico bar has no record ofa Richard C. Doty.pract ical basis, in that i f he invited him ( Doty) and other Philip Klass focused his attention on Doty and per­intell igence operatives into his house, they could proceed suaded the F B I to look into his activities, apparently i nwithout a search warrant. But elsewhere, Doty admits to connection with t h e M J - I 2 document. The existence of a nwhat Moore claims, surreptitious entry into the Bennewitz official program ofdisinformation aimed a t u fologists doeshouse in the absence of Bennewitz and without permission. not sit well with Klass, the premier spokesman for the Linda Howe is an Emmy-winning TV journalist and position that UFOs are bunk. But if Klass found anythingwriter, and producer of three documentaries for the United showing that the Bennewitz affa i r was carried out withoutNations Childrens Fund ( U N ICEF) about international sanction and authority, he never published it.child survival efforts, but she is best known to the UFOcommunity f her books and television documentaries or DoTvs CovER-uP LivE ON ART B E L Labout the cattle mutilation controversy. Howe produced a TV show about cattle mutilations that O n February 27, 2005, Doty appeared a s a guest o n the Artcaught the eyes of the spooks, and Doty, having had such Bell Coast to Coast radio program. This was his first publicsuccess with Bennewitz and then Moore, was tasked with appearance, and Greg Bishop was on the air with him. Thed i s i n forming her. Inviting Howe to his OSI office on the tollowing arc fragments from the program, which will givegrounds of Kirtland AFB, Doty said that the Air Force was a flavor for what you will find in Project Beta. but theseready to disclose UFO secrets to the public, and wanted to come directly ti-om Doty.use her as the conduit. She would be provided with motion­ [Referring to the initial approach to Benne11•it:::] "So wepicture fil m of" an alien craft landing at an Air Force base, of became very, very good friends, which is one thing you dothe aliens disembarking, and of a short conference between in counterintelligence. You become friends with a person,the aliens and government officials. you start abetting him. Yeah, and then eventually, you start Then Doty gave Howe a document to read, but warned feeding him information. And what we did was convi ncedshe could not make notes or keep it. Her recollection of the him that what he was picking up wasnt anything classi liedtext is that it was much like the "MJ- 1 2 Eisenhower Brief­ from the base, but in fact it probably was of alien origin."ing" which reached the public much later. On the basis of lBennewit::: .flew his private ai1plane to observe andthese representations, and the seemingly official circum­ photograph Archuleta Aifesa, 11·here Dory hadsaid the alienstances in which they were made, Howe approached HBO base 1vas situated. And Doty is able to gather other re­with a proposal tor a UFO special. Naturally, I-lBO was sources 10 enhance the illusion . ] "Paul was a pi lot, he wouldenthusiastic. But of course Howe never got the film, and fly up there, and he would photograph things. And he waseventually gave up, correctly concluding that she had been convinced that the things that he was photographing wasdeceived. actually an alien base. So, what we did was we went ahead, Howe has written extensively about this affair. Doty forti tied h i s thought by putting a renee up there aroundcategorical ly denied the meet ing ever took place, even in the certain things, bringing in some helicopters from Fort Carson,face of an affidavit from Howe, and a challenge to Doty that Colorado. Army hel icopters. which by the way, they werehe swear to his version. In a recent radio interview, Doty using that area as a training base, also. We had a couple ofrecounted the story, admitting the truth oft-lowes account, black he I icopters."and said by way of explanation that the plan was to dissuade [ O in teres t perhaps 10 those ll"ilh knowledge ofthe fall fHowe from making any UFO-related television shows! is Doty s explanation o the utilitv o !he disinf f f ormationObviously. the affair did no good f Howes reputation as or campaign as a way around the "rules. "] " I t was easier. i t sa journalist. But it did nothing to take Howes attention off easier for us t o have done i t that way than t o get a warrant,UFOs. I n fact. Dory conceded the Howe project had to be search warrant, and a seizure warrant, seize all his property,counted as one of his few fai lures. seize his equipment. You know, what would that do? I t Richard Doty e n l isted in the A i r Force fresh out o f would cause a lot o r publicity. And the wrong type ofhigh school. spent n i n e years as a m i l itary policeman. and publicity the base wanted."then shifted to O S ! . After his service at Kirtland, he was [Though he 1 ras !heprimw:v age/11 working on Benllell·it:::.sent to an O S ! office in Germany, where things went sour. Dory was onlv one of a team involved in the broaderVarious versions have made the rounds, but it is almost sin onnation campaign. which rangedf .fimn Kirtland.] di ( arcertain that Doty was dismissed from OS! "for cause," and "Well, it just wasnt me. It was a team, I mean, I couldnt haveshipped back to Kirtland, where he ignominiously finished done this all myself." [And !hen ref erring to Linda Howe.]his Air Force career i n the services field, reportedly in ·Well we, Linda was invited to Kirtland A i r Force Base, andcharge of the mess ha I I . I was the pri mary agent. There were two other agents involved After retiring with 2 0 years o fservice. h e was employed in it, not just me. but theres two others." IUR + 3 0 : 1 21
  • [A rl Bell challenges Doty: "Ijollo1red orders. but /hose Yellow Book and the Red Book, presented to Doty asorders never came do1vn intentional�v ordering me to lie to complete manuals describing the aliens and their culture, assomebod "] "Well, 1 didnt, 1 do feel the way you do, now, y. well as film clips of the Roswell cleanup and the capturedArt. 1 do, 1 really do. Then, I didn l. 1 mean, 1 didnt, 1 was alien. At the risk of stating the obvious, headquarters woulda 28 . 29-year-old. 1 didnt think of it that way. 1 was, it was want to have its minions believing that story. It would insurean order, and it was an operation, and we were doing what the Dotys did their jobs with great zeal. And it is so ful l o fwe were told to do." preposterous details that t h e emergence o f a whistle-blower [Doty is indoctrinated in UFO facts .. in preparation like Doty would be insignificant. Who would believe h i m ?f his assignmenl to UFO disin onnalion pro or f jects.] "They Great care must b e exercised t o distinguish between h i stook me into a room and, at Air Force Special Security account of t h e disinformation campaigns o n the o n e hand,Office. There was a colonel and a civilian. There was two o f and his apparent belief in the substantive content of theu s i n there a t that t i m e to b e briefed. They sat us down, and disinformation he conveyed. There is ample external verifi­they gave us a slide presentation of, a short slide presenta­ cation for the stories of disinformation campaigns againsttion of what we were going to get, and some other things. Bennewitz and Howe, per Dotys accounts in Project BetaAnd then they showed us fi lm, a 1 6-m i l l imeter film, classi­ and on the Art Bell program. But there is no external datafied, coded word classified, which statted, and it was a supporting the Yellow Book scenarios.narration of Roswel l . 1 mean this, what we were watching In sum, the post-Air Force Doty is probably beingthere was the actual fi lm of the recovery operation in honest. A l most.Roswell." Doty says his ultimate supervisor at OS 1 Headquarters [Do(y meets William Moore.] "l was tasked with, B i l l was Colonel Barry Hennessey. When a col league of mineMoore was recruited by another person within Defense asked Hennessey about Doty, Hennessey denounced him.Intel l igence Agency, to provide, as a disinformation, he was But one must ask, where was Hennessey when he could haverecruited as an asset. Thats what within the intell igence court-martialed Doty? Another supervisor was Colonelcommunity they call a spy, a person thats working for you Richard Weaver. chief o f counterintelligence during muchis an asset. And, B i l l came to New Mexico, and 1 was tasked o f the Bennewitz period. Yes, this is the same Richardwith contacting B i l l after he had a, 1 think he did a radio clip Weaver appointed by the Secretary of the Air Force toon a talk show." "investigate" the Roswell Incident. [Art Bell asks, ..How many o these big-1ime ufologists, f An acquaintance o f mine who spent a career as annames we would kn01r. so to speak, have been approached intell igence official, and who has followed the UFO contro­by people who were in your line o work? ] " 1 think prob­ f versy with great interest and is well versed in the Bennewitza b l y a good numbe r o f prominent ufo l ogists were affair, was kind enough to offer me his opinion of Doty. Iapproached at one time or the other. Some o f them took the asked about Dotys credibility, but also commented on thebait, some o f them said, screw you, walked away." questions raised by the existence of formal dis information [On why the govemment continues to cover up the programs in the UFO field. H e replied, "In fact, the onlyalien presence.] "A lot of the disinformation is to protect persons I have ever known to doubt Mr. Doty are persons nottechnology. Theres some things that we got from them, in government, and who dont know him." And in a generalfrom the visitors that were trying to protect. And that has to comment on the UFO problem, he slated, "My personalbe safeguarded. And l agree with that. But I dont agree that view on the entire area, come to after 30 years of analysis,just the mere fact that we were visited should be held up. is that the subject in its entirety is not a proper one for public discussion. To the extent the core story is true, it is legallyPAID TO LIE protected by legitimate c l earances and safeguards."Doty presents us with a concrete example of the paradox, FAILED OPPORTU NITIES"Everything 1 say is a lie." He was paid to lie, trained in theart of lying, and rewarded for his success in lying. Much o f what I have recounted so far appears i n Pro ject There i s little doubt that Doty is less than perfectly Beta, but the reader could do almost as well by consultingtruthful about the events in Germany that affected his Jerome Clarks The UFO Encyclopedia, in the section hem i I itary career. And he seems uneasy with his status on the whimsically calls The Dark Side." U n fortunately, authorlower rungs o f the educational and m i l itary rank hierar­ Greg Bishop has missed multiple opportunities to make thischies. Several times in Project Beta we find h i m boasting a significant book with broad appeal far beyond the UFOabout having lunch in the Officers Club. Early during the and conspiracy readerships. The subtitle ofthe book is TheArt B e l l interview we heard this exchange: Bel l : "You story of Paul Bennewitz, National Security, and the Cre­were officer rank, by the way?" Doty: [pause] "l was a ation of a Modern UFO Myth." Three major topics, threeSpecial Agent, yes." golden opportunities to educate and fascinate the reader, but I think it entirely possible that the introductory briefing Bishop is never up to the task.Doty received was itsel fphony. It included details about the We learn next to nothing about Bennewitz the man, his I U R + 30: 1 22
  • personality and how he changed over the years since the J . Allen Hynek to get involved. Coleman was retired frompivotal first encounter with Doty. Surely he had friends and the Air Force when he made this contact. Hynek, and thenbusiness associates who could have fleshed it out. With a Vallee, visited N orton AFB, where they were briefed byful l social l i fe and a thriving business at the outset, his Brigadier General Glenn E. M i l ler, deputy director o f thedecline could not have gone unnoticed. Defense Audiovisual Agency ( DA VA), and the director, Moore and Doty were the primary sources for th is book. Major General Robert Scott. According to Vallee, theBishop says he regularly lunches with Moore, and that he briefing by these senior officers sounded like the rantings ofinterviewed Doty at length over a long period. These men a contactee. Neither Val lee nor Hynek wanted any part ofspent much time with Bennewitz and must have anecdotes this obvious fraud.to share that shed light on Bennewitz the human being, 1 986-AF Captain Robert Collins, an associate ofbeyond Bennewitz the useful idiot that emerges monochro­ Richard Doty, contacted ufologist Leonard Stringfield, spe­matically from the pages of Project Beta. Even stripped o f cialist in crash stories. Collins offered documents and ant h e U F O context, t h e story o f Paul Bennewitz is high drama, introduction to Lieutenant Colonel Ernie Kellerstrauss, whoor would be at the hands of nearly any other author. Here he claims a wealth of"insider" information. Stringfield doesntappears merely weird and wooden. bite, so Collins moves on to Dr. Bruce Macabbee, who does Bishop knows very l ittle about u fology and his con­ engage in lengthy contact with Kel lerstrauss, the thrust oftempt for the field is evident throughout. That serious which is Colli ns-Doty U FO history.people take UFOs seriously seems to have escaped h i m . 1 987-UFO and stealth aircraft hobbyist Lee GrahamT h u s any a n d a l l engaged in t h e field are painted as was employed as an aerospace technician when he wasmarginal characters. This ignorance i n fects the entire approached by Bill Moore and given copies of the MJ- 1 2enterprise embarked upon by Bishop. which is to tell the documents. Afi·aid he might lose his c learance and thus h i sstory of systematic government lying about UFOs to one job, Graham took the documents t o h i s supervisors, request­man, Paul Bennewitz. ing an investigation. Moore was untouched, but the Defense Because he does not take UFOs seriously. Bishop fails Investigative Service gril led Graham ! Later, he was visited atto consider the broader issues. The book could have and work by FBI agent William Hurley, in company with Majorshould have dealt with the Bennewitz case as merely one in General Michael Kerby. Both praised Graham for his work ina long series o f analogous operations, stretching at least as disseminating the MJ- 1 2 papers to the public. Kerby told himfar back as the 1 970s. In this way he could have ful fi lied the details o fthe stealth tighter that were sti II secret. A mysti fiedpromised exploration of"national security and the creation and still frightened Graham cut off contact with Moore.of a modern UFO myth." 1 987-Whitley Strieber received a provocative letter that included a telephone number. When he called, he wasBEFORE AND BEYOND BENNEWITZ told, "We are in a war here, and you re on the front line," along with details about the alien invaders. Strieber hired aIn addition to the instances o f disinformation listed previ­ private detective, who traced the telephone number and mai Iously, it is useful to consider other cases in which individu­ drop to a Defense Department exchange in Colorado.als were approached by intell igence officers with supposed 1 988-Stringfield is suddenly and simultaneously con­inside i n formation about UFOs. Here is a partial list: tacted by no less than I 0 "informants," a l l of whom have 1 972- Movie producers Robert Emenegger and A l lan crashed saucer stories to tell.Sandler were approached by Air Force officials and asked 1 988-A telev ision special titled "UFO Cover-up Live"to cooperate in a documentary in which the government is aired. Richard Doty and Robert Collins appear on camera,would reveal the real ity ofET craft. The producers met at the though with faces and voices distorted, giving the public thePentagon with Colonel W i l l iam Coleman and Colonel George "truth" about the aliens in captivity, etc. The program isWeinbrenner, who told about various saucer crashes, and remembered mainly for the straight-faced claim that theshowed film of captive aliens, survivors of a crash. A year aliens living in captivity like strawberry ice cream andlater, the producers were invited to Norton Air Force Base, Tibetan music.where they were told by the head of OSI at the base and Paul Late 1 980s-John Lear emerges with essentially theShartle, chief of the audiovisual program, that film of the same story fed to Bennewitz, but with more grisly elabora­aliens would be made available for the planned documen­ tions. He insists that his source is "a highly placed intelli­tary. Soon thereafter, the offer was rescinded, and the Air gence official. People who know Lear attest to his honestyForce rebuffed further inquiries from the puzzled produc­ and common sense in all areas other than UFOs.ers. In 1 988 Shartle said he was told by the Air Force that the Late 1 980s- Film producer Robert Emenegger is ap­film in question was "theatrical footage tor a training film. proached again, and this time he is promised a meeting with Early I 980s-Colonel W i l l iam Coleman again con­ a live alien.tacted Robert Emenegger, this time renewing the offer of 1 989-British ufologist and author Timothy Good isfilm and other proof of the ET nature o f U FOs, but only if approached by the Ringling Brothers Circus with an offer toEmenegger could convince ufologists Jacques Vallee and produce a traveling UFO display. Good was assured that IUR + 30:1 23
  • NASA and other government agencies would support the Mexico. The !l ight was part of a larger projec t begun inproject. It came to nothing. 1 94( to examine the feasib i l ity ofboth constructing and 1 989- Veteran Nen· York Times journalist H oward tlying a nuclear powered ai rcraft. On board the vehicleB l u m was preparing a book about the Walker family spy were a number of ph ys i ca ll y hand i c apped peop l e whocase when in the course of interviewing a senior NSA had been found in the remnants ofthe Japanese militarysofficial he was given a strange tip. A lthough the tip had U ni t 73 1 laboratories and who were used in this darknothing to do with the Walker case, Blum was told that a and disturbing experim ent-the pu rpose or which washigh-level group within the intel ligence community was to try to better understand the effects or n uclear-pow­studying the UFO problem. and that apparent ly they favored ered flights on an aircrew. The experiment ended i nthe ETexplanation. Blum ·s book Ou1 There recounts his trip disaster when the ai rcrali crash-landed a t White Sands,through this UFO (and disinfonnation) never-never land. k i l ling some of the crew.Doty is prominently mentioned in the book. Two months later. in early July 1 947, a second and 1 995-Jenny Randles and several other British similar vehicle was, once again. llown from Whiteufologists are told ofthe A I ien Autopsy film and then watch Sands. In this particular instance. the aircrafi was af­a presentation of the fi lm. It causes a sensation until serious fixed to a huge balloon array that was based uponquestions are asked about its provenance. But television advanced Fugo balloon designs developed in the clos­programs continue to show stills of the "alien" when intro­ ing stages of World War II by Japanese forces. Theducing UFO programming. a i rcraft was p il oted by a crew o r Japanese personne l 1 996-Ufologist ick Redfern is approached by a who had been specifically trained lor the task andBritish civil servant, beginning a series of referrals to other crashed near the Foster R anch . .. ."sources" who combine to build a case for an alternative toan ET Roswe l l . In the new version, a l l is explained by Judging from the uproar on Internet chat sites ( fornuclear experiments, Japanese super-balloons. and horrid example, www. vi rtuallystrange.net/u fo/updates/), Redfernexperiments on human subjects. is being taken very seriously. Those who have been critical of the ET hypothesis for RoswelL and who now admit the iek Redfern, Bod Snatchers in the Deser1: The Horrible y deficiencies of the Mogul explanation, have rushed to em­ Truth a/ the Heart of !he Rosn·e/1 Sto1y. New York: brace the new revelations. Para view, 2005. S 1 4.00. I w i l l admit that when I first read Body Snatchers I OPERATION PAPERCLI Pthought Redfern had written a novel. Just flesh out the Operation Papercl i p was the codenamc under which thecharacters, add some sex and vio­ U . S . intell igence and m i l i tary services extracted approx i­lence, and voila! And then he de­ mately 500 scientists from Germany, during and after thecided there was a bigger market in final stages of World War l l . Most of these were involved innonfiction Roswell. But Redfern is the V - I and V-2 rocket projects. The scientists and theira known quantity in ufology, the families were spirited into the U.S. i n great secrecy andauthor of a series of good books in without State Department approval. Some aspects o fthe field. The alternative, which I Paperc lip remain classified, although there i s a large litera­think is almost certainly the true ture on this fascinating episode.state of affairs, is that he is the latest Redfern claims that there was an analogous Japanesevictim of the relentless program to Paperclip project, comprised of two clements, ( I ) biologi­disinform ufology. When the book cal warfare and, ( 2 ) long-range manned balloon technology.is read with this in mind, it becomes Experts in both areas, whose hands were as bloody as thosecoherent, even humorous. of the Nazi Paperclip crowd, were secretly brought to the United States and employed in research projects.T H E REAL ROSWELL INCI DENTI n Redfe rn s words, RICE-PAPER CLIP Forget flying saucers. Roswell had nothing to do with The Japanese operated a truly hideous biological warfare t he crash of an ext raterrestria l space vehicle. The truth laboratory using human subjects. This was known to the is much darker and far more dislllrbing and has been A l l ies and the projects ti les remaining upon capitulation covered up for more than half" a century. were sent back to the U . S . At least a few o f the project What happened . in short, is this: in May 1 947. an personnel were questioned at length in Japan. There is experim enta l aircran that was born out or the revolu­ ample documentation of the existence of the project, the tio nary aviation research o f the Horten brothers o f specific activities it encompassed, and the imerrogation of Germany was test-flown from White Sands. ew the few principals who were found. A considerable l i tera- I U R + 30: 1 1�
  • ture produced by American and Soviet investigators is in an aircraft. Again, the studies of radiation on humans areavai Iable on the Japanese Armys U n i t 73 1 . H owever, there the subject of extensive documentation, most of it commen­is no documentation offered by Redfern forthe pivotal claim tary on the lamentable amorality ofthe researchers, but therethat the U.S. imported Unit 73 1 personnel and put them to for all to study. Redferns version is not part of the record.work, a Ia Paperc l i p . And finally, there is the matter of the "revolutionary S i m i larly, there was a Japanese long-range balloon aviation research of the Hortcn brothers of Germany."project, but it consisted of primitive rice-paper balloons Redfern devotes an entire chapter ( H itlers Disks) to thecarrying several small incendiary bombs. These were the Nazi super-weapons, a standard explanation for U FOs withFugo balloons, 32 feet in diameter, lofted into the strato­ its own fairly extensive literature, all of it based on rumors,sphere where they were pushed eastward toward North none of it based on fact. The Horten brothers developedAmerica by the prevailing jet streams. Over 9,000 were several models of flying wings, a design that never foundlaunched, with an estimated 300 arriving on this side of the significant practical application until years later. They werePacific Ocean, landing all the way from Alaska to Mexico, failed experimenters in their native Germany and later i nbut few making it over the mountain ranges, and with almost England immediately after the war, where their "rcvolution­no damage i n flicted. As a m i litary weapon, Fugo has to be ary" research was studied and found wanting. On the generalone of t h e least effective on record. But apparently it w i l l topic o f Hitler·s Disks and so on, one should ask why. as thel i v e forever a s a prop i n t h e search for explanations of U FO Red Army bore down on Berlin and the Americans formedreports. a wall to the west, the German h i erarchy did not deploy any In Red fern s version, the Fugo designers were not of these purportedly revolutionary flying machines?hapless dead-enders, but brilliant engineers ready to launch The flying wing, Redfern insists, was attached to the"a huge balloon array that was based upon advanced Fugo huge balloon, and was meant to be a means to glide to safetyballoon designs developed in the closing stages or World after spraying the Reds with deadly microbes or plutoniumWar I I . " But he provides absolutely no documentation even dust. The contraption got hit by I ightn ing, got entangled, andf the claim that they were designing such a device, much or crashed. ending the research program, but of course launch­less that they were ready to launch one. U n l i ke B i l l Moore. ing the Roswell Incident.who proffered as documentation for his MJ- 1 2 disin formation As a veteran o f 3 6 years as a pilot with the U.S. Navyphotocopies of the MJ- 1 2 briefing document, Red fern leaves and two major airlines, including a stint as manager of flightus bere f t of even questionable documentat ion! engineering for one of the airli nes, I have developed a feel And this array real ly had to be huge. because i !we credit for what a practical llying device can and can not be. TheRedfern. it was to have a crew of four. and would fly in the balloon-wing combination fai l s the common-sense test.stratosphere just like the Fugo. Thus it would need oxygen Furthermore, there arc sources of true expertise on theand heat to keep the crew alive during the two or three-day history of aviation that Redfern could have consulted, suchflight. They would have no more control of the flight path as the Experimental Aircraft Association and the Smithsonianthan did the Fugos, so their deadly li·eight of m icrobes might Institution. I w i l l defer to experts l i ke these to judge thebe wasted on an Alaskan glacier or Mexican desert. The fundamental feasibil ity of the Redfern balloon-wing andpract ical d i fficulties with this proposed balloon arc such whether anything like it ever existed.that it strikes me as ridiculous. Even in recent years, withmodern technology available, manned balloons flying long SOURCES?distances are a very tricky proposition, one in which the raresuccess makes headlines. By far the most interesting aspect of Boc(J Snatchers are the sources for the Redfern scenario. As we have seen, he has nothing in the way of the documentation that would satisfyDocuMENTATION? even the flexible standards o f u fology, much less those o f aBut what really sinks Red fern i s that, once again on a pivotal historian. But he has a great wealth of help from volubleclaim. he has absolutely no documentation. What he offers ·insiders who believe it i s high time the real story ofus is a single 1 945 American newspaper article! The article Roswel l was told. They are quoted throughout the bookquotes a Japanese m i litary source i n what is obviously without the slightest wink or nod.desperate bravado, probably propaganda designed to l i ft Redfern: ·From 1 996 to 2004. 1 spoke with a number ofdomestic spirits by invoking a super-weapon. m i l i tary and intell igence whistle-blowers. a l l o f whom re­ The insertion of nuclear power and radiation experi­ lated to me the details of a series of shocking post-Worldments into the story is puzzling, and similarly fla ed. The War I I experiments undertaken on American soi l . " Herewell-documented efforts to create nuclear propulsion came they are, with what little we arc told about them by way ofmuch later than 1 94 7, there is no record ofsuch experiments biographical information. ( Be fore proceeding, it might bein the White Sands area, and what scientists wanted to know instructive to return to and review the short h istory ofabout the effects of radiation on humans was found without disinformation projects in the section titled "Before andresort ing to flying test subjects seated near radiation sources (continued on page 3 1 ) I U R + JO: I �5
  • ger-we are all brothers and sisters . . . . You who haveV ENUSIANS-continued.fi·om page 18 supported [Helge] shall not be forgotten; you shall reap aever, the older man stood outside i n mid-air. and he spoke, hundredfold, but if someone hurts h i m or h i s devoted w i fe,but h i s words were not coordinated with his lips; they I say, they shall be revenged sevenfold." Rapas also pro­seemed to emanate from the ship moments after the mouth duced a list of65 rules members were obliged to fol low­movement. Helge was given a metal plate and instructed to or else. Helge himself was to stay in the background.wear it always. The being instructed him to go to the The ew Generation fel l apa11 within months. Its mem­Bahamas (and specifically to the Bahamian island of Little bers, unenthusiastic from the sta11. felt anxious about theExuma) as theirrepresentative. Helge declined on the grounds threats, and the groups wealthy benefactor expressed dis­that he could not speak English, was uneducated, and had a pleasure at being asked for large sums of money whosewife to care for. A l l to no avail-he was told that he had no purpose was never explained to him. The New Generationchoice in the matter. did generate some coverage in the Swedish press, but its A fterwards, H e l ge buried the plate, a small rectangle origins in space-contact claims were kept secret. Followingmade ofan aluminum-! ike material, about three inches wide the movements collapse, Hclge withdrew into seclusionby two inches thick, with three rows of symbols on one side. and cut orr ties with nearly everyone.The following March, leaving it behind, he and Anna His adventures continued, and he traveled to the Baha­nonetheless went to the Bahamas to live. On the flight there, mas and to Mexico doing the work of the spacemen ( therethey noticed 1 4 men who, because of their black dress, they were no women involved past the first incident in 1 96 5 ) .assumed were Catholic priests. The "priests:· however, Sometimes he new in spacecraft. l - I e met other humans.were nowhere in sight when everyone else left the airliner. including an American who was murdered soon a fterwards;Beyond that curious little incident, nothing of significance the space people explained that the man had either been ahappened. Too embarrassed to return to their hometown, C I A agent or leaked information about their whereabouts toHelge and Anna moved south of Stockholm to an apartment the agency. Helge hated and feared the overlords, character­arranged for them by a small UFO group which knew izing his association with them a "hell." He was afraid to cutsomething about his experience. A wealthy member of the himself off from them because he was sure they would k i l lclub offered to finance funher trips to the Bahamas. him i f h e did. The overlords lacked any sense of compas­ Helge drove to Uddevalla and dug up the plate. Head­ sion; whatever their verbal assertions to the contrary, theiring back to Stockholm, he stopped at a gas station where an actions showed they cared nothing about human suffering,oddly dressed old man, sporting black slouch hat and black even i fit was occurring right in front of them. Helge felt l i k ecape, approached and asked if he could accompany h i m . n o more than an animal when he w a s around t h e m . Theyl lelge agreed t o take h i m . O n t h e way t h e stranger revealed never slept, as far as he could tell, and they lived on no morehimself to be one of the "priests" on the night, identifying than liquid sustenance. They were either ignorant or disin­himself as Father Rapas (Ra Paz i n one account). He genuous; when asked a question, they would not respondworked for the "overlords, as he called them, who had immediately but come back up with a vague answcr24 hourscontacted Helge earlier. He directed H e l ge to return to the later. Helge came to suspect that they harbored sinisterBahamas and to bring along the plate this time. Rapa took intentions on the human race, perhaps planning to i n fi ltrateover the driving, and 1 -lelge dosed off. When he awoke, the the population until they could take over.car was parked near its destination, and the driver was gone. At one point, noting that contactccs such as Adamski The couple stayed at a hotel in Nassau as 1 96 7 turned and Howard Menger, who purportedly worked with goodinto 1 968. This time Helge was taken alone in a boat with space people, also spoke of evil aliens who opposed them,two others to a small Bahamian island. Through an opening 1-lelge said he had fallen in with the wrong group. l ie died ofthey entered a mountain, and inside it they found thcmsel ves a heart attack on October 23, 1 977, at the age of 64.in an extraterrestrial base where they observed several kinds The Swedish urologist 1-Htkan Blomqvist spoke withof entities, including giants, dwarfs, and hermaphrodites. 1- lelge only once, in 1 973, and the phone conversation wasFrom then on, however, Helge would deal with the sorts of brief. Helge said little more than that he was forbidden toVenusians who occupy more typical contactee literature: talk about his experience. Over a period of years, Blomqvistbeautiful and golden-haired. pieced it together from informants who knew Helge. After Helge came back with orders to found a group to be the contactee s death he was able to track down the Stockholmcalled the New Generation, which was to attract young doctor who had treated h i m between 1 968 and 1 972. Thepeople to work for peace and justice. The core was the small physician saw no evidence that Helge suffered from anyUFO group that had formed around Helge, who showed its mental d isorder; yet he spoke from time to time of hismembers what he a l l eged was a letter from Rapas. I ts dealings with extraterrestrials. Most of aiL the doctor hadlanguage was blunt to the point of rudeness: "We detest you. the impression of a badly frightened individuaLThat is why we believe in the youth; they are the only ones Blomqvist interviewed l -lclges widow Anna in Junewhose hands arc not soiled with the blood of others . . . . Your 1 984. "Like her former husband," the investigator wrote, "shecatchword shall be: Freedom from violence-from hun- is very down to earth and practical. She confirmed almost a l l IUR + 30:1 26
  • the details of the contact and added several interesting pieces ors, they aresinistcr"ultraterrestrials"-demons by anotherof i n formation. What startled me somewhat was her almost name-from an invisible realm Keel calls the "Super­total lack of interest in the subject of UFOs." spectrum:· known in traditional mystical lore as the astral or She recalled that her tirst meeting with an ostensible ctheric world. In UFOs: Operation Trojan l/orse ( 1 970) h espaceman was during the third trip to the Bahamas. Insisting puts it this way:that he was supposed to meet one ofhis contacts there, Hclge Suppose a strange metallic dis k covered with Oashingled her to a Nassau disco. There she encountered a short, colored lights sellled in your backyard and a tall man inpeculiar-looking man with hypnotic eyes. At one point the a one-piece silver space suit got out. Suppose he lookedstranger produced a photograph which he said depicted his unlike any man you had ever seen before, and when youfami ly who lived on Venus (or maybe it was Saturn; Anna asked him where was he was from. he replied. "I amwas not sure about the precise planet of residence). Arter from Venus.·· Would you argue with him? Chances arethat Anna stayed home while her husband traveled alone to you would accept his word for it. . . . Buried within thethe islands. I Je sometimes would be gone as long as a month, context ofall the contactees · messages there are clues toreturning with a deep tan. The spacemen frequently came to an even more complex threat. A direc t threat to us . . . .the couples place in Sweden, however, and she witnessed­ The endless descriptions of peaceful far-off worlds andat least peripheral ly-some oft heir interactions with Helgc. shining cities of glass are only subterfuges. A fter years of monitoring developments to the best ofhis a b i l ity, Blomqvist was inclined to the view that every­ Even those taking a more benign view of Vcnusiansone was s incere and that something very strange had have been forced to bow to the reality that the planet cannotindeed taken place. On the other hand. he confessed, possibly support intelligent l i fe. W h i le Venusians no longer"sometimes I get a fee l i ng of unreality, like reading a comprise the leading extraterrestrial faction in contact claims,science fiction novel." More spe c i fically, Helge s talc has they sti l l make the rounds, almost always these days asthe resonance of a tale written by the late Argentine channeling spirit entities rather than as physical saucerfantasist Jorge Luis Borges. pilots. Contactees and their fol l owers now say that the It also is consistent with a notion argued in the writings "Venus" of Adamski and h i s successors was and is a sort ofofthe controversial occult journalist John A. Keel ( b. 1 930). parallel-univers e or higher-vibrational-counterpart to the -In Keels judgment Venusians and other ostensible space planet of our lower-vibrational place on the vibrationalpeople exist as extraordinary entities but are not who they scale. The moral of the story is that astronomical discoveriessay they arc. Beneath their friendly extraterrestrial exteri - cant kill Venusians. but they can rcndcrthem invisible. + Philip J. Klass, 1 9 1 9-2005P h i l i p J. Klass, aviation journalist and UFO debunker, died disavow, though he ceased to discuss it publicly ever after).i n a nursing home in Cocoa, Florida. on August 9, 2005. He devoted the next 18 month to an effort to cause McDonaldCause of death, according to press reports, was prostate trouble and embarrassment, going so far as to pressure thecancer. He had moved to Merritt Island, Florida, in 2003 Office of aval Research to cancel a contract with McDonaldafter residing in Washington, D.C.. for more than for a scientific project unrelated to U FOs. Klasshai f a century. also launched, and distributed as widely as pos­ Klass rose to p rominence on the U FO scene sible, a se ries of whi l e papers, heavily ita I icized,with an article in the August 22, 1 966, issue of i n tended to raise questions about McDonaldsA viation Week and Space TechnologJ, of which personal integrity-a method he would employhe was an editor. Klass theorized that UFOs arc against other antagonists in later years, noneindeed extraordinary phenomena: a form or more so than abductec Travis Walton.plasma (electrified air}, some of whose manifes­ With UFOs - Explained( 1 97-t) Klass intro­tations arc so dramatic that science has yet to duced the style for which he would be bestdocument or understand them. He expanded this known: seeking to account for puzzling reportsidea into a ful l - length book, UFOs Explained with explanations presented as prosaic, buttressed( 1 968). The theory was dismissed as scienti fi­ with accusations that witnesses were lying orcally unsustainable-pseudoscientific, to put it exaggerating in the interest of financial gain orbl untly-by atmospheric physicists, including the U n iver­ public attention. Other books in that vein followed. Klasssity of Arizona James E. McDonald and, later, a panel became a hero to the emerging debunking movement andassembled by the Condon Committee. was a founding member in the 1 970s of the influential The approach that Klass would bring to his UFO work Committee for the Scientilic Explanation of Claims of thebecame evident early on. after UFO proponent McDonalds Paranormal (CSICOP). Not all fellow skeptics were takendebunking ofKiasss plasma theory (which Klass refused to with his approach, and some were publicly or privately IUR + 30:1 27
  • critical of what they viewed as his excesses, including a KECKSBVRG-continued fi·oi/J page 9penchant for lacerating personal attacks on those who toofirmly dissented from Klassian dicta. four states before entering the Pennsylvania skies; we have I met Klass on a few occasions, the first of them at h i s to rely on witness reports and amateur photographs for thiscondominium in Washington in September 1 980, and found part of the objects journey.him a hard man to like, and not because we disagreed about In order to address whether the object was a secretUFOs. He simply struck me as a man not overflowing in military or government experiment, we need a greatersocial graces. Stil l , we corresponded at great length between understanding of the technology our government possessedthe late 1 970s and the early 1 990s, when Klass angrily in 1 965. Could the mil itary have created devices with theterminated the exchange. capabilities that t h i s object demonstrated? I f this is some­ I once wrote a comprehensive survey of his methods thing so secret that there is no accessible paper trail, there( " Klass vs. the UFO Promoters, " Fate, February 1 98 1 ) . may not be any way to definitively answer this question, noEven then, i t seemed to some observers that ufology had matter how far-fetched t h e poss i b i l ity becomes.been transformed into Klasss personal Satan; in some ofhis The more we learn about the Kecksburg case, the fewerpolem ical excesses, he appeared to view u fologists as some­ the options become to explain the mysterious object, mak­thing like the personification of evil, once even depicting ing the case all the more compelling. As Peter Sturrock,them as defacto allies of the Soviet Union because, like the emeritus professor of applied physics at Stanford Univer­Communists, U FO proponents judged some U . S . govern­ sity. says: " I n principle, we can prove a hypothesis not onlyment pronouncements to be dubiously credible. by finding strong evidence i n its favor, but also by finding As I remarked in the Fate profi le, "Klass never has missed strong evidence against every other possibi I ity."an opportunity to portray himself as the martyr, the outcastwhose sole interest is in finding and perpetuatingTruth . . . while STONEWALLING AND THE NASA LAWSUITUFO promoters-he can no longer bring hi mselfto ca II themUFO proponents-cynically exploit public credulity and ig­ CFi s initial round of requests under the Freedom of I nfor­nore his reasonable explanations ofcases." I n a sense Klass was mation Act, sent in January 2003, targeted over a dozenless a UFO antagonist than a demonologist. federal and state agencies f information on various as­ or Some excitable U FO proponents returned the favor, pects of the Kecksburg incident. In most cases, we receivedwith dark hints or overheated charges that he was actually a a •·no records" response or were referred to other agencies.C I A agent tasked to cover up the reality of extraterrestrial NASA was unique, however, in that it denied us recordsvisitation. Klass, of course, was no such thing. I f anything, that we knew were in the agencys possession as recently ashe suffered from too much sincerity. More sober u fologists eight years ago when materials were released to otherprovided point-by-point refutations of his explanations for investigators. We had asked NASA for documents on fourprominent cases. But as with a l l crusaders, Klass barely specitlc items which we knew they had, including thenoticed. Facts were not ends i n themselves, only a means to "Fragology Files" from 1 962 to 1 967, described as "reportsa larger end, and i fthey did not serve, they were discarded. of space objects recovery, [and] analysis of fragments to H e attracted an audience of those who, if they knew determine national ownership and vehicle origin."nothing else about UFOs. know they are nonsense, and they In 1 995, NASA sent Gordon a "records transmittal andhad Klass to speak for them. For years he published a receipt" listing the fragology files by name. However, henewsletter which catered to U FOphobes and to those who could not view the content of the files because NASAlike their sentences italicized, underlined, set in bold type, claimed that they had been missing since 1 987. This wasand ending in exclamation poin ts-someti mes a l l at the questionable, since the first list that Gordon received had asame time. Though Klass more and more came across as a handwritten notation saying that the files were at the Federalself-parodist, he was-and doubtless wi II remain-the hero Records Center in 1 994. A subsequent copy of this sameof a movement oftrue-believing disbelievers. To the more document released by N A S A had the " 1 994" notationopen-minded, however, he w i l l serve as the personification removed, when NASA informed C F i that the tiles wereof the fanatic: one who, having lost sight of his objective, miSS Illg.redoubles his efforts. -Jerome Clark The list offragology files includes the name "Richard M. Schul herr" as custodian of these files during the time of FUND FOR UFO RESEARCH the Kecksburg incident. Schul herr, a N A S A engineer, also As a partner with CUFOS in the UFO Research served as NASA representative for Project Moondust in the Coalition, the Fund for UFO Research has long 1 960s, as indicated by a Moondust rep011 signed by Schul herr and released through FOIA. Thus, along with the fragology been engaged in the support of scientific research files, we requested records on N ASA employee Schul herr and education. Tax-deductible contributions can and on Project Moondust in general. be sent to: Fund for UFO Research, P.O. Box The highly secret Project Moondust would have very 277, Mt. Rainier, MD 207 1 2 . likely been invol ved with the Kecksburg retrieval if the IUR + 30: 1 28
  • event occurred as witnesses report. According to an official "I think its fair to say that we have truly entered the1 96 1 A i r Force Jntell igence memo, classified at the time, realm of science fiction in Washington, D.C.," commentedProject Moondusts function was "to locate, recover, and John Podesta at t h i s second press conference, "when i t s fai rdeliver descended foreign space vehicles." The memo also game to disclose t h e identity of a clandestine C I A agentstates that the same Air Force Air Intelligence Squadron [reference to Valerie Plame] but not the records of anresponsible for Moondust, which had field units stationed unexplained crash in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, that oc­throughout the U.S., was responsible for the "investigation curred 38 years ago."of reliably reported unidentified flying objects within the Within hours of the press conference, NASA i n formedUnited States." I t goes on to say that these functions involve our attorney, Lee H e l frich, that the agency would release 36"employment o f qual i fied field intelligence personnel on a pages of documents immediately, an apparent attempt toquick reaction basis to recover or perform field exploitation thwart legal action. However, the material proved to beof unidentified flying objects, or known Soviet/Bloc aero­ useless and unresponsive. The lawsuit, in which I am thespace vehicles, weapons systems, and/or residual compo­ plaintiff, was tiled in Washington, D.C., on December 9,nents of such equipment." 2003, the 38th anniversary of the Kecksburg incident. " I m Since we already had a document confirming that hopeful that our lawsuit will be successful because NASASchul herr was indeed on N A S A s staf i n the J 960s, a "no f has given us a great record to show that i t s recalcitrant andrecords" response to this request, among others, pointed to acting in bad faith," Heltl·ich said.a "no effort" non-search on the part ofNASA s FOIA office. A s o f this writing, the court is still considering the case. The appeal to NASAs rebu ft: filed on behalfofCFi by H e l frich summarizes the status o f the case as follows:Lobel, Nov ins & Lamont in May 2003, included five exhib­ The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbiaits demonstrating that the agency had previously released denied N A S A s request for a ruling that its search forthe requested i n formation, including documents on Project records was adequate. but gave the agency anotherMoondust and Cosmos 96 which we had also requested, and opportunity to make its case. ASA took the court up onthat Schulherr did indeed work for NASA. its ofTer and filed new af"fidavits of agency officia ls, Among the exhibits was an intriguing news article under pe na lty of pctjury. to s uppo rt its claim that theabout Schulherrs activities in 1 968, when he "tlashed fancy FOIA search was exhaustive. Kean immed i atel y filedgovernment credentials" and required the person in posses­ papers w it h the court h i gh l ighti ng that NASA ·s newsion of a mysterious cone-shaped object found in the orth affidavits contained factual representat ions that wereCarolina woods to release it for testing in Washington. The lla tly contrary to the facts relied upon by NASA i nreporter states that Schul herr was "a staff engineer" with support of its original motion. The court is n o w consid­NASA. In his letter about the analysis o f the object­ ering this new round of i nformat i on .determined to be junk from a metal refining operation­Schulherr explains that the object was tested since "poten­ The lawsuit against NASA could be the first of severaltially it could have been a fragment of space hardware, a against government agencies, including the U . S . Army, U.S.meteorite, or terrestrial material of uncommon shape." This A i r Force, and the Department of Defense, which continuei l lustrates his role at NASA only three years after the to stonewall efforts to obtain records on the KecksburgKecksburg incident, particularly o f interest since two wit­ incident under the Freedom of I n formation Act.nesses reported seeing clearly identified NASA officials on Another amazing example of recalcitrance occurredthe scene. ( Un fortunately, we found out that Schulherr is when we sent a second request to the U.S. Army followingdeceased, and his family members dec! ined to speak with us.) its initial unw i l l i ngness to take action. We provided the I n June, NASA granted CFi s appeal and remanded the Army with newspaper articles that clearly state the Armyrequest back to its FOIA office for a new search, at which was on the scene, along with excerpts from a detailed radiotime it committed to undertake responsive searches on an broadcast revealing the same. We included signed witness"expedited basis." statements o fencounters with Army personnel, some stating Since no response was provided, despite this promise, that soldiers pointed weapons at c i v i l ians, and descriptionsand after waiting a total of I 0 months for i n formation of clearly marked Army vehicles. Reporter Robet1 Gattyspertinent to the Kecksburg case. CFi announced its intent to account stated that he saw I 0 or more Army personnelfile a lawsuit at a Washington press conference in October preventing people and reporters from entering the area2003. As had occurred the year before at our first press where the object was believed to have landed, and that heconference, this event was widely covered by national and questioned some of them.international media, including Reuters. A piece on the We documented a l l o f this for the Army. but it made nonational television channel M S BC opened by stating, d i fference. Helfrich points out that the Army regulation on"You know stories in small towns often tend to take on a l i fe specificity advises the public to provide "descriptive in for­of their own . . . . Well now the Sci Fi Channel is trying to get mation" that "is event related and includes the circum­to the bottom of it all, going so far as to join a lawsuit against stances that resulted in the record being created or the datethe government to reveal what it knows." and circumstances surrounding the event the record cov- I U R + 30: 1 29
  • ers." C F i s i n formation established t he particip at io n of the can be ruled out based on nega t ive evidence.Army, includ i ng m i l i tary personnel from the U . S . Army However, Kite went on to make another i mpottantS upport Detachment in Oakdale, in a publicly acknowl­ observation based on his study. "The obvious lack of wide­edged investiga tio n of a landed object on December 9, spread destruction from the 1 965 impact allows one pos­1 965, at 4:45 p.m. ncar the town ofKecksburg. Even so. the sible explanation to be eliminated as a cause of t h e Decem­Army FOIA orfice told CFi that we had not described what ber 1 965 observations: high-velocity impact by a large.we wanted with suflicient specificity to enabl e it even to intact satellite or meteorite. At least one account related anbegin a FOJA searc h ! object ·about the size of a Volkswagen being hauled away Throughout this process, the archival research firm from the site duri n g the night a fter the eve nt . If such anH istory Associates conducted extensive searches at federal object, especi a l ly a dense meteorite, impacted the earth atrecords centers and other government and m i l i tary reposito­ high velocity, t he impact would have created havoc for t heries outside the Washington, D.C., area. Files at some of surroundi n g forest veget a tio n and left a pronounced impa ctthese locations are not publicly available and can only be crater. " He notes that the vegetation and landscape heexamined through permission of the agency that created studied "record neither such a high-velocity impact nor thethem. which of course makes access difficult, and in some major reclamation effort that would be required to cover up .,cases they may be classi lied. H istory Associates was able to the evidence of such an event.provide us with specific accession numbers for fi les i n Ray Hicks, on the other hand, made a signi ficant discoveryvarious repositories that w e then presented to NASA a nd the through his study ofthe trees, providing solid physical evidenceArmy. These other faci l ities may contain the requested that something came down. With the help of witness Johndocuments that FOil offices have not been able to locate, I I ayes, who lived nextto the location in 1 965 and observed treebut the process of acquiring them is laborious and costly, i r damage at the time, Hicks was able to find the damaged treesi t " s possible at a l l . which matched photographs oflarge broken branches taken by T o t h i s day, n o government agency other than the Air Gordon at the same location in the mid-1 980s. The fallingForce (in Project Blue Book) has even acknowledged that object is believed to have made this damage.anything took place on December 9, 1 965, in Kecksburg, let "I util ized the photograp h s as a prima ry source ofalone released any relevant information about the incident. in form ation and based on the tree species, as recognized from the photos and the crown architectu re, I was able toTHE SMOKJNG G U N find the exact trees pictured i n one photograph ." Hicks explained i n a written statement.Perhaps the most important breakthrough since I became He presented his findings following the airing of ainvolved in the case took place back in the Kecksburg woods, ovember 2003 Sci Fi Channel documentary making theat the crash site that Romansky and Bulebush had indepe n­ new discoveries public for the first time. He writes:dently shown to Stan Gordon years earlier. In the spri ng of The trees were approximately 70 years o f age, which2003, t he Sci Fi Channel brought geomorphologi s t a nd wou ld make them approximately 40 years old in 1 965.geoarcheologis t J . S tev e n Kite and Protessor ofF orest1y Ray The growth pattern was determined for the trees byR. Hicks. both of West Virginia U n iversity , to the site . observ i ng the width of annual ri ngs . One of the trees i n Kite conducted an investigation with two archeologists the photo w a s a black cherry " hich had i t " s top brokenfrom the Department of Geology and Geography to searchfor "physical evidence of landscape disturbance or artifacts out (presumably after being struck by the obj ec t). Un­that m i ght be associated with the 1 965 event," supple ­ fortunately this tree was now hollow from decay that was probably a result of the wound. This made i tmented by a magnetometer and radiation survey. Kite did not find any relevant surface disturbance or im poss i ble to look a t the growth ri ngs of th i s tree. Butartifacts associated with the incident and could offer no an adjacent undamaged black walnut tree. also pi ct uredconfirmation that a nythi ng e x ceptio n a l occurred at the site in the photo. did d i sp l ay a slight i nc rease in growth fori n 1 965. "The evidence was either so meager as to be easily a fc,, years following 1 965. This would be con si stentoverlooked, or was subsequently obliterated or obscured by with the fac t that the adjacent black cherry tree wasnatural or artificial processes," he stated. He noted that the broken in 1 965, since it would provide additional grow­methods of his team "would have been sufficient to discern i ng space for the un da maged walnut tree.any digging, bul ldozing, or burial done to cover-up the I l icks attempted to reconstruct the most l ikely trajec­evidence of the 1 965 event. In !act. a cover-up would be tory path of the object using plastic tlagging. He states:easier for trained geomorphologists to identify than theevidence ofa low-energy impact event." Gordon and others One of the trees ( a hite ash) along this path displayedhave noted that since the object landed in a stream bed with a forked and crooked stem at a he i ght that would bewater running through it intermitte nt ly. erosion would make consistent with the assumed traj ectory. We obta i ned andetection of soil disturbance extremely difficult after all increment core from the tree and again looked at thethese years. I n any case, Kite pointed out that no past event growth pattern of the rings. There was a dramatic I U R + 30: I 30
  • reduction in grow th of this tree that appeared to begin in 196 7 or 1 968 and lasted fora bou t 20 years. I fl mi ssed DoTY-continued.fi·om page 25 one or two rings in the count, it would put the year of f Beyond Bennewitz." The parallels with Red ern s encoun­ reduced growth at 1 966. This would be consistent with ters with his sources are obvious and depressing.) this tree being damaged in 1 965. An adjacent ash of mi lar age and size, but outside the assu med traje tory Redfern was first approached in London by a man with si c British Home Office credentials who claimed to be a U F O was cored and it did not d is p l ay the dramat i c growt h buff a n d who gave h i m t h e broad outlines o f t h e Japanese reduction of the ash th at was in the path. This would Paperclip Roswell tale. But there was no follow-up, and suggest that th e reason for the dramatic growth reduc­ Redfern forgot about it until five years later, when he was tion of the tree in the pat h was not due to a climatic l f approached by . . . The Black W i dow. event. such as drought. but was proba b l y due to some s pec i tic inj ury to t he tree. "Because s h e does not want her identity revea ed, or i reasons that wi II sho rtly become apparent, l w l l refer to her Standing in the woods at the t i me, and speaking to the as the Black Widow. From the mid- 1 940s to the early 1 950s, she had been assigned to the Oak Ridge National Labora­producers of the documentary, Steven Kite s pontaneously gcommented on the significance ofhis colleagues d i scovery. tory, Tennessee, and she said she had firsthand knowledoe """The damage that Ray [Hicks] identified formed a pattern. I t o f the Roswell mystery that I mig h t find i nte re stin . " S h eformed a clear trajectory . I t i s a reasonable trajectory from approached him after a speaking engagement in Los Ange­some o f the other observations that were made. And the real les in 200 I : "Those bodies-th e R oswell bod i e s-theynice thing about it, it has a date to it: 1 965. And since there is werent a liens," she said quietly. The government couldobvious, visible damage, that is a smoking gun so to speak, as care less about stories about alien bodies found at Roswell­to what caused the decrease in growt h of that individual tree." except to hide the truth. Those bodies were J apanese people." The Air Force stance that not h ing came down is now The widow has some of the picture, but not a l l . Mostly,even more untenable. Trees do not tell tall tales or engage in she is an expert on radiation experiments at Oak Ridge circagroup h a l l ucinations. The saying has it that we often cant 1 94 7, but drops important clues throughout t h e book as thesee the forest for the tre es, but in this case, its the trees that story dev el ops. Somehow, she picked up a great deal at theshow us t h e true nature of the forest. Oa k R i dge water cooler, espec ia l l y that there were three What was t h e importa n ce o f the object that caused the classified balloon fl ights at White Sands in May, June, and im i l itary to ra pid l y respond to the tiny v i l l age o f Kecksburg? July 1 947, and that at least two were disasters.Who authorized soldiers to brandish weapons at local citi­ The Black Widow soon sends fi·iends, suc h as "B l lzens approaching the landing site? For how long will the Salter," described a s "a former employee o f the Psychologi­citizens ofPennsylvania be denied i n fonnation that is rightly cal Strategy Board" seconded to Oak Ridge to do counterin­ ktheirs under American law? We still dont have the answers tel l igence work. Salter has much to add to the Widows st01y.to these and many other questions, de s p i t e the four decades And then we meet "AI Bar e r," who worked with the Armys Psychological Warfare Center. Here is what Barker ithat have passed. The U.S. government may never reveal thetrue identity of the Kecksburg object, but the nvestigation has to say : · . . . if the S ov i e ts uncovered the truth about thehas been well wo11h the effort-and its not over yet. + azi and Japanese links to the high altitude idiocy at White Sands and elsewhere, this would have caused major reper­ cussions between the United States and its a l l i es in the EX-MINISTER SPEAKS AT UFO CON postwar world. Hence the cover story put out by t h e Psyc h o­ logi c a l Strategy Board and. later, by the Armys P sychologi - Paul H el lyer, Canadian M i nister o f National Defence cal Warf are Center that the bodies were from a crashed U F O from 1 963 to 1 968, announced in September t hat he i n case the Soviets, the press, U F O resea rchers, and Americas believes UFOs are extraterrestrial visitors and that some a l l ies came snooping." ( Never mind that nobody thought governments-the U n ited States at least-know a l l about Roswell was ET until 1 978, and the public didnt hear about it and are covering up. He also believes American scien­ that until 1 980. This tiny fac t demolishes the credibility of tists have re -engineered alien wreckage from the UFO Barkers story.) crash at Roswe l l , N . Mex., in 1 947 to produce modern And then there is the main informer, "the Colonel," a technical marvels. u:o con Ference in 2003. "Having spent fifteen y�ars oper� man who buttonholed Redfern at the Henderson Nevada Hellyer spoke September 25 at a conference spon­ atmg deep within the heart o f American i nte l l i gence, the g sored by MUFO Central Canada and held on the Univer­ sity of Toronto campus. He described a UFO s i hting he Colonel claims that in 1 969, while working with the Defense had wh i l e c a m p i n g out with his wi fe and some fr i e n ds : "A Int e l lige nce Agency, he read a to p -sec ret document that, as bright light appeared in the sky and appeared to z i g and far as he is concerned, laid to rest the tales about flying zag across the horizon." He added that he started t a king saucers and alien bodies recovered from the desert o f N ew the issue much more seriously after watching ABC-TVs Mexico in the summer of 1 94 7 and told the true sto ry a bout UFO special with Peter Jenni ngs in February 2005. the Roswel l events." And further, not ex actl y to our surprise, I U R + 30: 1 31
  • we learn that "Like AI Barker, B i l l Salter, and the Black with the MJ- 1 2 documents is must reading. Here he pointsWidow, however, the Colonel maintains that the Roswell out that the FBI confronted OSI about the documents, andand other 1 947 events were given a crashed UFO cover to quotes an F B I Headquarters message to the Dallas Fieldhide research that was linked with classified high-altitude Office: "The Ortice of Special Investigations, U.S. A i rbal loon experiments and the N uclear Energy for Propulsion Force, advised on November 30, 1 98 8 , t h a t t h e documentof A i rcraft project." ( But per my remark above, this cover was fabricated. Copies of that document have been distrib­did not exist.) uted to various parts of the U n ited States. The document is All o f Redfern s in formants have done their homework. completely bogus."The Colonel is certainly well-read on Roswell . But what However, Redfern follows this by saying he was told byemerges is a mass of slightly twisted interpretation of the an OSI agent that they had no records pc11aining to M J - 1 2 orRoswell data, always presented so that the nonexpert would any investigation of the documents. Redfern thinks this isfind it persuasive, and always supporting the Redlcrn .Japa­ impossible and asks indignantly, "How was AFOSI able tonese super-ba l l oon scenario. Thus the truly mysterious determine that the papers were faked if no investigation on"memory metal" reported by witnesses becomes merely the their part was undertaken?" Redfern is either inert to theballoons polyethylene-plus-metal coating, though this has obvious, or playing a game with the reader. Nick, OSI did notbeen drop-kicked by researchers who saw the section in the need to investigate anything. They are the ones who faked theA i r Forces Project Mogul repo1t that discussed the unfor­ MJ- 1 2 documents. When pinned down by an exasperatedtunate fragi I ity of polyethylene. FBI, they spilled the beans. Of course they lied to you, because they have been lying to your kind for the last 30 years.THE PENTAGON PAPERS EXAMPLE A colleague pointed out to me the strange pattern in which major U FO disi n formation is first released in En­When chal lenged to supply the real names and backgrounds gland, and only then in the U . S . , and he thinks this may haveof h i s i n formants, Redfern protests that his publishers something to do with the law concerning the scope o fattorneys forbid such disclosure. Though that strains credu­ intell igence agency fiddling with American citizens. I nlity, at the very least, each "source" should provide an addition to Redferns introduction to the "real" Roswellexplanation why, especially at their advanced age, they story by a British Home Office man, Jenny Randles andrefuse to go public. others in England first heard deta i l s of the i n famous A l ien ln 1 9 7 1 , m i l i tary analyst Daniel E l l sberg gave the New Autopsy film. The MJ- 1 2 documents were fi rst released byYork Times 7,000 pages photocopied fi·om top secret De­ British ufologist Timothy Good, who apparently receivedfense Dep<:utment documents. These papers documented them before Jaime Shandera got them in his U .S. mailbox.U . S . involvement in Vietnam from 1 945 through 1 968 and Some group within the intell igence community deeplyshowed that senior government o fficials, including the Presi­ cares about hiding Roswel l . They cared enough to orches­dent, had systematically lied to the American public about trate the 1 993 investigation concluding that it was a MogulVietnam. El lsberg became the object of an F B I manhunt and balloon array, plus crash dummies. Now they care enough towas charged with 1 2 felony counts after he gave himself up. mount this truly elaborate fraud, fi.11ther blowing smoke inbut his case was dismissed in 1 973 on the grounds of govern­ the eyes of the press, the legislature, and the public. J f themental misconduct against h i m . reader wi II understand that this is the genesis and guiding The point is. Ellsberg remained a free man, even having principle o f Bac�l Snatchers in the Desert, he will be richlyadmitted perpetrating a security violation hugely damaging rewarded for the small price of the book.to the executive branch, and in fact became a hero in many And he will little wonder that Peter Jennings so easilyquarters, today holding a prestigious teaching position. dismissed Roswell as a myth. +When evaluating Redferns sources one must ask, what arethey saying that would result in any retribution at all, 60 SPHERICAL UFOS IN ARIZONAyears after the fact? And why dont they go to the New York A t I 0:30 a.m. on September 1 7, 2005, eyewitness D. W.Times with their story, instead of planting it in the quaran­ was at his home on 3 1 st A venue in Peoria, Arizona, whentined intel lectual ghetto of ufology? E llsberg did not take he saw something strange approaching from the east.the Pentagon Papers to Jane Fonda or some minor anti­ "Looking east, I could see a bright object in the sky," heVietnam War group. ( A n d of course the same goes equally reported. "The orb was shiny. Seven other objects ap­for the rest o f the disinformers, from the MJ- 1 2 hoaxers, to peared around it. They stayed in the same spot for aboutthe Alien Autopsy hoaxers, to the "we have a film of aliens 1 5 minutes and then moved to the left quickly, to facelanding at Holloman AFB" hoaxers . ) north. They moved left to right and right to l e ft. almost hitting each other, and then got higher until they were allFBI Ail D MJ- 1 2 out o f sight. . . . There was no sound at all, and they wereT h e re i s v a l u a b l e i n fo r m a t i o n 111 t h e book a b o u t above the (other conventional ) aircrall."-U FO Roundup.disinformation. His chapter detailing the F B I s dealings September 28, www.ufoin fo.com/roundup/. I U R + 30: 1 32
  • Volume 30, Number 2International UFO Reporter Los A ngeles reporter Tom Tollers as USAF press officer AI Chop . - rrte $)��1ChAIR fORCE PL A NEDOWNED BY SA UCE t h. - WITH YOUR OWN Ac:1u;1l c o l o u r u h.avt b(�tn _ " ltkn� o l t h (• kt•pl "top ". P c r e t " EYESI U rl r d ( • n t l l r t""d F l y r n g untd now Ob11·c;t o;;. It appears to be a metallic object of tremendous size . . . Im trying to close in on it !" !Ul.l l; ! i u i l .r l) U t fl.� hD r � lAmerican A irlines pilot Willis T. Spen:1• talks about his 1950 sighting. UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS: THE MOVIE (1956)
  • I NTERNATIONALUFOREPORTEREditors:Jerome ClarkGeorge M. EberhartMark RodeghierContributing Editors:B i l l ChalkerRichard F. HainesKevin D. RandleJenny RandlesChris RutkowskiWeb site:www . e u fos . orgE-mail:I nfocenter@cufos. orgAnswering machine: /4 £ 0 ,a_ ·v - �( 77 3 ) 2 7 1 -3 6 1 1 191 -1986UNID£STIFI£/J FUING 0HJL:C7:<;, ACTIOEi TAL E P I C b_l Roher! Ban01 ................ .......... . . . .... ..... . . . . ..................... .............. 3WE K:>�ow w � t E R E YOU LIVE h_l Michael D. Sllords . . . . ....... ... . . .... .. . . . ...... . . . . . ....... . . . . ......... . . . ........... . . . .............. . . . . . . . . . .......... 7S E LE N ITES by Jero111e Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13JusT FOR F U N by Michael D. Swords . . . . . . ............ ...... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...... . . . . ....... . . . . . ...... . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . ....... .. . .. . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 18ABDUCTED BY HER BELIEFS by Mark Rodeghier . . . . . . . . . . . .......... ....... . . . . ...... . . . . . ....... . . . ....... . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 19Boor SNATCHERS: A N EXCHANGE by Nick Red ern. with a repzy hy Robert J. Durant f ........... .. . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 2 1LETfER . . . ................................ . . . . . ................... . . . ............................. ....................... ...................... .......•....... . . . . . . . . . ............ 27Published in Janmuy 2006. International UFO Reporter ( I SSN 0720- 1 74X) is p ub ­ I l linois 60659. Address all su bs c rip t io n co rre s pondenc e to Inter­lished quarterly by the .1. Allen H y n e k Center for UFO S tu d ies , national UFO Reporter, 2457 West Peterson Avenue, Ch i ca go ,2457 West P ete rson Av e nue Ch i cago I l l i nois 60659. A l l righ ts , , I l l i nois 60659.reserved. R eproduc t i on without permission is strictly prohibited. The lmemational UFO Reporter is a benefit pu b l i cationCopyright © 2006 by the J . Allen Hynek Center for UFO St udie s. mailed to Associates of the Center for a contribution of$25.00 orThird-class postage paid at Ch i cago. I l lin oi s . more. Foreign Associates add $5.00 for de l i ve ry A l l amounts i n . Advertisements accepted for pu b! ication in this magazine do U.S. funds. Other publications also available for con tri butors ofnot necessa ri ly reflect the viewpoints ofthcJ. A l len Hynek Center l a rger amounts. For details. write to the J. Allen Hynek Center forfor UFO Studies. UFO Studies. 2457 West Peterson Aven ue Ch icago Illinois , . Address all a rt icl e submissions, letters to the ed i t or and , 60659, USA.other editorial corrcsponclenee to lntemational UFO Reporter. Postmaster: Send Fonn 3579 to CU FOS. 2457 West PetersonCenter for UFO Studies, 2457 West P ete rson Avenue, Chicago. Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60659. l U R + 30:2 2
  • UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS, ACCIDENTAL EPIC BY ROBERT BARROWT he science-fiction f i l m This Island Earth. re­ leased in 1 955, was one of the 1 950s SF and horror movies inspired i n large part by the fear of nuclear war. Such films from the periodranged from the worthwhile to the goofy. This Island Earthholds up well enough over the years. though its troublesomeon-board spaceship mutant now seems more annoying thanscary-something that could have been easily disposed ofwith a d ime-store flyswatter. According to promotional material from U n iversalI n ternational Pictures, this expensive movie took 2Y:z yearsto complete. One can speculate, therefore, that its produc­tion was j ust getting off the ground in 1 952, a banner year forthe sheer number of UFO sighting reports. Somewhere around late 1 953 or early 1 954, as ThisIsland Earth was i n the final stages of production, while press desk i n the early 1 950s converted him from U F Oother studios not nearly so influential as U n i versal Interna­ skeptic t o proponent based upon t h e numerous credibletional were s t i l l turning out monster movies i n dizzying reports he encountered. The documentary, i n fact, wouldsuccession, plans for another kind of motion picture were in focus mostly on Chops official involvement with the UFOthe work s- an upstart whose very concept seemed bizarre. project. The "actor" chosen to play Chop i n the movie,This was to be a motion picture about flying saucers, but not suggested by Chop himself, was Tom Towers, a writer forthe saucers of Earth vs. the Flying Saucers ( 1 956, with the old Los A ngeles Examiner. Towers. who occasiona l l yapologies to Maj. Donald Keyhocs book F�ying Saucers wrote about U F O s i n h i s aviation columns, knew Chop. fiom Outer Space, upon which t h i s S F thriller was ve1y through mutual business connections. Greene also was loosely based) or Invasion o the Saucer Men ( 1 957). f acquainted with Towers and thought him an excellent choice. The idea contrived by motion picture producer Clarence Greenes movie would be notable for its lack of nameGreene, who was deeply intrigued by the UFO phenomenon actors, though a few would be recognizable today to thein t h e wake of his own sighting, invol ved making not a committed fil m buff ( Les Tremayne, Harry Morgan, andfiction film about U FOs, but a documentary based upon the Olan Soule). The bigger casting story, however, concernedU.S. government s investigation of some important UFO the prominent namesincidents of the era. As Greene began assembling his pro­ who worked behindduction crew, h i s writer, d i rector, and the rest, he also the scenes. In addi­brought together a remarkable group of individuals who tion to Chop, theseknew about the government s UFO investigations. Greene included no less thanintended to t e l l the story as accurately as he could get it. former A i r Force Among them was AI Chop, whosejob on the Pentagon s Capt. Edward J. Ruppe It, the most fa­ Robert Barrow (le in the Air Force in ./i. The real Tom Towers as mouschicfofProject 1 970) began researching UFOs as a AI Chop AI Chop B l ue Book; U S A F teenager in 1 963. His articles and book M aj o r Dewey J. reviews appearedinThe 1 . P.R.O. B u l ­ Fournet, fom1er UFO project monitor; and radar expert letin, Pursuit, Argosy UFO, True Fly­ Wendell Swanson, noteworthy for t h e construction of an ing Saucers & U FOs, Official UFO, elaborate U . S . radar installation in Okinawa. Swanson, i n --__J and newspapers and magazines. fact, d i d have an on-screen role i n t h e movie, and w h i l e he I U R + 30:2 3
  • multiple objects taken by Navy chief photographer Delbert Newhouse. Though Greene decided to f i l m his documentary in black and white, the two UFO movies were incl uded in their original color, strangely reminiscent of the dramatic and emotional switch to color from black and white i n The Wizard of Oz. Eventually it would come to light that both U FO films, analyzed by the mi I itary, were apparently miss­ ing the best frames when returned to their owners, and therefore Greenes motion picture documentary would also lack the best frames. This i n formation was not i mparted in the production. Appropriately, the climax of this Clarence Greene­ Russell Rouse ( his partner) production would be a dramati­ zation of the July 1 952 U FO encounters over Washington, Leji to right: Producer Clarence Greene. radar expert D.C.Wendell Sllanson, and USAF Captain Edward J. Ruppel!. THE I M PACTclaimed only to harbor an "open mind" about UFOs, theviewer soon gains the i mpression that Swanson knew far And so it was, in May 1 956, that the Greene-Rouse feature­more about U FOs on radar than he would publicly admit. length UFO documentary distributed by U n ited Artists wasThese men would guide Greene and sta ffthrough eve1y page l i berally splashed upon the nations, and then the worlds,of script to ensure authentic representations of the investiga­ theater screens. Action-packed posters blazing in red andtions with which they were personally and intimately t�tmi l­ yellow boldly announced its title as Unidentified Flvingiar. 1 O�jects, or simply as U.F.O. The UFO incidents destined to be portrayed in the Rcview·er response proved genera l l y quite favorable,production were impressive for their time. The 1 947 Ken­ but the audience-al ways the most faithful critics, fair orneth Arnold case would be the starter, followed by the tragic not, because they shell out the money for admission-founddeath of Kentucky A i r National Guard pilot Capt. Thomas U F O. less than compe l l ing, and the f i l m i n i t i a l ly lost aMantell in 1 948 w h i l e chasing a supposed UF0 2 Another considerable sum at the box office. UFO researcher Max B .1 948 case, involving Lieut. George Gormans supposed M i l ler summed up the situation expertly, having attendeddogtight over Fargo, North Dakota, with a possible U FO, the movies premiere at the Fox Wi lshire Theater in Loswas woven into the storyline. A January 1 95 1 incident i n Angeles: "When I saw this li lm the second time at thatwhich a DC-3 taking off from t h e Sioux City, Iowa, airport showing the objective was not to see the picture again, butswerved to avoid a coli is ion with a mysterious light was also rather to check attendance and audience reaction. This wasfeatured, perhaps because a m i l itary intell igence colonelobserved the phenomenon with other passengers before thething zoomed up and disappeared. A jewel oft he productionwould be an external a i rport interview with American A i r­lines pilot Capt. W i ll i s T. Sperry, whose personal account ofh i s dramatic encounter with a U FO during a flight i n 1 950would leave the audience spellbound. But the best was yet to come. With the assistance of hisadvisors, Greene procured the still-unexplained and famousMontana UFO fi l m of two objects photographed by busi­nessman Nicholas Mariana, as well as the Utah movie of From UA ) .. Nicholas Mariana and one fi·wne ofthe film he took of SH·om swtement ofauthentici(l l10 UFOs m Great Falls. Montcma. Augmt 15. / 950. jiom the movie ·s producers. I U R + 30:2 4
  • Actors ph�v ing DelleV Fo11rnet (leji) and Ed R11ppelt.probably for the be s t, too. For while l was thoroughlyenthusiastic after vi ewi n g U.F.O. the tirst time. I found the Marilyn Monroe appeared on the real L ife maga:inesecond time quite a let-down . . . .The movie isnt, on th e cover ofApril 7. 1 952. llhile President Tmman liOSwhole. particularly i nteresting . The pace is slow, the action sllbstitutedf the movie (right). orstiff.� Ufologist Ted B l o c c her saw things a lillie differently, showing President Truman is a false one: the real issuesthough i t must be stressed that M illers review was pos i t i v e cover shows actress M a ri lyn Monroe. We can assume eitherabout the m o vi e . "A somewhat slim storyline," j udged that Trumans photo was implemented to express the sobri­Bloecher. However: "The producers have wisely refrained ety of the U F O issue in the fi flies (Truman was presidentfrom t ry i ng to du plic at e the visual appearance of U FOs i n during the Washi n gt on , D.C., sightings that proved so im­a n y o f the cases they refer to . . . . B y avoi d i n g facsimiles o f portant to the movie) or that for professional reasons U n i tedthe objects in question, they have made two heretofore Artists didnt want attention paid to Monroe, who may havesecret Mariana and Newhouse films showing actual UFOs been under contract with a competing studio.in tlight considerably more forceful and conspicuous."5 My first encounter with U.F.O. occurred in the early Bloecher was more s ym pa theti c than some reviewers to 1 960s when it aired on local afternoon TV, and subsequentlythe actions being low-keyed throughout" and th e fact that on a couple of late-late programs. l had seen many a science­non-actors were used so exten si vely (most were Los Ange­ fiction thriller as a kid, but had never heard ofGreencs film.les law-enforcement officers). He also took note of the One suspects it didnt take long a fter theatrical release beforeextensive "padding" scenes and instances of forms being its relegation to late-late TV movie shows around the country.fi lied out, sometimes laboriously, and of the frequent news­ When home videotapes of movies first became availablepaper visuals with the word "saucers. commercially, ev idently U.F. 0. saw a bri e fv id cota p e release Significant members of the cast felt that U. F. 0. needed via a company unknown, since there were v ideo searchmore drama and less narration. Towers readily admitted "a companies actively seeking and selling it. The video thenlittle of the Hol lywood touch" would have helped. Obvi­ went into hibernation until 2000, when MGM Home Videoously. though. Greene had found himself driven from the re l eased its version, only to pull i t fi-om the market two or threestart to focu s upon the doc u m entary aspect, rather than the years ago. While some UFO researchers have anticipated ahigh dramatic effects exhibited in his earlier movies, such as DVD rel ease , that hasnt happened yet commercially. TheNell York Confidential. The Thiel and The We//. Ulti­ movie has popped up on cable TV over the years andmately, the issue here may have been that Greene was as newto what he a t tem p t e d with U. F. 0. as the audience was whenit searched for h11niliar ti l m ploys that simply weren t inevidence. Poss ib ly, many in the audience may not h a veentertained even a clue about the definition of "documen­tary when they purchased admission tickets. MR �ORCE 4FTER U.F. 0. went all out to sacrifice drama for accuracy-to · �- �J . Cwhich this writer can attest, because in the 1 970s whenTowers loaned me his copy of t h e s cr i pt ( p rou d ly stored for D. C. SJUC nt f"years behind his living room sofa, h e c on fessed ) , I found it ..�--· --sprinkled with handwritten annotations and minor changes,apparently created j us t prior to various screen shots in theinterest of a facwal portrayal . But there was one lillie(actually a blatant) alteration 1 at first missed in Greenescreation: At the point in the movie when the April 7, 1 952,issue o f L!l maga z in e hits the news st an ds , sugges t i ng that e Tom Towers as A I Chop mlakens to disturbing nellsUFOs may h a rb or extraterrestrial visitors, the cover photo about saucers over Washington in Ju(v 1 952. I U R + 30:2 5
  • prob ably continues to do so sporadically.6 U.F. 0. has quietl y endured over the decades. Perhaps not a l l o f the UFO reports depicted remain unidenti fied, but there are enough that do-the Montana a nd Utah films, the Washington National Airport encounters, f example. Yet or Greene. certainly no newcomer to movie-making by the time he tackled UFOs, stubbornly stayed the course and chose narration over spine - tingli n g special effects, leaving the un­ seen up to the audience to conjure. Remarkable still was his usc of only about 92 minutes of fi l m to educate h i s audience proficiently about the early status of t he official U F O i nve s­ tigation-the most open, honest, and briefwindow ofgovern­ ment UFO i n formation diselosure America ever ex perienced . The very moment when the government seemed poised to tell us about the saucers was a s pecial one indeed. Thirty years have elapsed since I fi rst wrote about U. F. 0.The 1 95 6 /ilm docull/ents the saucermania o the era. f Many of the fine people involved with production , most o f whom would b e i n their late ROs and 90s by now. have passed on, including Capt. Sperry, Towers, and Greene himself. Greenes only response to my written quest i ons in the 1 970s consisted of less than a page of agoniz ing l y curt answers. Many years went by befo re I realized how bitter he must have been about the lack of audience respo n se to U F O. My hope, a s 2006 takes off for parts unknown, is that this 50-year-old documentary gains lasting respect both as an essential piece of U F O resea rch h i story and as a unique chunk of American history. The Library of Congress, the American F i l m Institute. somebodJ, needs to give U.F.O. tender loving care. make sure its preserved and protected forever, and reissued as a DVD so that generat i ons to come can experience the serious side of U F O h i story with two great color films of U FOs as a bonus. N OTESGen. John A. Samford tells the press on Ju(y 29. 1 952.that the Washington sightings and radar targets were I. I erred seriously when I wrote a version ofthis article caused by temperature inversions. 30 years ago, insisti n g that Capt. Ruppel! play ed his own role, which he clearly did not. My access to Ruppclt photo s at the time was lim ited, but thanks to researcher Wendy Connors and her 2000 book (with Michael H a l l ) Captain Edward J. Ruppelt.· Summer of the Saucers 1 952, I now ree�lizc a l l o f R upp elt s work was behind the scenes. 2. Researchers, especially Kevin D. Randle, conducted lengthy and seemingly conclusive i nvesti gat i on s that indi­ cate Mantell died while chasing a secret m i litary balloon known as the Skyhook. 3. Again, a balloon may be the culprit and not a UFO. See Jerome Clark, Strange Skies: Pilot Encounters with UFOs (New York: Citadel, 2003), pp. 66-68. 4. Quoting from "Worlds First Documentaty," F(ving Saucers, J une 1 95 7 . 5 . Ibid. 6. Thanks to Barry Greenwood, who long ago pro­ vided me with additional i n formation about the movie, and Warrant O ficer Delbert C. Newhouse describes fhall he took a color film oja UFO near Tremonton, also to Gary Mangiacopra, whose research into U.F.O. Utah. on Julv 2. 1 952. c ont i nues. + I U R + 30:2 6
  • WE KNOW WHERE YOU LIVE BY MICI IAEL D. SwoRDS0 nee upon a time it was simple. Col. George Garrett could sit at his desk in the Pentagon and envision the disks racing across Kenneth One of the particular weird ideas that began creeping into researchers minds was that many cases were instances of "display" by the phenomenon. I t was. and is, an odd Arnolds line ofsight and say: Advanced aerial thought. Display to a witness seems much too subjective andtechnology." dangerous to really credit. Coincidences happen all the Alfred Loedding could imagine a spaceliner passing time. We-who are essentially egocentric-often attributeChiles and Whitteds plane and superimpose Ludwig causal l i nkages and personal significance to things thatPrandtls mathematics upon the case and say: Advanced accidentally cross our path. With thousands of UFO inci­aerial technology." dents, certainly some rather spectacular coincidences are Charles M oore and his theodolite, J. J. Kaliszewski in bound to have happened. And the mind is a wonder athis balloon project chase plane, and Nash and Fortenberry creating syntheses and patterns out of nothing.in their TWA airliner could all say "Advanced aerial tech­ But still, some o f these coincidences arc very hard tonology" about their sightings. N uts and bolts. Metallic, dismiss. "Display" seems an operative word. although per­strangely designed, aerodynamic vehicles. Extraterrestrial. formance" might be even more descriptive. The remainderSimple as that. of this article is about one, to me, very impressive form of But things wouldnt stay so simple or well behaved. display.Noninertial motions and hovering that defied gravity soonappeared in sightings. Well, said the "can-do" minds of the ALIGN M ENTengineers, all right, we ll be able to do it someday. Whatabout reports with traces on the ground . e lectromagnetic A l l display or performance involves alignment. specialeffects, or paralysis? Yes, okay. very advanced indeed. And geometric relationships between objects, environmentalthen instant disappearance, shape-changing and dividing, parameters, and the observers. These relationships create ineven m i nd-reading. Uh-oh. the observers mind the stage upon which the performance Perhaps the UFOs were never so well behaved as Col. takes place. ("Jt was dead center as I looked out my win­Garrett and AI Loedding pictured them. Surely we had our dow." ) Time and timing also play a factor in the perfor­nonsense filters up and operating back then. Certain cases mance. ("Just as I looked, the object emerged from behindnever made the files. I n h i s later years, Aime M i chel said that the hillside.") Because there are so many cases where thethe most shameful thing about his career as an investigator object was not initially dead center, nor appeared right onwas that he j ust couldnt swallow some of the weirder stuff, cue from stage left, it is usually pretty easy for us to shrugand so ignored it. N ICAP was certainly guilty of that. that element off. And I agree. We need to stay rational aboutTodays Roswell enthusiasts still tend to want to carve the this sort of claim. But I would like to present a subset of thesestranger part of the phenomenon away, and there are mem­ cases that involve astronomical alignments that I fee l isbers of what might be called ufologys right wing who have more difficult to wave off. I d be interested in whether youtroubles even with Roswel l . Nuts and bolts, nice, well­ agree.behaved aerial technology: That s a real comfort zone. Every category should probably have at least one an­ I have nothing against this perspective. In fact, I believe chor case. such as Levelland for vehicle interference, orthat its a good solid start in dealing with UFOs. So, at the Boianai (Father G i l l ) forCEJs. My choice for the alignmentbeginning of everything, Garrett, Loedding, Moore. and anchor occurred in 1 9 5 5 . The case record (a letter) origi­Nash were correct. But much more appears to be real about nally went to Ted Bloecher at CSI-New York, and then toUFOs as wel l . N I CAP, and finally on to the CUFOS archives. I am going to leave names out because you can rarely find any indica­Michael D. Sn·ords· is pro essor emeritus o the Environ­ f f tion in the old files as to whether the witness approved ofmenta/ Institute. Weslem Michigan Universifl, Kalama::.oo. public mention. I U R + 30:2 7
  • The letter-writer was a p rominent engineer working for The witness passed the report on to Bloecher (anda b i g New York city company, an expert in aircraft technol­ pre s umably to Mitchell A F B ) in an ama z ingly cool. under­ogy and electronics. And he was an avid amateur astrono­ stated way. One wonders how much he cog i tated on themer. There were fou r other witnesses. a l l i nterested in ramifications of what he was retel ling .amateur astronomy, one o f,vhom w as also expert in aircraft. I t may be belaboring the obvious, but in order for our five As a b i t ofbackground , a year previous ly the writer had witnesses to see the UFO maneuvering in relation to Saturnobserved a peculiar fi rebal l , w hich he reported-for what it and then the Moon as described, they (a/most certain ly. as thiswas worth-to a Maj. G ey er at M i tchell AFB in H empstead , depends upon the distance of the UFO) had to be in anNew York. The major thanked him for his interest but said extremely pri vileged viewing position. In the exaggeratedthat what would be more valuable to the Air Forc e would be cartoon of Figure 2, our observer at B can see the apparentfor the writer to urge amateur astronomers to report any circ l ing of Satum and the Moon from his location, andunusual aeria l phenomenon when it occurred. Geyer said. observers A and C could too i f/he UFO ere at astronomical. . Anything that flies is our business, even a lame canary. ,. As distance itself. But the closer the UFO is to the observer, thethe writer went on to say to Blocchcr, ·What follows is the more exclusive such a viewing position becomes, un t il , at theonly phenomenon our local group has noted in several near extreme in distance of, say, a fi re fly I 0 feet away, onlyhundred ho urs of as tron om ical observ i n g. · one person could sec the circling geometry no matter how The sighting occurred at Lake Ronkonkoma on Long close the people tried to cram together. The actual U FO wasI s land, between 8:30 and 9:30 p.m. on J u ly 29, 1 95 5 . The somewhere between lunar and firefly distance, of course. I tviewing conditions were excellent and the Moon was two­ seemed similar to an ai rplane in a sizc ( it did grow larger in thethirds ful l . First and second magnitude stars were easily 7x50 binoculars used, though not greatly so ), and the amateurvisible and the planet Saturn >vas prominent. astronomers j udged it to be probably around nonnal aircraft The UFO initially appeared to the five observers as a altitude. But however large you want to draw an error bar on"2nd magnitude star" in the vicinity of Sat urn . The observ­ their estimate, the circle on earth from which you could see theers watched , either with naked eyes or binoculars, as the st a r traverse of Saturn and the Moon was pretty small. The UFOnavigated a " perfect circle ( o f an apparent diameter of I " ) seemed to have aligned itselfto perform speci fically for them.around Saturn." I t then followed this looping performance And thea would mean that i t had to know where they were.by heading east until it got to the Moon. where it executeda half-circle pass, and then just disappeared. Then the object reappeared 1 20" away and movedhorizontally unt i l taking an abrupt turn vett ica l ly . I t d isap­peared again at about 70" above the horizon. Then it reap­peared in a straight clive-like descen t until reacquiring itsoriginal 30-degree elevation (see Figure l ) . T t proceededhorizontall y again , made an ab ru pt angul a r shift againdownwards and was lost in the trees. If it were at typicalairl iner h e ight its speed would have been about three timesthat of a commercial flight . Through the binoculars theobject looked spherical and y ellowish, at least in its cent ralarea. A. UFO "• ...� ." �� � 1 ----. Q) ,�·�· ., .- circles Saturn _., . UFO 12 c1rc1 es 1�. -B . /f 0o •I.. ,, . Moon and vanishes / / / C. UFO / reappears / D. UFO reappears and vanishes and is lost to sight Figwe I . Figure 2. I U R + 30:2 8
  • Saturn. For instance, sta nd i ng near the edge of the area one would sec the circling UFO run righ t across or ec l ipse Saturn at some point in its cycle. So. in o rde r to see the UFO make a "perfect circle" o f about I a ro un d Saturn. and have o a l l five people see it th at way, they would have to be in a m uc h smaller area than the 90-foot circle. In my opinion, for the observers to feel that t h e obj ec t circled Saturn perfectly and then per fec t l y h a l f-circled the Moon. the apparent shift in image ( i.e., the po ition of Saturn or the Moon out of dead center, re la t i v ely speaking) had to be leJy small from one observer to the next. I believe Figure 3. that i fyou walk morethan 20% o f the distance from the ideal viewing center toward the e dge of the 90-foot circle, the Just for fun, how tight would that pri v i lege d viewing apparent circling of t he pl a net and Moon beg i n s to lookposition have to be? I fwe take the witness guesses seriously, distinctly lopsided (see Figure 5). So. if you w i l l humor me.how wide would the area on the ground have to be if t heobject made a c ircle of I diameter? We can take a stab at it oi f we want to guess the objects distance (see Figure 3 ). I f the U FO were a mile high, that would translate intoa dome of sky about 1 6.000 feet in circumference on whichit was located; that one degree would then be about 90 feet .I n other words, that is the diameter of the c i rcle in which itwould be m o v i ng as i t seemed to circle Saturn. If two m i les Observer shifts out ofhigh, then 1 80 feet. Ten mi les, 900 feet. To simplify the rest the ideal central viewingof this discussion, lets just assume that i t was a mi l e high. positionThis would mean that the person in the pe rfect v i e wingposition would be standing. looking up at the i mage of Figure 5.Saturn in the center of this imaginary circle, ·wh i le t h e U F Obanked in a 90-foot turn around its circumference. You can let s say that t he aclua/ priv ileged viewing area for t h e groupimagine a narrow cone from the observers eye toward was only 20% of the greater diameter or less, which is onlySaturn which widen to 90 feet by t h e time it gets to the 1 8 feet or fewer. That i s a reasonable sized area for five folksheight of th e U FO. to be mi ll i n g around in on a common a ct i v it y that evening, I fyou reverse the positions and invert the cone. from the but. m o re i m porta n t l y. it is a very precise spot on this oldUFO back to the Earth · s surface. we get an area ofprivilcgcd planet. I fth c UFO were two m i les h igh , then double it; threevi ewi n g, the same 90-foot diametercirclc ( Fi gure 4 ) . But the m iles, triple it, and so forth .rea/ area of pr iv i l eged v iew i ng is only the area within which Even then. it seems a very prec ise thing to be cruisingany observer would sec the U FO somellhere within I 0 of along three miles above the g roun d and knowing that a group o f people for whom you arc about to put on a show are w it h i n a s ma l l circle below you. And speaking ofprecise. t he UFO then had to move i n a precise small circle, at a l t i t ud e . a l igne d with Saturn and the Moon. Try that in a p la ne or e v e n a helicopter. OTHER ALIGNMENT CASES Hopefully, the first case-the anchor case-has persuaded you that something of this a l ignment nature a ct ua l l y does occur. and that is interest i ng in its i m p lic at ion s . The case seems very sound: five witnesses, high - qua l i ty observers of the skies, a nd el aborat e well -report ed detail, with move­ ment around two astronomical objects. What more can we ask for other than an ET flight manual with the flight plan? So, i fwc re somewhat comforta ble with this case category. here are a few more of these cases, i n brie f. Case Tllo. N I C A P received a letter i n 1 967 addressed to Maj. K cy hoc . I n either August or September of the Figure 4. I U R + 30::! 9
  • previous year, two men were returning fi·om bowling in the box around it, and went racing on. Finally, it grew tired ofmiddle of the afternoon in Norwood, Massachusetts. The its dance and boomed away across the sky in about fiveMoon was visible at about three-quarter phase in the sky. seconds. What the couple did next is not part of the record.Both glanced up and saw a group of six or seven disk-shaped Case Six: On October 2 1 , 1 966. threeobjects moving horizontally toward the Moon. When the junior high school kids were standing at one �;objects reached a position just below the Moon they looped end of their street in Amsterdam. New York,it in an upward, back, and onward motion, then continued on when they noticed a star-like light to the righttheir way. of the Moon. The star proceeded to draw a Ca:>e Three: Frank Salisbury reports on a case from the right-angle step around the Moon, and con­U FO-fi l lcd Uintah Valley that occurred in 1 967. The key tinue northward, where it joined two otherelement of circling is somewhat garbled in his 1 974 book objects. The three objects began to rorm 90° ... ..The Utah UFO Di:>p/ay, so I m going to relate what he said angles, equilateral triangles, and other geo­ .,.clearly at the Fate International UFO Conference, held i n metrical figures. Two of the friends went home 1 977. O n October 1 4, 1 967, a father and son were ret:uming to get binoculars, and while they were away the sky showfrom a fishing trip when they noticed an odd "burning" stopped. The objects remained to be viewed in binoculars,object parked in the desert. They stopped, got out of their but did little else. The UFOs looked spherical with some sortcar. and watched. The object l i fted offimmediately, looking of lighted, colored areas that rotated. The kids then gotlike a half-moon in shape and size (in the air). I t then went bored and went home.right over to the real Moon, visible in the sky, and flew a loop Case Seven: On October 3 1 , 1 966, an observer inaround it, keeping its flat side down. It then flew across the Gloucester, Massachusetts, saw a particularly bright star inMoons face and left to the northwest. As Salisbury said the southwestern part of the sky. The star refused to behavethen, "It was responding to their being there." And it got the and began to move in a pretty arc until it got below the B i ggeometry precisely right. Dipper. A t that point i t seemed t o pace along under the Dipper, and after reaching the bucket end it dropped a bit and then took a course approximately parallel to the front of the constellation. This ones a bit more of a stretch than the others, f agree, but I include it f consideration . or .... �- . .. .: :-� � Case Three. Case Four: The Air Force had less tolerance for thisgeometric nonsense. A case from Seattle, Washington, onAugust 1 2 , 1 965, was sent to the A i r Force. The observersaid that a solid star-like object was seen, first circling theMoon, after which it then left for the horizon. The USAFtrashed it with the explanation of "overactive imagination." Case Five: One night in the spring or 196 1 , Case Seven.Mother Nature was doing what comes naturally,and a young coupl e was parking outside ofM iII vi lie, Case Eight: Just after the peak of the big MichiganNew Jersey. Despite having other things on h i s Swamp Gas flap in 1 966 (Dexter was March 20, H i l lsdalem i n d , t h e young man could n o t h e l p being dis­ was March 2 1 ) , my current hometown of Kalamazoo had itstracted by the antics of a large glowing "meteor own series of UFO sightings. ( I moved to town in 1 97 1 , sothat was dancing around the sky. It was stopping, was a little late for the show.) These occurred pretty consis­darting, reversing, and so he finally gave in and tently night after night in the latter days of March, endingcalled his partners attention to this insensitive about April 4. In the middle ofthis, a wire story reported thatintruder, and they watched together. A t one point i n students at Western M i chigan U n iversity had seen a star­its performance, the meteor raced directly a t a star, like object, which looked football-shaped in binoculars,abruptly stopped, drew a neat right-angled, half- moving in geometric angles around two bright stars, until it I U R + 30:2 I�
  • shot straight up and disappeared. H m m m . W M U students, a strangely bright star to the left of Polaris where no sucheh? I taught them for 3 0 years. The date? April I . . . dont thing should be. As he watched, the star grew a I ittlc brighterknow about this one. But a policeman agreed that he watched and began to move. It went directly beneath Polaris and thenit, too. continued to the right. I t repeated this i n reverse, and then Case Nine: This is a Timmerman Files case. Sometime went under Polaris and stopped. The star then m igratedin August of about 1 967, in Wapakoneta, Ohio, a man was north and south of the Pole Star, tracing out the otherreturning to his mothers home at two in the morning. H e saw clements of a large cross. It did this rapidly several times. Then it came back below Polaris and just sat there. Then it would begin again. As it was getting close to 5 a.m .. the ANOTHER TYPE OF UFO DISPLAY witness decided to stop watching. At that, the star went u p Recently, by fortuitous coincidence, CUFOS received an t o Polaris and shot away t o t h e l e ft till i t disappeared. older sighting report that is similar to the reports that Michael Swords writes about. The account comes from " � Mrs. Dianne Yezza, ofMarictta, Ohio, who said we could usc her name because " I am at an age now where r feel I I should report what I saw so many years ago." We appre­ I ciate her candor. I I The object she saw, along with two companions, was I not a true UFO display using astronomical objects for ;.t. alignment. However, i t was certainly a geometrical dis­ ·· " � � . - _ ---- • .£.. - .. - - ..... - - -,· -r , . ... , play by the UFOs that probably could only have been . I seen from a l i m ited area. For that reason, we reproduce I it here, in a paraphrased description from the perspective I of Mrs. Yezza. I I t The sighting "We were three teen girls sitting on the grass i n a ·· backyard in Marietta, Ohio, in 1 95 4 or 1955. I t was a �.� warm summer evening. We were laughing and talking when we saw a I ight I ike a star moving at an unbelievable Case Nine. speed in the sky. I remember the star coming to a dead stop. Then two other stars sped in and also came to a These cases are a few in the alignment category. I f dead stop. They formed a triangle in the sky-a perfect you vc looked at lots of cases you know of many more. triangle! Those reported here are the result of an almost random "Almost immediately, an oval shape appeared that happenstance of my receiving a cluster of them in a much seemed to be an object ofsome sort. The ( star- like) lights larger pile ofodd UFO behavior" cases sent by Frank John disappeared, and they were replaced by three of these Reid of CU FOS ( for which I thank h i m ) . oval objects in the triangular formation. They then began a light display, with brilliant wildly colored lights that WHY OlD I LOOK JUST THEN? continued for a few beautiful seconds. Then the brilliant lights went out and the UFOs beamed (each one) a bright The last part of t h i s article w i l l briefly address the other part white light to the center of the triangle. The beams met at of these cases. I t s a!! well and good f some weird object or the center for a few seconds, and then went out. to put on an act, but the observer has to cooperate, doesn t "Now the ovals disappeared and the star-like lights he? How many times, though. have you read about the returned. Then, each star sped away into the sky in a witness exclaiming, "For some reason I had the impulse to d i fferent direction, faster than any plane is capable of, look up . . . or go outside . . . or turn around." Not to belabor then or now. We never heard any sound during the whole something that is pretty well known, I II just give you one incident. which lasted less than a minute. such incident (which is not an alignment case in the sense of "We had been conversing beforehand, but after­ this article but docs make the point). wards, no one said a sentence. One girl ran f the or On March 1 7, 1 969, two pilots were flying a small telephone to call the police. private plane between Phoenix and Lake Havasu, Arizona. "For years none of u s spoke of what we had seen, As is typical in a small plane, the pilots were slightly believing our friends and families would think we were restricted in their ability to move about in their scats and had crazy. Finally, I got up the courage to mention it to the their seatbelts fastened. To their view forward and to the other two gals at a class reunion, and we a!! recalled the sides, nothing was going on. The pilot in the right seat experience." suddenly had an urge to loosen his seatbelt, rise up, and look I U R + 30:2 II
  • over his partner to the left. H e sti l l has no idea why he didthis. Upon doing so, he spotted a whole fleet ( perhaps asmany as two dozen) ofobjects flying very low and in a roughformation. I n a period of about 20 seconds, the two menwatched the fleet pass well below their aircraft and beyond.They would never have noticed this clusterofUFOs had oneof them not acted upon h i s mysterious urge to raise up andlook across and down from the plane. The UFOs were oval disks of a flat white color. Thereseemed to be a black blur around the edges of each object.There was a hint of a "bl ister" near the front. Their speed wasabout 300 to 400 mph. The only maneuvers they made .vcrepitch and roll, which all the objects made instantly in perfectunison. This is a case that was checked out by Dr. JamesMcDonald in his usual thorough manner. a (Bv(,.J.t/"" /l flll CNA, ,&f,IIJVr,_tiVS., IU�r·""(1 G domed-disk with revolving top, appeared to cruise quietly lo across the window. tree to tree. o For years, I ve held on to my objective view of that thing, and charged the side issues off to coincidence. But. 0 (p0o o 0 reading so many other resonating cases, you have to wonder. So whats it all about? Perhaps events like these and the OQoo o lJIItE(Tit�N alignment cases could be coincidence. Or it could be rare a n�r..� Q QF breakthroughs of a bit of clairvoyance in a normally non­ psychic guy like me. Or, maybe. the UFO scriptwriters not 0 0 only want to put on their plays but want the audience to be 0 seated on time. The alignments seem to indicate that, i fthey Q want to, "they know exactly where you live." Tbe occasional 0 urges to be specifically somewhere and looking specifically some place at a certain lime may reveal that the dramatists can tap into our consciousness at a distance as well. All that should be plenty to give the UFO researcher So why did the pilot look when he did? Why do we? It pause. All that available information. A l l that manipulativereminded me o f an aspect o f my own UFO observation in ability. All that control. It is a far cry from Col. Mack McCoy(about) August 1 959. My brother and I were listening to a at Wright-Patterson in the Project Sign days. when thereport ofa UFO live on radio station WCHS ( I think that was U FOs were just flying metal disks operated by ET fly-boysthe station) out of Charleston, West Virginia. Tom and I just a little ahead of us. Many ofour research col leagues stillwere sitting in our home ( around dusk) and Hugh McPherson, want them to be that simple. J would. too. I t would give mea U F O-loving deejay, was allowing an off-duty station more confidence in figuring this thing out without depend­engineer to describe a UFO that he was viewing at the time. ing upon nibbles of handouts from a bunch of inscrutableThe report was coming over the beeper phone. dramatists who refuse to ever reveal the plot in which we Wed gone out to look but saw nothing. ( St. Albans, our play our roles. •town. was about 1 7 miles downriver from Charleston, andthe engineer was further yet.) We went back in and after a OWN ALL OF NICAPswhile, the engineer, who was giving us the impression that U.F.O. INVESTIGATORSthe UFO was getting further away from him downriver, saidthat the obj ect had begun moving rapidly to his left. Tom and CUFOS now has available a CD-ROM containing all ofI decided not to bother to go outside again but just walk to the issues of the prestigious U F O. Investigator. pub­the north end oft he house and look out. Our house was a long lished by the National Investigations Committee on Aerialranch and we bad several feet to walk on its long axis. As I Phenomena from July 1 95 7 to June 1 980. Additionalapproached the door to that last bedroom, the hair prickled N I CAP material from the 1 950s, 1 960s, and 1 970s is alsoon the back of my neck and ( I m not going to swear to this included. To get your copy, send $50 ( includes both U.S.next bit because its so subjective, but . . . ) i t was as if a little and overseas postage) to:voice said: Hurry. For whatever reason, I ran the last steps CUFOSto the end window and threw up the window shade. There­ 2457 W. Petersonimmediately on cue stage right-the UFO, a nice little Chicago, I L 60659 IUR + 3 0 : 2 12
  • SELENITES BY JEROME CLARKA t least 4.5 billion years old. the moon is gener­ stated flatly, "No man dwells on the moon, and held that the ally thought to have been formed out of debris moon is dry, dead. and inhospitable to l i fe. On the other from the young earths collision with a slightly hand. Ricciolis contemporary Johannes Hevclius ( 161 1- smaller celestial body, perhaps about the size 1 687). a Polish astronomer and cartographer o f the moon.of Mars. Its mean distance fro m the earth i 238,000 m iles. argued for oceans and ··selenitcs:· as he called the beingsand it is 2, 1 60 miles in diameter. A flurry of meteoritic who he believed lived on the land areas or continents.impacts and, later, volcanic activity shaped the bulk of its A number o f moon-life advocates came from a more orsurface features between 4 and 2.5 billion years ago. Since less explicitly theological premise which embraced-some­then, the moon has remained essentially stable except for the times demanded-the presence of intelligent entities on a l lnow much rarer encounter with meteorite or comet. worlds. not necessarily excluding asteroids and comets. I n Speculation about lunar l i fe, including proto-science the words of James Ferguson (1710 1 776), the Scottishfiction literature on the subject, goes back to the ancients, autodidact and popular writer on astronomy, God createdwho observed the moons face and discerned what they "an inconceivable number or suns, systems, and Worlds,inferred to be oceans, land masses, and vegetation. In the dispersed through boundless space . . . . From what we knowlate middle age . after telescopes were directed toward the of our own System, it may be reasonably concluded that allmoon, the debate did not end; if anything. it intensi fied. In the rest arc with equal wisdom contrived. situated. and1 63 8 the clergyman and amateur scientist John Wilkins provided with accommodations ror rational inhabitants . . .( 1 6 1 4- 1 672) wrote in h i s book The Discove1:1 (?(a World in ten thousand times ten thousand Worlds . . . peopled withthe Aloone: myriads of intelligent beings. formed for endless progres­ sion in perfection and felicity. In a multivolume biblical That those spots and brighter parts which by our sight commentary published between 1 8 1 7 and 1 825, the Meth­ might be d isti ngu ished in the Moon, do show the odist clergyman Adam Clarke inrcrs from Old Testament d i fferen ce between the Sea and Land or that ot her reference · that there "is scarcely any doubt remaining in the World . . . . philosophical world. that the moon is a hahitable globe . . .. The spots represent the Sea. and the bright parts All the planets and their satellites . . . are inhabited; for Land . . . . matter seems only to exist for the sake ofi ntclligent beings." That there are high mountains, deep va ll eys and , Among the greatest astronomers, spac i ous plains in the body of the Moon . . . . honored for his discovery of Uranus i n That there is an atmosphere. or an orb of gross 1 78 1 . often thought of as a model empiri­ vaporous air, i mmediately encompassing the body of cist, Sir W i lliam Herschel ( 1 73 8- 1 822) the Moon . . . . is less known for his obsessive interest in That it is p roba b le there may be inhabitants in this intelligent extraterrestrial l i fe in the solar other World, but of what kind they arc is uncertain. system and beyond. In the assessment of Though many educated and influential men ofhis time historian of science Michael J. Crowe, Sir William Herschelagreed with the premise, others scoffed. The Italian astrono­ who examined many of Herschel s un­mer and lunar mapmaker Giovanni R.iccioli ( 1 598- 1 67 1 ) published papers, "pluralism was a core component in Hersche l s research program and as such infl uenced manyJerome Clark. co ed ilo r ofi U R is author. most recentz1·. of - . of his astronomical endeavors." Herschel believed that l i feUnnatural Phenomena (A BC-CLIO. 2005). This is the last of existed on the moon; he also thought-first cct1ainly, thenthree articles about the lore of intelligem l{( on earth ·s e less so-that he had observed evidence of it through h i sclosest p/anetw:" neighbors. Previous pieces in the telescope.series were "Conversations with Martians " (I U R 29:3) and [ n the mid- l 770s I lerschcl turned his telescope to the .. Venusian Dreams .. (IUR. 30: I). lunar surface and began writing journal entries in which he R + 30:2 13
  • detailed sightings of immense trees, forests, and pastures. stating so pub! icly- they took the idea oflunar intelligencesBy 1 778 he was seeing ·•circuses"-circular formations­ seriously, even proposing methods with which to communi­which in his estimation represented cities. towns, and villages. cate with them. Another Gruithuisen critic. BremenThrough 1 783, after which his attentions were attracted astronomer Wilhelm Olbcrs, j udged the presence both ofelsewhere, canals, roads, and patches of vegetation caught vegetation and of sentient entities on the moon to be "veryh i s eye, or at least h i s imagination. None of this appeared i n probable.any of h i s published work, however, probably because in Many (albeit not a l l ) astronomers agreed, enough totime Herschel grew more sensitive to the l i mitations of the inspire a notorious series of pieces in the New York Suntelescopes of h i s time and entertained doubts about what he published between August 25 and 3 1 . 1 83 5 , and written­had, in fact, seen. Telescopes had played "many tricks on as revealed subsequen tly-by Richard Adams Lockehim, he confided to a friend, and it was only after consider­ ( 1 800- 1 87 1 ). The first story bore this headline:able experience that he felt confident of accurate observationsthrough them. From then on, when he talked of extraterres­ GREAT ASTRONOMICAL DISCOV E R I E Strials, he made no claim to eyewitness validation of his own. Lately Made Less restrained, the German By Sir John Herschel, LL.D, F.R.S., &c astronomer Franz v o n Paula At the Cape of Good Hope Gruithuisen ( 1 774- 1 852 ) got s o car­ ried away that even colleagues Sir John Herschel, a real- l i fe as­ sympathetic to the idea of a popu­ tronomer ( 1 792- 1 87 1 ) and the son of lated moon recoiled. In an 1 824 Sir W i l liam, was actually conducting paper boldly titled "Discovery of telescopic observations from the Cape Many Distinct Traces of Lunar In­ of Good Hope at the time-he was habitants, EspeciallyofOneofTheir there from 1 833 to 1 838-which in an� � -- � � � � � Colossal B u ildings, he argued ( i n age ofslow-moving international com­ Fran:: von Cruithuisen part one) for vegetation, which he munication ensured no speedy rebuttal. said he had seen, and for animals ( i n Locke credited Sir John with a tele­part two). H e did not claim to have observed the latter but to scope of such power that it could pick Sir John Herschelhave discerned the paths they left in their migrations; the up objects on the lu-animals travel "from 50 northern latitude up to 37 or nar s urface as little as 1 8 inches long. Thepossibly 47 southern latitude." Gruithuisen reserved the astronomer saw animals, one like a goatmost sensational revelations for the third part, where he with a horn, the other a rolling, spherical­outlined observations ortunar structures: walls, forts, roads. shaped amphibian, then bipeds with bothcities. A structure with a starlike shape was surely a "temple," human and bat features ( he was even ablehe j udged, and an indication that the people of the moon arc to observe them in conversation with onereligious. another). and. finally, a superior species of Colleagues such as Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gottingen Richard man-bats ·•of infinitely greater personalObservatory) and Joseph Johann von Littrow (Vienna Ob­ Adams Locke beauty" and angelic aura.servatory) thought that Gruithuiscns imagination was The press oft herunning away with him, b ut-even if more cautious in time noted and cir­ culated the stories, and some leading n e w sp a p e r s ex­ pressed full con fi­ clence in their verac­ ity. Credulity was rampant, according Lunar an imals allegedll discovered to the c e l ebrated /�r Sir John Herschel. critic and fantasist N Edgar A l l a n P o e ( 1 809- 1 849). "Not o n e person i n ten discredited i t , " h e wrote with something between amusement and outrage. Cmithuisen s lunar citv structure. drawn by "and ( strangest point ofa l l ! ) the doubters were chiefly those British astronomer A ndre Jo hnson .fiom an who doubted without being able to say why-the ignorant. observmion on May 10. / 992. From Gerald those uninformed in astronomy, people who would nor North. Observing the Moon (Cambridge believe because the thing was so novel, so entirely ·out oft he Universitv. 2000). usual way." I U R + 30:2 14
  • As the story spun out of control, Locke quietly put the public forum, but in the m i d - 1 920s he did theorize thatword out that h e had written it and that it wasnt, in point of changes heretofore laid to seasonal changes i n vegetationfact, true. After that, denunciations were ringing as resound­ now evinced the migrations of vast insect swarms or-heingly as endorsements had been just days before. In a mostly also thought possible-migrations of seal-like animals. H ei gnored and forgotten public statement a few years later, remained a n advocate o f lunar l i fe well past h i s retirementLocke was to insist that he had not meant to fool anyone, that as astronomer and was writing about it almost up to h i sh i s purposes were satirical. I n other words, he had simply death. N o scientist of a n y repute s i n c e then h a s associatedpoked fun at exotic, unfounded speculations about the him- or herself with any comparable notions.moons i nhabitants and at popular gullibility. In any event,Locke s tales vvere destined to be cal led ever after the "moon MYSTIC MOONhoax." Ironically, Sir John Herschel, the real one, was laterto champion ( i n an 1 85 8 book) the likelihood of·animal or Naturally, not just scientists have had their say about whovegetable l i fe" on the far side of the moon. may abide on earth s satellite. The Swedish scientist-turned­ Camille Flammarion ( 1 842- spiritual pilgrim Emanuel Swedenborg ( 1 688- 1 772) vis­1 925 ), the French scientist, popular ited the moon in a v i sionary or out-of-body state. returningauthor, and "leading advocate of to relate that its inhabitants are "as small as c h i l dren o f sixextreme pluralism" ( i n the words years old, their voice proceeds from the stomach, and theyof modern astrobiological chroni­ creep about."cler David Darling), dismissed l n 1 83 7 Joseph Smith ( 1 805-1 844), founder of thethose who argued that with no at­ Church o f the Latter Day Saints (otherwise known as Mor­mosphere t h e moon could not monism), is alleged to have given a blessing, or perhapssustain life; they possessed, he merely expressed a personal opinion, in which he pro­sni ffed, all the reasoning powers nounced-as Oliver B. Huntington, who heard it, wouldof "a fish." To the contrary, he recall, paraphrasing Smiths words-"The moon [is] inhab­insisted in an 1 8 77 work, changes ited by men and women the same as on this earth, and . . . theyon its surface visible from earth Camille Flammarion [live] for a greater age than we do-that they live generallymay be "due to the vegetable king- to near the age or I ,000 years." The men, averaging a heightdom or even the animal kingdom, or-who knows?-to of six feel, wear clothing in the "Quaker style." Mormonsome living formations which are neither vegetable nor apologists have furiously disputed Huntingtons account,animal." Interpretations I ike these were far from universally but the views attributed to Smith or a moon inhabited byembraced-many astronomers by now deemed them non­ intelligent, humanlike beings reflected widely shared popu­sensical, and those who thought otherwise found themselves lar, and even scientific, opinion of the time, and i f true, theymore and more on the defensive-but they were surpris­ hardly make him any more misguided than many of h i singly persistent. fellow citizens. For example, in 1 902 American Speculations about intelligences on the moon would getastronomer William Henry Pickering new l i fe after World War l l , when sightings of puzzling sky( 1 85 8- 1 93 8 ) , an outspoken propo­ objects ignited widespread interest in flying saucers andnent of al leged Martian canals then at eventually theories about alien bases. Transient lunarthe center of a furious international phenomena (TLPs), as they are called, have played a signi fi­scientific controversy which seems cant role in all of this as well. TLPs consist of unexplainedinexplicable from this distance, re-p o r t e d c ha n g e s i n t h e l u n a r W. H. Pickeringlandscape-best explained, he wrotein Centurv magazine, as evidence of an atmosphere contain­ing water vapor. I f there was water vapor, then surely therecould be vegetable life, at least. 1-le acknowledged, how­ever, that intelligent beings living under lunar conditionswould be unimaginable and unworthy of consideration.Then be apparently changed his mind. He had been seeinglunar "canals"-which he first attributed to strips ofvegeta­tion-for more than a decade when he confided to his older, • I;..Jt:- f - £� D f�OJJ.tv I N • I :"::: O F Ncr(more conservative brother, Harvard College Observatory H,director Edward Charles Pickering, " I have seen everythingpractically except the selenitcs themselves running roundwith spades to turn off the water into other canals." Visual anomalv (TLP) recorded by astronomer Gerald W i l liam Pickering voiced no such assertions in any North in the crater Aristarchus, May 30. / 985. I U R + 30:2 15
  • changes in the lunar surface, sometimes including unusual ask him to examine the designated region. On the evening ofl ights, shadows, and moving objects. Though some astrono­ August 26, when a doubtful Wilkins scrutinized the site, hemers sought to explain such occurrences as mere optical was surprised to see- or at least think he saw-the bridge.i l l usions, others regard them as genuine anomalies and over Sadly, ONeill died before he received W i l ki n s s letter o ftime have prevailed. ln December 2005 geophysicist Gary confirmation.Olhoeft, citing recent NASA research, stated, " I t may be that That, however, did not end the matter. On DecemberTLPs are caused by sunlight reflecting off rising plumes o f 23, interviewed on British radio, Wilkins stated flatly, "Nowelectrostatically lofted lunar dust. I t is also certain, how­ this is a real bridge. Its span is about 20 miles from one sideever, that Olhoefts w i l l not be the final word on the subject. to the other, and its probably at least 5000 feet or so from TLPs-not called that until the mid-20th century­ the surface beneath." He went on, "lt looks artificial. I t sinterested Charles Fort ( 1 874- 1 932), the famous chronicler almost incredible that such a thing could have been fom1edof unexplained physical phenomena and pre-U FO-era theo­ in the first instance, or i f i t was formed, could have lastedrist ofextratetTestTial visitation. Fort, who had an unquenchable during the ages in which the moon has been in existence.sense of humor, noted observations of changing geometric You would have expected it either to be disintegrated byshapes in the crater Linne and remarked wryly: temperature variations or by meteor impact. . . . It looks almost like an engineering job . . . . Yes, it is most extraor­ Astronomers have th ou ght of try ing to communicate dinary." On June 1 7, 1 954, visiting southern California, with Mars or the moon by means of great geometric Wilkins studied Mare Crisium with the I 00-inch reflecting constructions placed con s p ic uou s ly, but there is noth­ telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory and sighted the ing so attractive to at t ent ion as change. and a formation bridge again. that would appear and disappear would enh ance the But other amateur astronomers were seeing something geometric with the dynamic. That the units of th e different, namely the effects oflight from a low sun upon this changing c o mpos it i on s that covered Linne were the particular part of the lunar landscape. Subsequent viewing, lunarians themselves-that Linne was terraced-hosts for example from the Lunar Orbiter in the 1 960s, has of the inhabitants of t h e mo on s tan d i ng upon ridges of conclusively established that no such object, whether natu­ their Che ops of the Serene Sea, some ofthem dressed in ral phenomenon or engineered structure, exists. But at the white and standing in a border, and some of them time, even in the face of ridicule which soon led him to dressed in black, centering upon the apex. or the dark resign from the BAA, Wilkins stuck to his conviction. material of the apex left clear for the con tra st, all of th em Donald E. Keyhoe ( 1 897-1 988), a retired Marine Corps unified in a hope of conveying an i mpre ssi on of the major and the most famous UFO proponent of his time, geometric, as the product ofdesign, an d di s ti n gu ishable reported the observations ofONeill and W i l kins ( the latter from the topographic, to the shining god [earth l that of whom harbored heretical UFO makes the stars or the i r heaven m argina l . sympathies), along with others o f Less mirthful notions show up in 1 950s UFO books, ( more genuinely anomalous) TLPs,such as Flying Saucers on the A ttack ( 1 954; Flying Saucers and from them spun some fancifulon the Moon in its original British edition) by Harold Tom theories. In his book The Flying Sau­Wilkins ( 1 89 1 - 1 960), where it is stated as simple fact that cer Conspiracy ( 1 95 5 ) he wondered"the moon . . . long has been a stopover for what we call if an intelligent lunar race, a fewflying saucers." Wilkins predicted that the first astronauts to centuries ahead of its counterpart onland there would find "massive portals" leading to "great Donald Kevhoe earth, grew alarmed as i t became ap­sublunar tunnels housing "beings of other unknown worlds parent that earthlings would soon bring their bombs, wars,in space." These beings would not be pleased to sec the and violent ways to the moon; consequently, they launchedintruders, as the subsequent unleashing of their superior observational vehicles-UFOs-to monitor terrestrial ac­firepower would attest. tivity. Or maybe the "moon race have been enslaved and Another Wilkins, respected amateur astronomer Hugh forced to build the space base for outsiders . . . . It was evenPercival W i lkins ( 1 896- 1 960), head o f the British Astro­ possible that a strong moon race, perhaps with unknownnomical Association s Lunar Section, would make a weapons, could have overwhelmed the space visitors mightremarkable claim which gave impetus to UFO-based theo­ be in control. As to which was the rightries about intelligences on the moon. Its genesis was in a July answer, I could only speculate. But the29, 1 953, telescopic observation by New York Herald evidence of some intelligent race on theTribune science editor John J . O Neill of what O N e i l l moon seemed undeniable."believed t o be an immense bridge-a natural one, he stressed There was also Morris Ketchumin a public statement-linking two mountain tops on the Jessup ( 1 900-1959). Jessup had an edu­western Mare Crisium (Sea of Crises). Because his four­ cational background in astronomy andinch refracting telescope was a relatively modest instrument, experience as a working scientist. He didhe wrote Wilkins, who worked with a larger instrument, to undergraduate and graduate work at the /vi. K. Jessup I U R + 3 0:2 16
  • U n iversity of Michigan. I n the late 1 920s he and associates that they dispatch saucers earthward. As it happens, thefro m the university set up a large refracting telescope in moon is not quite what it appears to be. "Our belt ofSouth Africa, employing it to discover many double stars. atmosphere h undreds of miles thick may have some of theJessup never finished the work necessary for a Ph.D. (though properties o f a giant lens, which magnifies the Moon toin later years he was often identified as "Dr. Jessup"), and he twenty times its real size," according to Drake. I n Rayleft astronomy to pursue his own archaeological interests in Palmers F/)!ing Saucers magazine, Guy J . Cyr, a CatholicMexico and Peru. When flying saucers came along, Jessup priest, imagined a moon awash i n l i fe and oceans and, ofwould write four books, distinguished both because one course, spaceships, and Robert W . Russel conjured up( The Case f the UFO, 1 95 5 ) was the first to use the new or lunarians residing i n great numbers under crater floors.phrase "UFO" in the title and also because they contained As pictures of the lunar surface prol i ferated, fromsome strikingly original, if unconvincing, ruminations on i mproved photographic and telescopic technology on earththe nature and origin of UFO intelligences. and from shots taken from spacecraft near or on the moon. In The Expanding Case f the UFO ( 1 95 7 ) archaeo­ or enthusiasts pored over them in search of alien artifacts. Alogical artifacts meet lunar anomalies (authentic and hoax published in a September 1 969 issue of the now­otherwise) and wed in a shotgun marriage uniting free­ defunct supermarket tabloid National Bulletin, w h i c hwheeling guesswork to staggering si II iness. I n general outline, concocted t h e story in its editorial office a n d gave it a bogusi f not in specific detail, it anticipates the "ancient-astronaut" by I ine, purported to show censored transcripts of communi­craze generated by Erich (Chariots of the Gods? ) von cations between NASA s Mission Control and the ApolloDaniken and his imitators in the 1 970s. Jessup stated, I I moon landing (the first) on July 20, 1 969. The discussion"There are little people in Afi-ican and New Guinea jungles concerned sightings of extraterrestrial spacecraft in thetoday. They have been written about, photographed, mea­ astronauts vicinity. In the mid- 1 970s, in the pulp newsstandsured and studied. But noboc(v knows their origin or ancestry. magazine Saga s UFO Report, Joseph Goodavage contrib­They are, perhaps, one of the erratics of ethnology. Were uted sensational is tic material, cited i n most subsequentthese people, these isolated tribes, p lanted in the tropical writings on the subject, supposedly demonstrating evidenceAfrican jungle from UFO [sic] thousands of years ago> Did of lunar extraterrestrial activity.UFO [sic] land, or crash, and establish racial germs or Books by Don W ilson (Our Mvsterious Spaceshipcolonies?" Moon, 1 975, and Secrets of Our Spaceship Moon, 1 979). After noting the occurrence ofTLPs over the centuries, Jean Sendy ( The Moon: Outpost of the Gods, 1 975), andhe proceeds to decree it arguably possible that these pyg­ George 1- T . Leonard (Somebodv Else is on the Moon, 1 976)mies either arrived originally from the moon or colonized it put forth variations on the theme of moon-as-ET-colony­from here, having developed an advanced technology based and-launching-pad, drawing their inspiration largely fromon levitation and antigravity. "We have reason to believe," creative interpretations ofambiguous photographic images.he wrote, "that space flight may have been in existence for Wilson championed an especially outlandish allegation.70,000 to 1 00,000 years, [and] there is reason to believe namely that the moon itself is a hollow spacecraft. "Thethat space flight derives from a time in the pre-cataclysmic greatest UFO in our skies is there for everyone to see," heera which developed a first wave of civilization . . . . I fwe do, proclaimed, possibly with tongue in cheek.indeed, have I ittle people within the UFO [sic], as reported Fred Steckling of the George Adamski Foundation wasby observers of varying responsibility, then we may assume responsible for another notable book in the genre. In Wethat the Pygmies, at some remote epoch, developed a civi­ Discovered A lien Bases on the Moon ( 1 982) he sought tolization which discovered the principle of gravitation and prove that the contactee s claims of an extraterrestrial pres­put it to work." They reside on the earth, the moon, and i n ence there (see below) were not, as critics thought, absurdgiant spacecraft located i n space between t h e two in a zone fiction. The book sparked a devastating refutation by well­of gravitational neutrality. informed amateur astronomer and moon-watcher Francis G. No one endorsed or expanded on Jessups moon-con­ Graham, head of the Pennsylvania Selenological Society.nected superpygmies, but some U FO and esoteric l iterature Graham s monograph opens with these wry words:continued-up to the present-to explore the connectionbetween the moon and extraterrestrials based therc.Thc Fred Steckling believes the US moon program discov­NICA P Bulletin for January 1 959, reporting the observation ered aliens on the moon. and the lunar program isof domelike objects on the moon, wondered i f these were continuing under great sec recy, in order t o establish"possibly structures built by unknown space travelers." contact with th e UFOs: f"u rther, some people in theWriting in Englands Flving Saucer Revie�r (January/Feb­ government have in fact dupl i cated a crashed UFO . . .ruary 1 960), W . Raymond Drake advanced the notion that and arc using that ror transport to the moon. I t i s notthe moons surface appears as it does because long ago the cl ear [to] which George Pal movie Mr. S t eckli ng h aslunarians devastated it in a nuclear conflict, either with each been tun ing h i s cosmic l ntcrrossiter, but it is certainlyother or with hostile invaders. Surviving lunarians crawled not tuned to reality. i Ione compares his book to th e maininto "deep caverns with air and water," and it is ti-om there body o f scientific knowl edg e as a yardstick of what I U R + 30:2 17
  • constitutes his view of the reality of the moon. photos are so evidently faked that it is almost foolish to even But perhaps conventional lunar science i s wrong criticize them." and Mr. Stcckling is right. What evidence does he Unlike other contactees Menger did not aver that the produce? Mr. Steckl ing shows ! 5 0 photos and draw­ lunar landscape i s livable (though he does give the moon an ings. One of these, of himself, we can believe. The atmosphere which, of course, more prosaic astronomical remaining 149 demand critical appraisal. Of those 149, doctrine does not afford i t ) , but that the space people from 15 are of Earth UFOs, postage stamps, a n d pond water. other planets (primarily Venus) who reside there live inside the domes. He and hundreds of other earthlings ti·om anTRAVELERS TAL E S assortment of nations were led on a guided tour which took them from dome to dome. "All of us were shown musical"As m y space friends had promised, they took m e o n m y first instruments, samples of art and architecture, and othertrip to the moon the second week of August, 1 956," New interesting things," Menger vaguely recalled. Going on Jersey s i g n painter and contactee even less helpfully, if thats conceivable, be added, "In fact Howard Menger relates matter-of-factly [sic] one building was like an interplanetary worlds fair, in the first sentence of a chapter of his with each planet represented by some sort of contribution in From Outer Space to You ( 1 95 9 ) . The art, technology and so on." trip, however, ended disappointingly. I f anything, contactee Buck Nelson, an Ozarks farmer Menger and his friends, both space who may fairly be characterized as an unlettered h i ll b i l ly, people and earthl i ngs, orbited the moon had even fewer details about his lunar adventure, which took but did not land on it. Through a screen place nearly a year and a half before Mengers, in April he saw dome-shaped structures. 1 95 5 . Nelsons principal contact was Little Bucky, an Fortunately, Menger got a return earthling expatriate who now considered Venus home.Howard Menger trip the next month, and this time he was Little Bucky and two extraterrestrial associates (one the permitted to step onto the surface-with oddly monikered "Bob Solomon") showed up at midnighta camera yet. In his book, one photograph, showing a saucer on April 24 to fulfill a promise to take Buck Nelson intoapproaching a dome, notes, "The author was permitted to take space. I n return, as Nelson would write, "I would tell aboutonly a few photographs," but was still keeping several under it to the world." Buck held up h i s share of the bargain,wraps, while others "did not come out well." He reported, writing and peddling a not fully l i terate booklet with the to­"For some reason I was never allowed to take photographs of the-point title My Trip to Mars, the Moon, and Venussurface detail, people, their mechanical installations and the ( 1 956).like." Sadly, the result was that none ofthe published photo­ What the world learned was that af ter a stopover ongraphs looks like anything that could not have been produced Mars, where he and his dog Teddy, who accompanied h i mon a kitchen table. One critic observed at the lime, "These (continued o n page 26) JusT FOR FuNIn a previous "Just for Fun" (JUR 29:4, pp. 20-2 1 ) you were Statements:asked some trivia questions associated with some seriousindividuals involved with the UFO story. This time we l l A. Explored secret Mayan caves with Joseph Mansongive equal t i m e to our congenial lunatics, the old-time Valentine o f Bermuda Triangle fame.contactees. Link the statements in the right-hand column to B. Claimed to be a distant part o f the royal fam i l y o fthe contactee listed in the left-hand column. Answers are on Serbia.page 26.-Michae/ D. Sword�. C. Was married to H o llywood starlet Jennifer Holt. D . Was Most Reverend B ishop o f the Syro-ChaldeanContactees: Archdiocese of North America. 1. George Adamski E. Was one of the last people to see Morris Jess up a li v e . 2. Orfeo M . Angelucci F. Wrote an unperformed "Broadway play" giving h i s 3. Truman Bethurum answer t o the Secret of the Grail. 4. Woody Derenberger G. Was an initiated member o f the Chippewa Indian 5. Daniel W. Fry tribe. 6. Howard Menger H. Was a member of the Knights of Malta. 7 . Buck Nelson I. Was falsely accused o f murdering his first w i fe in 8. Reinhold 0 . Schmidt Peru. 9. George W. Van Tassell J. Was an i l lustrator and advertising copywriter for I 0. George Hunt W i l liamson Celoltex. I U R + 30:2 18
  • ABDUCTED BY HER BELIEFS BY MARK RooEGHtERSusan Clancy, Abduc!ed: How People Come 10 Believe may often disagree with her conclusions, the book is easy to They Were Kidnapped by Aliens. Cambridge, Mass.: read and keeps your attention. She is not above telling Harvard University, 2005. S22.95. disparaging stories about herself, and from these, and some rather injudicious comments scattered throughout the text, Social scientists, chiefly psychologists. have been ex­amining the abduction phenomenon-reallyjust abductces­ it seems fair to characterize her as someone who "shootsfor more than a decade. They began ,-- - - - - - - - - --, •. from the hip." For example, consider this statement: Ten .. , .. years from now, believing in aliens and in their presencethis work in the early l 990s afterabductions became a subject of popu- among us wi II perhaps become as common as believing inlar cul ture and media interest, and God. There are so many problems with this that I hardlyhence reached the attention o f aca­ know where to begin a critique. It makes for a memorable Abducted quote, but it is a rather meaningless statement, and not onedemics. Essentially all this researchbegan with the assumption that ab- ( I cl lay big money) likely to come true in I 0 years, howeverductions arc not real and must have •• j you interpret it.some other cause unrelated to aliens There are both small and large things wrong withor other external forces. Clancys argument and even h e r use o f the U FO l iterature These supposed causes are quite ------- and discussion of specific cases. I wont belabor these f l i ngs i n this review; ai a few instances w i l l suffice. But Idiverse, including such things as fantasy proneness, mas­ochism, sleep paralysis, hynagogic and hypnopompic imag­ want to also be fair and point out what Clancy got right, twoery, i nvestigators and therapists who unwittingly plant ab­ things in particular. Clancy, unlike almost every skepticalduction memories in the minds of abductces, and the mean­ social scientist who has studied abductees, engaged ining that abduction beliefs provide as a substitute for reli­ lengthy conversations with her subjects prior to their enroll­gion. This I ist is not quite exhaustive, but you get the point. ment in her studies. A s a consequence, she did learn someWhile social scientists all agreed that abductions were not things about people who sel f-identify as possible abductees.real, they differed greatly on their causes. First, she came to realize that most people who contact Why arc these theories so varied? Have psychologists U FO and abduction investigators and think they might beagreed, by now, on a primary cause for abduction accounts/ abductecs dont meet any reasonable definition of thatl f not, why? category. Second, she understands these people are trying to Those questions bring us to the most recent addition to make sense of odd and anomalous experiences they havethis literature on the abduction phenomenon, the book had, and that they find the abduction experience offers themA bduclecl by former H arvard postdoc Susan Clancy. It is . a ready-made cultural script that "explains" their own lifeslike all books on abductions ( w hether by UFO investigators oddities. ("Alien-abduction beliefs reflect attempts to ex­or skeptics), written for the general pub! ic, not a special ized plain odd, unusual, and perplexing experiences.")audience. Clancy bases the book on her own research on The sane and sensible abduction investigators I knowabductees, most o f which was done with her mentor, Rich­ arc well familiar with the common experience of beingard McNally. plus her own speculations on the meaning of contacted by someone who saw odd lights, has unexplainedabductions to those who have the experience. bruises, had a vivid dream about UFOs and aliens, or feels The book is designed, as its subtitle tells us. to explain uneasy when reading books by Budd Hopkins or David"how people come to believe they were kidnapped by Jacobs, and thinks that he or she might be an abductee. B u taliens." Ultimately, the book fai l s in its primary goal, t h e majority o f t h i s group h a s no experience o f an actualrevealing more about the beliefs o f Clancy and other psy­ abduction event, and most wont after further discussions,chologists than the abductees. Y ct the book does make a or even an investigation. I n other words, for whatever reasoncontribution to the debate about abductions, though not one (and I return to this below), many people who think theythat Clancy readily recognizes. might be abductees simply are not (and fortunate f them). or Clancy writes in a breezy style, and even though you Clancy soon recognized the existence of this type of IUR + 30:2 19
  • abduction claimant and struggled to understand why some ries and are sure they are abductees). In fact , only about I 0%individuals would turn to the abduction phenomenon as an ofher sample was confident they had been abducted ( thoughe x planation. Unlike other social scientists who tend to even this is left imprecise).promote one primary cause, Clancy is sensible enough to So Clancy s abductce definition lets in just about any­recognize that there are several pathways that eventually one. and it gua rantee s that she is going to get a sample withwind to roughly the same spot. As she writes in the conclu­ people who are a bit odd (else why would little evidencesion, " I am arguing that al ien-abduction memories are best convince them they might be abductees). But she doesntunderstood as res u l t ing from a blend of fantasy-proneness, come to grips with this obvious intluencc on her work.mem0 1y distortion, cultu rally available scripts, sleep hallu­ Clancy is not impressed, as some might be, by eitherc i nations, and scientific illiteracy, aided and abetted by the those persons who recall their abductions without hypnosis,suggestions and reinforcement of hypnotherapy. or by the purported consistency of abduction stories them­ We can quibble with the details, but the idea that selves. As for hypnosis, she writes that people can recoverabduction beliefs are multicausal is a good one. Some memories without it: i n fact, she a I so predicts, "i fyou re notpeople who think they are abcluctees have that belief for a a believer [in abd u ctions ] already (at least to some ext en t ) ,complex of reasons, probably something close to what youre n o t going t o acquire memories ofa l i e n abductions."Clancy lists in this quote. Note that, like most skeptics now, Thats a strong statement, and one it would seem has a l readythere is no talk of mental i llness or impaired functioning been disconfirmed by several ca ses where the witness hadamong abcluctees. although Clancy does see evidence of no prior belief in UFOs, let alone abductions. yet had ansc h izotypy-magical thinking and perceptual aberration­ abduction-type ex perience . But . . . you are playing a fool samong her abductee sample . Abductees may be odd, bu t game with Clancy here. I f such a witness goes t o visit anthey are not abnormal. abduction investigator, that would be primafacie proofthat Clancy, though, did something odd herself: caused not he had some belief in abductions-else why visit the inves­just by her skepticism, but also by her own bel iefs. She tigator?knows tha t abductions arent real, but she wanted to study As for abduction consistency, although not quotingabductees. How can you find an abductee i f there are no Eddie Bullard on this (she pointe dly neglects citations toindependent . objective cri t eria to use to c lassify people into those serious studies appearing in the UFO l i terature), shethat group? Oh, the answer turns out to be easy: Anyone who first asserts that there i s little consistency and that all sortssays they are an abductee, or might be an abductec, or could or details differ from case to case, including the aliensbe an abductee, gets counted as an "abductee ." Is this as appearance, what they wear, the type of examination, mes­misguided as i t sounds? Bas i cally, yes, with one caveat . sages , and so forth . While there is some truth to this, she Science is all about, at its most basic level. defining admits that the general plot is rough ly the same, but says thatwhat you are studying rigorously so that you and your all of this "existed in movies and TV before people evercoll e agues actually know what your research is all about . reported abductions.Social scientists often have a tough time at this because the It is with statements like this tha t Clancy s work beginssocial world is inherently messy and impre c ise , with loose to leave the rails, as she wanders away fi·om things she hasboundaries. Still, you have to try. However, almost all social studied to rank speculation about the beliefs and motiva ­sc ientists ( and some urologists) who have studied abductees tions of abductees. Here are two examples:have not been very precise in their definition ofan abductcc. A li en s are en tire ly and extremely human. the imagina­This might all seem just nit picking: Get on with it man, isnt t ive creations of people with ordinary emotional needsit obvious who is and isnt an abductee ! and desires. We dont want to be alone. We feel helpless Well, yes it is, if we are talking about someone who and vu l nerab le much of the time. We want to believeremembers noating through their window into a UFO. there · s somet hing bigger and bener than us out there.where they undergo various procedures. are shown hybrid And we want to believe t hat whatever it is cares aboutbabies, and then taken back to their house. B u t no it isnt, i f us. or at least is paying attention to us. That t hey wantwe i nstead are faced with someone who woke u p with odd us (sexually or otherwise). That were special. Beingbruises one morning and on that basis thin ks that abduction abducted by aliens is a culturally s ha p ed manifestationis the likely explanation. or a universal human need . . . . Clancy is interested i n the process by which one be­ The common features or the al ien-abduction sto­comes an abductec, and says, cotTect ly, that for most it ries- the elements or the basic plot-arc not evidencecomes about slowly, in fits and starts. Even if she believes or validity. They arc evi de nce that these stories havethat both examples above count as abductees, you cl want to been contrived out of shared c u l tu ra l know ledge andseparate them into eli ffcrent groups to see how they might shared psychological fears. needs. hopes. and l imita ­eli ffer on a whole variety of traits. and to better be able to t ions .study what Clancy might term (not her language) ··early"and "late" stage abductecs (the former just have weird I suppose I dont need to tell you that she didnt studyunexplained experiences: the latter have more vivid m e mo- (continued on page 26) I U R + 30:2 20
  • BonY SNATCHERS: AN EXCHANGE BY NtCK REDFERN WITH A REPLY BY ROBERT J. 0UR/NTI have just read Robert Durants review article "Doty Durant goes on to outl ine the basic premise of the book: and the Body Snatchers," published in the 30: I issue that, in a situation minoring the shameful and Faustian of fUR, whose subject is Greg Bishops book Project postwar Operation Paperclip, Japanese balloon experts were Beta and my Bodv Snatchers in the Desert (both secretly brought to the United States to continue theirpublished by Paraview, 2005). research into balloons that were f more advanced than ar Durant begins by sensibly ditching the notion that I their World War I I Fugo devices. and that i t was the crashinitially wrote Bod1· Snatchers as a novel and then "decided of one such balloon-albeit one designed to carry aloft athere was a bigger market in nonfiction Roswel l . " He fiying-wing aircraft-that sparked the legend of the UFOsuggests instead that ! am "the latest victim of the relentless crash at Roswell.program to disinform ufology." Indeed, I would stress that Durant complains that I provided no documentation toI do not give a damn about UFO fiction. and I have no support this scenario beyond a single newspaper article.interest in writing UFO fiction (there is enough of that in This is absurd. First, if any of the people I had interviewedufology already). The size of a market is of zero concern to were able to provide me with Holy Grail-level documenta­me when it comes to determining what I write about or what tion that utterly confirmed the theory, I would have beenI dont write about. l write books on UFOs to i n form highly suspicious of the apparent case with which they hadinterested parties about i n formation I have uncovered; noth­ acquired such seemingly classified material.ing more, nothing less. People can take it or leave it. Many researchers sal ivate at the very mention o f M J - 1 2 Durant claims that my book created an ·uproar" on the and the many and assorted documents that have surfaced onUFO Updates site and on other ncwsgroups. In fact. the the subject. Very few of those same researchers actuallya lleged uproar was largely limited to a couple o f posts per give thought to how the ostensible whistleblowers whoday from Brad Sparks, with various other comments and provided the documents actually got them past ccurity.observations made by Gildas Bolll·dais, Ed Gcrhman, Don What were my sources supposed to do: Steal the documentsLedger, and Rich Reynolds. Reynolds isnt particularly an from a vault. then shove them down their trousers and marchadvocate ofthe ideas proposed in Boc(l· Snatchers. but he is out the front door? And all just in case they happened to meetopen-minded to aspects of the theory and has privately someone like me 35 to 50 years later to whom they decidedprovided me with reams of data ( including a lot of Navy­ to tell a I I ?based data and other material from the 1 940s); some ofthese I a m underwhelmed b y claimants who parade photo­data relate to "hybrid" bal loon-based vehicles similar to copies of "leaked Top Secret documents that purport tothose described to me as I researched the book. detail extraordinary revelations about crashed UFOs, alien Sparks and Bourdais have both argued that the persons autopsies. and reverse engineering. I am f more intrigued arl interviewed sught to deceive me with disinformation. by individuals who relate an account to me and ovho produceHowever, regular posts from -predominantly - two sources for me their drivers licenses. their credit cards. and tax­who disagree with the book, coupled with only a limited related documents (among other papers) that demonstratedegree of comment from other subscribers, hardly com­ they are who they say they are.prises an "uproar . . , And are we also supposed to believe that such docu­ mentation would be declassified and surface at an officialNick Ret(/(m1 is a British-horn .fiee/ance journalist who level? Dont be naive. Not even the Air Force or the Generalcurrently lives in Texas. He has wrillen hooks on Accounting O ffice could find a damned thing ofany signi fi­crvpto:::oo/ogy and 1!/ology. the most recent heing Body cance during their excursions into the murky waters ofSnatchers in the Desert (ParavieH·. 2005). Robert J. Durant Roswell, and the outgoing records from Roswell from 1 946is a jormer airline pilot who has studied UFOs since the to 1 949 are inexplicably missing. Whatever happened at1 950s. Roswell, someone carefully and successfully ensured (and I U R + 30:2 21
  • perhaps stil l docs ensure-thats a moot point, however) l might a l s o point out that Colonel Gasscr-"thc prin­that the paper trai I was stone cold long before half of us were cipal army technician" at the NEPA project at Oak Ridgeeven born. is cited in FBI documents of 1 949 ( i n c l uded in the book) as And before we leave this topic: I have read enough of having stated that tlying discs have long been a theoreticalDurants work to know that he is a strong advocate of the possibility . . . scientists have for many years. been attempt­idea that something truly anomalous occurred in the New ing to deve l op this type or a i rcraft . Some experimentationMexico desert in 1 947. But if--to usc Durants logic-the has been done even in the United States, but insofar as isstory provided to me lacks credibility because the only known in the United States. at the present time, there havedocumentation that I have is a newspaper clipping. he would never been any practical developments. . . ." According todo well to remember that no official documentation has ever the F B I . Gasser also stated that "there is only one possiblesurfaced in support of the idea that anything anomalous fuel which could be util ized which i s in accord with presentcrashed at Roswel l . If this is a problem, it is a problem for theory, and that is the utilization of atomic energy . "those on both sides of the issue. That a source such as Gasser-directly tied to N EPA­ On the issue of nuclear-powered aircraft and Roswell, should have been aware that the U.S. had actually beenDurant writes, "The insertion of nuc lear-power and radia­ attempting to build saucers prio rto 1 949 is surely intriguing.tion experiments into the story is puzzling . . . The wel ]­ Moreover, the observation that nothing of a practical nature ..documented efforts to create nuclear propulsion came much had been developed from this ·experimentation ties inlater than 1 947." e.ractll• with the testimony provided by my informants-that That seems to imply that my sources had said that nearly all or the experiments undertaken had ended inefforts to create nuclear-powered aircraft were deeply un­ disaster or f ure. ailderway in 1 94 7 . They did not. Everybody I interviewed told Durant also disputes allegations made to me that theme that there was no nuclear-powered aircraft as such in work of the 1-forten brothers ofGennany was tied in with the1 947, but that there llas a desire to try to determine-with stoty. But he neglects to mention that not just my intervieweesthe limited technology that existed at the t i me-how a crew linked UFOs and the Hortens: A USAF document ofJanuarymight be affected by prolonged nuclear-powered flight, or . 3, 1 9 52, from Brig. Gen. W. M. Garland. to Gen. John A.a reactor, and the like. Bear in mind, too, the crucial Samford, Air Force director of intell igence (also in theconsideration that the N uclear Energy for Propulsion of book), observes, "[l]t is to be noted that certain develop­Aircraft ( EPA) program began in 1 946. Here are four ments by the Germans. pal"ficular�l the I /onen lling fmyquotes fro m the interviews ( my italics): italics], jet propulsion, and refueling, combined with their I . "The t hought was to someday build an aircraft that extensive employment of V- I and V -2 weapons duringwould fly very high and for an extreme amount of time. But World War I I . lend credence to the possibi I ity that the tlyinghow will [the crew] be affected? And i f we can really do all objects may be of German and Russian origin."t h is - and even though it might be years and probablr How curious that none other than the USAF director ofdecades ahead -can we develop a unique type o f nuclear intelligence was positing a link between UFOs and particu­aircraft and engine that can tl y very high and i f necessary larly the work of the Horten brothers. Was Garlands remarkstay up there for an extreme period of time?" co n cerning the Russians and Horten vehicles i n a UFO 2. ·[A]Ithough the plans were to build nuclear aircraft context possibly borne out of a knowledge that the Ameri­that would fly very high lle lleren t in , a position to build cans had dabbled in something similar a few years previ­am•thing like that back then. as this was a long lays ahead. ously?and so thev worked 1vith simulations . . . . " Durant goes on to assert, "The balloon-wing combina­ 3. " There is no nuclear engine hack then-none at all. tion fails the common-sense test." So what? No one IBut there is a need for a simulation of a nuclear n i ght. . . . " interviewed claimed that the operation to lau nch a huge 4. " That OS just too advanced-Buck Rogers- and balloon array with a detachable glider fixed below it as ayears away." hybrid- s tyle device was straightforward or indeed feasible In other words. none of the interviewees d i sputed the at a l l . In fact if you credit the testimony in the book, then the ,historical fact that fully functioning nuclear-powered air­ attempt to launch just such a device was demonstrably notcraft were a thing of the far future rather than t he present of feasible and IIOS an unmitigated disa ster from beginning to1 947. They were unanimous in the view, however, that end. And we know that because the damned thing crashed onrudimentary research had been undertaken and that this what was possibly the first attempt to ny it Indeed, the .involved dubious human experimentation. source identified in the book as the "Colonel" said bluntly, Heck. even the officialll· declassified NEPA tiles of . "This was just one of many strange projects. Some got1 948 (only one year after Roswell) talk about N EPA s on­ canceled-as this one was in late 1 94r· A comparablegoing p lans to try to secure permission to usc American "dipshit" comment is made, too. concerning the experimen­prisoners in their "tests" in an attempt to make an "accurate tation.prediction of the ·biological changes resulting from known " In other words. my sources concur with Durant that thislevels of radiation exposure." was not finally seen as a viable area for practical tlight: it IUR + 3 0 : 2 22
  • was canceled barely months later. And when Durant addi­ saw nothing firsthand that lends credibility to his account.tionally criticizes the "fundamental feasibility" oft he project, He was not trying to s p i n some elaborate t a l c o fthose who have not read the book could be forgiven for disinformation w i t h every avenue carefully covered. a n d h ethinking that my informants were suggesting this was a did not claim t o have anything substantial beyond what hewonderful project that saw the balloon array l i ft the aircraft was told. This is not the path fol l owed by the experiencedmajestically into the air without problem. The Colonel in disinformation expert who weaves a solid story to divert aparticular held, however, that the huge, unwieldy mess was person into a carefully controlled environment. But it isa disaster. In fact. none of the informants had anything exac t�v what we would expect to sec and hear from someoneespec ially positive to say about the various experiments. who is recalling a speci fie, personal memory from more than But m i l i tary planners often come up with bizarre ideas haifa century ago and stating something to the cffcct thal " lthat fai l to work. A classic example can be found in formerly know nothing personally, but this i s what I was told-takeclassified World War I I German documentation, relating it or leave it.how the tines! mind� in German aviation came up with the Durant then turns to AI Barker or as Durant prefers it.bright idea to fly a V-weapon low across the ocean, while it "AI Barker. Again, there is nothing obfuscated about h i stowed an explosives-packed boat in the water. The V -device name, beyond t h e tact that he prefers t o b e called AI ratherwould then be radio-controlled toward an enemy battle hip: than A l bert ( u nless. as I have stated both privately andit would line up the towboat with the bauleship, detach its publicly, someone is going to the extent of creating bogustow rope, and soar into the skies while the towboat and its driving licenses and credit cards lor a bunch of old guys i ncargo of explosives slammed at high speed into the side of their 80s, with the intent o f then having them show thisthe ship, blowing up and sinking ship and crew. material to me. I w i l l concede. however, that the so-called Now. this has nothing to do with Roswel l . But it is a Falcon did have a faked credit card under the name Stephenclassic example in which leading m i litary minds conjure up V. Ayres). Durant takes issue with the claim made by Barkera bi/.arrc project (and furthermore combine two different that U.S. psychological- warf�u·e planners, in an attempt todevices hybrid-style) that almost certainly-due to logis­ hide the truth about Roswel l , put out a cover story thattics would not have functioned as pla n n ed . Indeed, it l l ets Roswell was alien and that alien bodies were recovered.canceled clue to perceived d i fficulties. But the important Durant states that "nobody thought Roswell was ET untilfact is that this clidn t prevent the German m i l i tary from 1 978. and the public didnt hear about that until 1 980."undertaking research before the operation was canceled due Durant makes one fatal error: I I i "nobody thoughtto it ultimately not being seen as viable. The same can apply Roswell was ET until 1 9 78" is relevant only to the UFO­to any nation. rcsearch community-as it certainly is the case that Roswell was barely mentioned post- 1 947 i n a UFO context untilQUESTIONED SOURCES 1 978 ( t hough Frank Edwards docs refer to it in hi 1 966 bestseller F�l"ing Saucers- Serious Business ). But none o fDurant turns his aucntion to the source o f the testimony. us i n UFO research can b e 1 00°o sure what the RussiansReferring to one interviewee who worked lor the Psycho­ thought about Roswell 50 years ago, nor can we say w i t hlogical Strategy Board ( B i l l Salter), Durant refers to him as certainty what the American response w a s to t h e Ru sians" B i l l Salter. The use of quotation marks implies that this is sticking their noses in. Creating raked documents to empha­a faked name or an alias. I t is not. The mans formal name size the "ET crash " angle would have been an ideal diver­is W i l liam Salter. sionary tactic. Commenting on a source in the book who worked at But Durant makes an even bigger and more criticalOak Ridge and whose testimony is presented under the guise blunder. Remember that he dismissed Barkers claims aboutof the "Black Widow," Durant contends, "Salter has much cover stories being put out decades ago by the Psychologicalto add to the Widows story." What is particularly odd, Strategy Board and Army psychological-wart�tre plannershowever, is that Salter does not add much to the story; hardly bccause "nobody thought Roswell was ET until 1 978. But i nanything, in fact. I have no inkling where Durant got the idea the interview. Barker d i d not mention Roswel l . What Barkerthat Salter added "much " to the story. but he certainly actually said-and was careful to under core-was that psy­doesnt get it from my book. Bod Snatchers in the Desert y chological-warfare planners put out bogus crashed UFOis 248 pages in length, and Salters account takes up only stories to hide the collective truth about "the high altitudehal f of page 90 and all of page 9 1 . And thats it: one and a idiocy at White Sands and elsewhere" (of which the specifichal fpagcs out oft he books 248. Salter stressed that he knew "Roswell Incident was only a part). Barker does not speci fi­nothing firsthand and saw nothing firsthand; a l l of his cally refer to cover stories put out about Roswe l l ; he says onlyinformation came from a former employee of the Central that crashed UFO accounts were disseminated to hide aIntelligence Group and "an old friend from the Department collective series ofsix or seven experiments undertaken i n theor Energy. " desert of New Mexico i n the summer o f 1 947. Actually, and somewhat ironically. it is the ract that Why is this important? I I eres why: If Barker had saidSalter-by his own admission-knew nothing firsthand and bogus "crashed U FO" stories were circulated speci fica lly IU R + 30:2 23
  • about Roswell in the 1 940s and 1 950s, there would indeed lengthy August 1 949 Technical Report of the investigativebe a legitimate reason to question his version of events. But, UFO operation Project Grudge was that ·Psychologicalagain, Barker docs not do this; he asserts only that faked WCI!fare Division and oilier governmental a gencies inter­UFO stories were circulated to hide the ·idiocy" of 1 947. ested in psycliological Hwfare he informed (�{!lie results o{ And, sure enough, an examination ofU FO data demon­ this sttu(1·." Thc italics are mine. In other words, even beforestrates that a plethora of faked UFO tales did begin to enter the 1 940s were over, the U.S. government had realized thatthe public domain from the late 1 940s onwards- the most the UFO subject could be used for psychological-warfarenotorious being the tales fed to Frank Scully by Silas reasons-which is what a l i the sources I interviewed told meNewton and Leo GeBauer. While many dismiss the material had occurred.provided to Scully as merely the embroidered tales ora pair Durant questions the credibility of the Colonels claimof con men, as some researchers w i l l be aware ( from the that the Roswell events and, indeed. the other New Mexi­research of Karl Pnock ), Newton- according to his private can events o f 1 947-were hidden behind a crashed-UFOjourna l- was visi ted by two men who supposedly repre­ smokescreen. But again, the Colonel docs 1101 state thatsented a highly secret government entity that, incredibly, cover stories spcci fically about Roswell were put out at thewanted him to keep telling h i s yarn about a UFO crash at time, only that crashed UFO stories were c i rculated which.Aztec, New Mexico, in 1 948, even though they were aware again, as I have demonstrated above, did happen, as perthat it was a spurious tale. Aztec, Spitzbergen, and others. Now, we could dismiss Newtons claim if it stoodalone, but it does not. There arc other examples where bogus ENTER THE S&S LAWYERScrashed UFO tales were disseminated in broadly the sametime frame. Take, for example, the al leged UFO crash on Noting my remark that the Simon & Schuster legal depart­Spitzbergen (owned by Norway) in 1 95 2 . The National ment insisted on certain name changes, Durant scoffs thatSecurity Agency has declassi lied an Engl ish-language trans­ this "strains credulity. First, let me note that of the eightlation of a Russian news article (titled Firing Saucers! books I have written (six in print. two pending), BodyThey re A M_wh- and written on March 1 2. 1 968, by V i i i en Snatchers is the only one that necessitated lengthy ex­Lyustiberg. science editor of the Novosti Press Agency) on changes with a publishers legal people on a matter like this.U FOs. W h i l e other American agencies have also made True, the names of the Colonel and the Black Widowcopies of this document avai !able, the NSA s version d i ffers 1rere changed; as was the name of the Colonels superior toslightly: i n the section of the article that deals with "my source," and to ·him." This was because-as S&S legalSpitzbergen, someone within the official world circled it staff know I spoke with the Colonels superior who de­with the word "Plant." The relevant document can be c! ined to speak on the record to me, even though he knew thedownloaded in PDF formal from the NSAs website. Colonel was speaking out; as a result, I was told (not asked, And moving on further: In 1 955, the late journalist but told) by S&S s legal people that the name of the Colonel sDorothy Kilgallcn was a llegedly approached by a British boss had to be removed from the manuscript as well.government source who claimed knowledge of a crashed Similarly, the references in Chapter 8, "The BritishUFO. The idea that a senior British government person Connection," to Mr. T and Mr. D are not mine. My originalwould reveal such presumably classined material in such a manuscript contained their names. Again, these are furthercavalier fashion defies belief. I f the tale was bogus. how­ name obfuscations made at a legal level by S&S after deepever. and the intent was to disseminate it for other purposes, consultation on certain issues, not a l l ofwhich were directlythen things become clearer. Indeed, I have been quietly related to the UFO angle. I dont care if Durant thinks thatdigging into Kilgallcns activities for a long time now and this "strains credulity."have learned that U.S. intelligence-in the early to mid- Durant insists that my sources should explain why they1 950s-grew concerned that insider sources were feeding are not w i l l i ng to go public. Well. Salter and Barker havesnippets o f c lassi ticd intelligence data to Kilgallcn. What gone public. They are speaking out under their real namesbetter way to smoke out those sources than to feed Ki !gallen and in a published book that can be purchased all across theharmless false anecdotes about crashed UFOs, then monitor United States and the United Kingdom in bookstores andher and see whom she asked on the inside for confirmatory elsewhere on the Internet. As far as I can tell, that equatesdata on the crash. and then quietly arrest those same people with speaking out publicly. Durant also asks: Why are theywithout any real secrets being compromised? not talking to the NeH· York Times? That is their decision. I I also need to stress the official worlds definition of cannot speak for them, and nor do I know the answer. Didpsychological warfare ( italics mine): "The planned use o f any anti-UFO crash types demand back in 1 978, when Maj.propaganda and other psychological actions having the Jesse Marcels identity was obfuscated as " M ajor .I . M .,"primary purpose o r influencing the opinions, emotions, that to prove his credibility he needed to head at ful l speedattitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a for the offices of the Nell York Times?way as to support the achievement of national objectives." Many apparent disinformation operations focused on I t is notable that one of chief recommendations of the UFO-crash claims. as Durant notes, first surfaced in the J U R + 30:2 24
  • U . K . I Ie rightly mentions both the MJ- 1 2 documents (which would the government stir the pot again by having a groupfirst came to public light in Timothy Goods 1 98 7 British of old folks come forward and unleash the beast of Newbook Ahove Top Secret) and the alien-autopsy film, pro­ Mexico on u s once again?vided to a British man, Ray San t i l l i . There is also the Researchers who take issue with the testimony andseldom-discussed story about how, in late 1 986, Jenny evidence I presented arc trying to follow more ET-sugges­Randles was approached by a former British Army source tivc leads. I have no problem with their doing so, of course.who claimed to have access to voluminous U . S . -originated We all want to establish the truth about Roswell. My pointdocumentation on crashed UFOs. dead al iens, and the usual is this, however: Because the material presented to me is solitany. But the important point is that all of this (and arguably controversial and so uncongenial to the UFO interpretation,the approaches made to Robert Emencgger, Linda Moulton it has had the effect of galvanizing extraterrestrial hypo­Howe, Leonard I I . S tr ing fi e l d, the W i l l iam L. Moore thesizers to dig into the UFO side of Roswell even moreFalcon episode) reinforces the ET angle. firmly. And I come back to my main point: I f Roswell was W i l l someone please explain this to me: I f at the heart ET and had to be hidden, why put out a story that is going toof Roswell and the UFO mystery lies something of extrater­ make people ( p roponents, skeptics, and agnostics a l i k e )restrial origins and it needs to be so desperately hidden, then poke into business that-from t h e perspective ofthe offtcialwhy do these alleged insiders such as Randless source. the world-is none of theirs?suppliers of the a l i e n autopsy film, and the mailers of theMJ- 1 2 documents have such easy access to the material? ROBERT J . DURANT RESPONDS: Proponents invariably respond that i t s a way of "prc­paring the publ ic f t he truth." I fthat s the case, "they" have or I am pleased to learn from ick Redfern that "[M]ore thanbeen ··preparing" the public for decades by tel l i n g tall tales 20 individuals, privately or publicly, arc talking about theirto the UFO community, dangling the ET carrot, and then knowledge of the human-experimentation aspect ofree l i n g it in. A l l ofthis positively reeks ofmanipulation; and Roswel l. And presumably we will sec their detailed recol­not only that: Such action ensures that the same UFO­ lections in the journals of the many branches of h i st01yrcscarch community is under control and is misled into which will be shaken by these revolutionary revelations.wasting much of its t i m e running down dead-end st ree t s. Career psyehological-warlarc (disinformation) opera­ Now, why would the government want to provide tives W il liam Salter and A l bert Barker have achieved celeb­tantalizing data on such issues to researchers and ensure rity only i n the pages of Boc� Smllchers, and seem not yetthey endlessly and fruitle sly chase such tales? Could it to have made it to Google, much less the Ne11• York Times.perhaps be to act as a smokescreen for something far darker They and their 20-odd col leagues must be hiding in fear ofand controversial-like medical experimentation under­ the heavy hand of the Simon & Schuster legal department.taken on human beings. somewhat akin to the radiation Drat!experiments of the 1 940s onwards? And that, if exposed, I f the government used a ··crashed spaceship" story tomight al o open a Pandoras box on the way in which the cover the Japanese-Roswel l Event. it escaped the AmericanU FO subject has been used as a tool of disinlormation to public. A Gallup Poll taken in August 1 948 asking abouthide a whole range of other controversies-perhaps includ­ "!lying saucers" revealed that the ET explanation for theing cattle m u t i l ations? On this Iauer point, I encourage saucers was believed by so few respondents that it was notpeople to read Colm Kellehers book Brain Trust. You l l even l isted. The cover for Roswell was a weather balloonnever munch o n cow burgers again. and its radar target, and that remained the cover for either 3 1 Now, people could say that the same thing has hap­ years or46 years, depending on whether you subscribe to thepened with me and that I was fed d i s i n lormation. As Durant ET or Mogul interpretation.know , I have IIeFer. eFer dismissed this poss i b i l ity, and I Invoking Norway ( ! ) in 1 946 ( ! ) doesnt help. becausehave said so publicly on U F O Updates and elsewhere. But t ho se "ghost rockets were commonly believed to be Sovietmy main argument against that possibility is this: In the post­ devices. Like Roswell, the ET hypothesis tor the rock et sMogul. post-crash-test-dummy era. Roswell was stalemated. appeared long after, and i n utological circles. not in theThere were no new book on the subject: a lot of the contemporary mass media. The Frank S c u l l y hoax camem a instream media had bought into Mogul (albeit less so much too late. and was much too lame, to have any impactwith regard to the dummies-truly the strangest UFO­ supporting the Redfern clisin lormation scenario.relatcd report ever to surface from the official world), and Roswe l l . whether it was a spacecraft or a Mogul arraymany people were focusing on other aspects of ulology. or a Redfern array. had a public l i fe measured in hours. and On top of that. more than 20 individuals, privately or remained a non-story u n t i l Moore and Berlitz opened thepublicly, arc talking about their knowledge of the human­ grave 3 1 years later. The record shows unbroken, relentlessexperimentation aspect of Roswe l l . efforts by the government to neutralize the idea that flying W i t h a l l that in mind. i f Roswell i s a secret ( regardless saucers were a real phenomenon.of what lies at its heart) that has to be protected at all costs In other words, the historical record on this point isand continued interest in which is to be discouraged, why exactly opposite to that espoused by Redferns sources. + J U R + 30:2 25
  • The M oon has a substa n t i a l a tmosphere-6 poundsS E L E N I T E S-continued fiom p age 18 per square i nc h in i t s lowest e l evations . . . . [ I t ] h a s aon the epic voyage ( L i ttle Bucky s dog B i g B o was there, m uc h h i gher gra v i t y t h a n has been theori zed-a v a l u etoo), had a good meal and met some nice fol ks, the ship greater than 50% o f Eart h s . . . . [ It ] has w a t e r a n dzipped him o ff to the moon for another excellent meal and k nown vegetation . . . . There a r e l a r g e vari a t i o n s i na good rest. On the moon Nelson saw a "building." Some environment, between t h e s i d e t h a t a lways faces thel unar "ch i l dren p l ayed with several sized dogs. They rode Earth , and t h e far side that only can be seen from l un a rB i g Bo l i ke a pony." Then B ucky and band were off to orb i t . ( This i s only because the Moon i s n o t a trueVenus. sphere but is bulged on the side facing Earth. causing While aboard a mothership from this side to be in e l f ect higher altitude land. While, as Saturn on Apri l 22, 1 95 3 , contactee Adamski adm illed, this is a hostile desert area / the or and space traveler George Adamski most part, people can live there if they undergo suit­ ( who had first come to publ ic attention able decompression) [ i t a l i c s in o r i g i na l ] . The w i th ph otographs, a l l eged ly taken M oon is occ u p i ed by space people. T h e re are art i fic i a l through his telescope, of flying sau­ bases on t h e front side, a n d more natural bases on the cers near the moon) conversed with the fa r side. The evidence has been photographed and pi lot, an individual named Zuh l . In his v e r i fi e d . inside the Space Ships ( 1 95 5 ) Adamski In an October I 0 , 1 952, automatic-writing comm un ica­ does not mention tape-recording the tion to a contactee group in Prescott, Arizona, two Uranus exchange, but perhaps he had a spec­ residents reported that besides the known earth moon, there tacu lar memory; at any rate, he quotes George A damski is a "dark moon" which the "magnetic field" renders invis­ the Saturn ian s words about the moon: ible to terrestrial observers. Moreover, "your fi rst Moon is The side of t h e M oon which you can see from your not as far away as you think . . . . [ I t] has an atmosphere and pl anet i s q u i te comparable to yolll· desert areas on Eart h . water. . . . There are even inhabi tants on the M oon 1 We have I t i s h o t , as y o u r s c i e n t i sts correctly c l a i m , b u t its many bases of interplanetary nature there, too . " temperature i s not so extreme as they think. And w h i l e Sad ly, not s o . As Gi ovanni Riccioli knew as l ong ago as t h e s i de w h i c h y o u do n o t sec i s colder, neither is i t as the 1 7th century, the moon is dead. So, too, are the dreams c o l d as they b e l i eve. It is strange how people o f Earth humans dreamed as they rambled the lunar landscapes of accept statements from those they look up to as men o f what turned out to be no more than their imaginations. This learning w i thout questioning t h e l i m i tations o f that line from an old Engl ish lyric fo lk song (which Lord Byron know ledge. later incorporated into a famous poem) says it a l l : There is a beaut i fu l strip or sec t i on around the center We II go no more a-roving of t h e M oon i n which vegetation, trees and animals By the light of/he moon. + thrive, and i n w h i c h people l i ve i n comfort. Even you of Earth could l i ve on that part o f the Moon . . M any o fyour scientists have expressed the idea that the M oon i s a dead body. If this were true . . . it long ago ANSWERS To J u sT FOR F u N would have vani shed from space through d i s i n tegra­ t i o n . N o It is very m uch a l ive and supports a l i fe which A l l statements are about George H unt W i l l iamson ! A true i n c l udes people. We ourselves have a l a rge l a boratory renaissance man of oddbal l and offbeat behavior. j ust beyond the rim of the M oon, out o f s i ght of Earth, i n the temperate and coo l e r sect ion o f that body. Shortly thereafter, Adamski got a look for h i mself A B D U C T E D-conlinued fi··om page 20through a viewing instrument aboard the craft. H e spotted our "fears" or "needs" or "hopes," at least not i n anya s m a l l growth of vegetation and, more dramatically, a obj ective sense, as to how they relate to abductions.sma l l animal. " I t was four-legged and furry," he wrote, She goes on i n this vein for several pages, suggesting at"but its speed prevented me from identifying it." Adamski several poi nts that abduction stories are a type of substitutedoes n ot explain how he would have been able to "iden­ for rei igion and rel igious bel iefs as they provide mean ing fort i fy" a moon animal . the abductees l i ves. Wel l , i f you are goi ng to go for it, youT H E CONTACTEES MOON m ight as well not hold back. One fi nishes this book with the thought that althoughOn a websi te devoted to contactee lore, longtime English onl y a l ittle has been learned about abductees and theirsaucerian J immy Goddard summarizes the moon as envi­ beliefs, quite a lot has been revealed about what somesioned in the c l aims of space commu nicants: academics believe about abductees. + I U R + 30:2 26
  • L ETTER ofthe paradigm, and even "tolerance of w i l d possib i l i ties," than others. Such eras are characterized by a mysteriousPLANET OF T H E COGS (romantic even) attitude that pervades science, but also the arts, music, l i terature, and even social thought as wel l . SomeTo the editor: say such periods ended when the world went very fast and L ike my respected friend M i chael Swords ("As Great global, and we w i l l never see them again. B oth creativean Enigma as the U FOs Themsel ves," fUR 3 0 : I ), I ve also productive leaps and arrogant nonsense abound in suchbeen ponderi ng-though with respect to a quite different eras, but the value of the creative box-bursting alwaystopic-why facts are ignored when their impl ications are outweighed the unsupportable garbage. And . . . at leastunwanted. Here are some possible explanations. things were fun . Whatever the "Truth," we certainly don t Peop l e ignore facts when their impl i cations are l i ve i n such a n age now. So, I a m reduced t o being "abnor­unwi shed. That s a fact. mal" and, you know, someti mes thats not too bad. + M ike, you and T are very unrepresentative ofthe widersoci ety. People who take U FOs seriously ( or N essies, orpsychic phenomena) and who actually want to get to the EUROPEAN U FO LOGY ORGAN IZEStruth about them are very unrepresentative of the widersoc iety. M ost kids seem to lose their curiosity soon after During the weekend of October 1 4- 1 5 , 2005, I was invitedadol escence. Most people want to fit in. to del iver a speech at the First Encounters of European Its easy for us to forget that when we ve spent our l ives U fologists conference in Chtlons-en-Champagne, France.doing science and teaching sc ience and interacting with At the same time, I attended a c losed-door Euro U FO meet­young people who are seem ingly-and unusually!-inter­ ing that had been set up for the occasion. Euro U FO is aested in finding out how the world works. network ofsome 50 researchers launched in 1 998 by Edom·do I t s easy to assume that everyone else is also curious and Russo.bel ieves that facts should be placed before wi shes and Twenty-three investigators from Belgium, France, Ger­prej udices. But thats not the fact of the matter. Least of all many, I taly, Spain, and Switzerland participated in theis this true when the people involved are bureaucrats. No colloquium meetings during the two days, and a reso lutiondoubt one finds within bureaucracies the occas ional maver­ was drafted by a few of us and released to the press.ick, such as David G raham in the FDA, who naively imag­ At the European level, we found there is a need toines that the bureaucracies are popu lated by cogs, not by improve and reinforce cooperation among organ izationsindependently minded people. Every cog does its job, and and indi viduals who approach ufology from a rationalno cog has the job of making waves, of com ing up with perspective. By bui lding an inventory of ongoing researchsomething unprecedented. I think that s a l l the more so in proj ects we w i l l keep track of who is doing what.m i l i tary bureaucracies, even given that a few generals exert We must survey and safeguard the existing arch ives andsome indiv idual initiative once they are safely high enough resources of U FO researchers to find out who has what andin the hierarchy. preserve endangered col lections. Every concei vable explanation for actual U FOs i s in We must provide encouragement and assistance to anysome way disturbing. N one seems to offer any ready path to scientific research on anomalous aerospace phenomena thatmaking money. So, in whose i nterest is it, to ins ist that can be carried out by un iversities or the government.there s a mystery that needs to be l ooked i nto? It won t lead We must explore research models that a l l ow a mergingto a salary ra ise or a promotion, and it won t lead to a of national or topical catalogs of U FO reports currently inresearch grant. You can only make trouble for yourse lf, and existence.people who popu late b ureaucracies tend to be people who We must expand the current network to incorporate atry to avoi d making trouble for themselves. So, they do what larger database and create an Internet portal for showing andthey can to ignore unpleasant facts. sharing information on UFO proj ects and results. Hemy Bauer Basically, the new Euro U foNet i s a virtual space that Blacksburg, Virginia offers opportunities for discussion, data exchange, and information. With no ideological restriction other than theMichael Swords replies: practice of scientific ufology, members can have d i ffering A las, T m afrai d it must be so. approaches and bel iefs. With the minimum requirement a Of a l l my scholarly friends, T have found H enry Bauer w i l lingness to share data and cooperate, we expect that theto be the one most uniforml y sensible and enlightening. But resulting broader network of U FO students will produce asti I I , as H enry says, a l ife spent teaching imbues one with the critical mass needed to push certain common proj ects.na"ive hope that people w i l l actually care about truths, and For European U FO researchers and groups there w i l l bei ntegrate them into new syntheses that enrich their l ives. I true advantages to belong to Euro U foNet, both now and i nbelieve, from my old h istory of science days, that there have t h e future. We believe this i s a first b i g step i n t h e rightbeen eras much more likely than others to accept expansions di recti on.- Vicente-Juan Ballester Olmos. + I U R + 30 2 27
  • I ASSOCIATE A P PLICATI O N FO R M I 0 New associate Name 0 Renewal Street Address C i ty State Zip =================================================================================== ASSOC I A T E L E V E L ASSOC I A T E B E N E FITS (Please m a ke payment i n U . S . fu nds only) S u s ta i n i ng $25 .00 International UFO Reporter (fUR) Contributing $50.00 fUR p l us one Center publ ication * * Donor $ 1 00.00 fUR p l u s two Center p u b l ications * * or one A lien A bductions v i deo= Sponsor $250.00 fUR, two p u b l ications & one Center case * * Research patron $500.00 fUR, two p u b l ication s & two Center cases* * Bene factor $ 1 000. 00 fUR for l i fe, two cases/yr., and new C U FOS p u b l ications free * * Please N ote: T h i s a p p l ication fo rm i s for U .S. residents only. =======================================================�==========================* * Assoc iates at the Contributing level or h i gher are entitled to se l ect one or more of the fo l lo w i n g p u b l icat i o n s : 0 N EW ! Grassroots UFOs: Casesfrom the Timmerman Files ( M ichael D . Swords) 0 N EW ! Faded Giant: The 1 96 7 Missile/UFO Incidents at Malmstrom A FB ( Sa l as and K lotz) 0 Journal o UFO Studies, V o l ume 8 ( artic l e s by Basterfie ld, Budi nger, B u l l ard, and H ai n e s ) f 0 Delphos: A Close Encounter o the Second Kind ( Ted P h i l l ips, 2002 ) f 0 Roswell? YES ! ( a presentation by Robert Durant; spec i fy D V D or tape) 0 Regional Encounters: The FC Files ( c lose encounters i n the M idwest, by Francis R idge) 0 Edge a/Reality: Illinois UFO, Jan. 5, 2000 ( v i deotape report on U FO near St. Lou i s ) 0 Captain Edward J. Ruppel!: Summer o the Saucers, 1 952 ( Wendy Connors, 2000) f 0 Giant UFO in the Yukon Territory ( M arti n J asek, 2000) 0 CUFOS UFO A rchive #2 ( C D - R O M , W i ndows-only, conta i n i n g two out-of-print p u b l ications, i n c l u d i n g Report o n the UFO Wave o l 94 7 a n d the Kelly-Hopkinsville Report) f 0 Near Miss with a UFO: Swissair Flight 1 2 7 ( Don Berl i ner and Robert D u rant, 1 999) 0 The Cash-Landrum Incident (John Schuessler, 1 99 8 ) 0 CUFOS UFO A rchive #I ( C D-RO M , W i ndows-onl y , conta i n i n g three out-of-print p u b l ications, i nc lu d i ng UFO Reports Involving Vehicle interference; Physical Traces; and 1 9 73: Year o the Humanoids) f M y contribution to rece ive I U R and any benefit publ ications : $ ____ A l so enclosed is my personal tax-deduct i b l e contribution for the work o f C U FO S : $ ____ TOTA L E N C LO S E D : $ ___ P lease make payment in U . S . funds, payabl e to CUFOS . I f y o u prefer to p a y by credit card : 0 V isa 0 MasterCard 0 American Express Card number ------- Expiration date _____ S ignahtre 1 /06 _________________ T h a n k y o u for y o u r support of the Center for UFO Studies !
  • Volume 30, Number 3International UFO Reporter SPECULATION AND SURVEILLANCE UFO SIGHTINGS BY SCIENTISTS
  • I NTERNATIONALU FOREPORTERE d itors :Jerome C larkGeorge M . EberhartMark RodeghierContributing E d i tors:B i l l ChalkerRichard F . HainesKev in D. RandleJenny RandlesChris RutkowskiWeb site:www .cufos.orgE-ma i l :I nfocenter@cufos.orgA nswering m a c h i n e :( 773 ) 2 7 1 -3 6 1 I � ·;;� / 4 /1 0 . 19 1 - 1 9R6CoLO N E L ODELL A N D T i l E I N V ASION o r EARnl by Michael D. Sword1· ............................................................................ 3PARANOIA OR S U RVEI LLANCE? by Nick Red/ern ....................................................................................... ......................... 7PALO M A R G ARDENS C A nt by Geatge M. Eberhart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... ........... 9C LO U D CIGARS: A FURTHER LOOK by !-ferber/ S. Taylor .......... ... ... ... ........... ... ........ ............. ..... ...................................... 1 0"JI. m A M A T E U R ASTRONOMEil A N D T H E U FO IH E N OMENON by Gerr Herb and J. A llen Hynek . ....................................... 1 4BooK REV I EWS by Jerome Clark and Kevin D. Randle ...................................... ................ ........................................... 1 7FuN AND GAMES IN HIE DESERT N E A R LAs CRUCES by Michael D. Swords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. .. . .. ... .. .. . .. .. .. ....... .. .. 20SCI ENTI STS WOULD I N V ESTIGATE SIGH TINGS BY OTH ER SCI ENTI STS-WOULDNT T H E Y ? by Mark f?odeghier ................... 22LETTERS ··································································· ······································································ · · · ······························ 25Published i n May 2006. International UFO Reporter ( I S S N 0720- 1 74 X ) is pub­ I l l inois 6065 9 . Address a l l subscription correspondence to Inter­l i shed quarterly by the J. A l len Hynek Center for U FO S t11d ies, national UFO Reporter, 2457 West Peterson Avenue, Ch icago,2 4 5 7 West Peterson Avenue, Ch icago, I l l i nois 60659. All rights I l l i nois 60659.reserved. Reproduction w i thout permission is strictly proh i b i ted . The International UFO Reporter i s a benefit publicationCopyright © 2006 by the .1 . A l len Hynek Center for U FO Studies. mai led to Associates o f the Center for a contribution o f $ 2 5 .00 orT h i rd-class postage paid at Chi cago, I l l i no i s . more. Foreign Associates add $5 .00 for d e l i very. All amounts i n Advert i sements accepted for p u b l i cation i n t h i s magazine d o U . S . funds. O t h e r publ ications a l s o avai lable for contributors ofnot necessari ly reflect t h e v i ewpoints of the J . Al len H y n e k Center larger amounts. For deta i l s, write to t h e J. A l len Hynek Center forfor U FO Studies. U FO Studies, 2 4 5 7 West Peterson Avenue, C h icago, I l l i nois Address all art i c l e submissions, letters to the editor, and 60659, USA.other editori a l conespondence to International UFO Reporter, Postmaster: Send Form 3 5 7 9 to C U FOS, 2457 West PetersonCenter for U F O Studies, 2 4 5 7 West Peterson Avenue, Chicago, Avenue, C h icago, I l l i n o i s 60659. IUR + 30:3 2
  • C oLONEL ODELL AND THE INVASION OF EARTH BY MICHAEL D. SwoRDSI t was early in 1 95 3 . Donald Keyhoe was nearing the Keyhoe showed the article to the edi tors at True (actu­ end of hal f a year of amazing cooperation from U . S . ally chief editor Ken Purdy was away, and John Du Barry A i r Force Pentagon insiders with h i m o n the problem stood in for him), but everyone was nervous about i t , sensing o f U FOs. But the U FO-sympathet ic m i l i tary U FO something odd was going on in the Pentagon and noto fficer, Maj . Dewey Fournet, had j ust retired, and his wanting to run the piece without Odel l s rank and position.col league, the U FO-friend ly i n formation desk official, AI So the article never ran, and Keyhoe only mentioned itsChop, was also about to leave that post. Unknown to contents briefly, within much commentary on the largerKey hoe, the C I A s Robertson Panel had recently completed social context, at the end of his b lockbuster book, Flyingits busi ness, and the internal Pentagon war over how to Saucersji·om Outer Space ( 1 953 ) .handle U FO information properly had been decided in favor Although Keyh o e d i d n t make a copy of the articleof debunking and ridicule. before he gave it back to Chop, he did make notes, which Of course, the Robertson Panel decision didn t im me­ makes it poss ible for me to at tempt to reconstruct Odel l sdiately sweep through a l l the services, or even the intel li­ original words. T o d o so, I m going t o usc t h i s approach:gence officers at the Pentagon. There is plenty of evidence I . Take the points that Kcyhoe out l i ned in h i s fourthat many of them were in disagreement with the new pages of notes in the order that they come.att itudes and pol icics. One o ft hcsc officers appears to havebeen Col. W i l l iam C. Odel l . 2. Make understandable sentences out of the fragmented I n o n e of Keyhoe s last meetings w i t h Chop, he was parts and correct typos.handed an article prepared by Ode l l for publ ication in the 3. Add some bridge commentary of my own to give t hepopular press. Its title was provocative: "Planet Earth­ article some readab le flow, without adding any unin­H ost to Extraterrestrial Li fe." Chop gave it to Keyhoe with tended comments. I I I iden t i fy my words by usingthe background that many persons on his side of the Penta­ brackets.gon U FO war were not backing down and that they felt more 4. Add some explanatory notes when I intuit that thei n formation should be made avai !able to the pub! ic. Key hoc text needs it. These w i l l also be in brackets.scanned the pages oft he article. It was all about civil izationscrossing space in search of new planets to l i ve on once their So, lets give it a try . H ere s my best shot at Ode l l s article.own was fai l ing for some reason. Kcyhoe s mind wasboggled. W hat was this? Why an Air Force colonel in PLAN ET EARTH : HosT Tointell igence? How did this get released? EXTRATERRESTRIAL L I F E Chop calmly told him that the Air Force could notrefuse an officers freedom to present personal opinions on When w e look u p a t the skies o n a c lear night, t h e una idedmatters that were not defi ned as issues of national security. human eye can see at most about 5,000 points of l ight in theOdel l could write about anyth ing he wanted to, but he heavens. [ But our universe is much vaster than that. Some ofcould n t use h i s A i r Force affi l iation, as that could cause too these points of l ight are ga laxies, and countless more aremuch confusion ( and so h i s affi l iation could not be l i sted if visible with the aid of a telescope.] I n each complete galaxythe article was publi shed). Keyhoe was sti l l reel ing. H e there are approx i mately 40 m i l l ion unseen stars for each oneprotested that newsmen wou ld see right through that in visible to the eye.seconds. Chop merely repl ied, "Security review passed i t . In our age, man is near to venturing out into our solarThat s a l i i know." He then asked Keyhoe t o show t h e draft system, and beyond it into our galaxy. [This endeavor mayto his editors, at True or anywhere else he wished. Obvi­ wel l be of great i mportance to us] . I n some distant t i me, ifously, Odel l had asked Chop to handle it this way. man doesn t travel i n space, the race on Earth w i l l perish, either because the planet has cooled into a permanent i ceMichael D. Sword� is prof essor emeritus of the Environ­ age, or is consumed in the last violent moments of the Sun.mental lnstilule, Western Michigan University, KaLamazoo. I n these circ umstances, the only answer for an ad- I U R + 30:3 3
  • vanced civilization to survive woul d be: Exodus. [ Bu t where J up iter has a constant - 1 30" C. temperature. It i s a tremen­would we go?] dous p lanet, completely enveloped in the wrong type of For ourselves, " l i fe as we know i t," or for a type of l i fe atmosphere for human l ife. Saturn, l i ke J upiter, is extremelyform very near our own, we must have certain environmen­ cold, with a temperature remaining at - 1 50" C . U ranus i stal conditions in an approximate range of temperature, buried under a frigid bl anket of - I 70° C . N eptune a n d P l utooxygen density, water avai labil ity, and atmospheric pres­ stay around -200"C. The asteroids, so numerous that theysure. [Our solar system doesn t hold much promise in these are not all named, are too sma l l to create l i fe. Their gravi ti esregards.] are so minute that they cannot retain any atmosphere. If a l l o f this is so, then Man must ult i mately look t o the stars forN EARBY L I FE FORMS his haven. In our solar system, one of the nine planets has inte l l i ­Our own M oon varies in temperature from - 1 50" C . to I 00° gent I i fe. l f this rat io holds elsewhere, there would b e manyC. [ More accurately, it varies from -233" C. to 1 23° C . , with havens i n our galaxy. The same conditions that createda mean of-23° C.] I t lacks atmosphere and so heat from the Earth must have occurred elsewhere. N ew suns and newSun is not retained. When the Sun sets on the l unar surface, worlds are sti l l being created. Some suitable orbiting planetsa drop of 200° C. is common. With a comp lete lack of water in other solar systems may be older, some younger. And,and atmosphere, and extreme ly variable temperatures, there even if other l i fe would not be found in our own galaxy, i t isis probably l i ttle hope for the sustaining of any human form probable elsewhere. There is al most a mathematical cer­of l i fe. tainty that somewhere in space, Earth has a tw i n . On M ars, the temperature band [range] woul d permit Earth s t w i n w i l l n o t b e a n identical one, in t h e sense ofl i fe on the lower end ofthe Earths sca le. [Temperatures on its being born at the same time, but rather in the sense thatM ars range from - 1 40° C. to 20° C . , with a mean of-63° C. ] conditions for l i fe have developed there and that l i fe isH umans could l i ve there under artificial condi tions. But present and evolv ing. I n fact, our Earth could be one of athere are only traces of oxygen [0. 1 3%], an atmospheric fam ily of l i fe-supporting planets in the U n iverse. Some ofpressure that is very sma l l [less than one-tenth of the our sister planets, capab le of sustai ning I ife, would be olderEarth s], and a feeble gravity [about one-third of Earth s ] . than our s . Others would be younger. There may be enoughWhatever oxygen may be produced b y l o w forms of plant oft h i s breed of planet that one could see I i fe forms develop­l i fe and isn t used by them i s lost to space because ofthe low ing through a l l the stages that occurred here. Some planetsgravitational pu l l . There are "snow caps" at the Martian may be on the doorstep of human development. Others maypoles. These are probably carbon dioxide snow. be further along, as we are today . Sti l l others w i l l be much As to Venus, the temperature fal l s from a hot I 00" C. in older, so much further advanced that they arc on the vergethe lower layers of the atmosphere to about -25" C. in the of exodus from their planet, as it approaches that stage of itsoutermost stratum. [We now know the mean surface tem­ inevitab le destruct ion. These bei ngs may have attainedperature ofVenus is 464" C . , and the temperature at its cl oud space travel. They may have already explored their owntops is approxi mately -45° C . ] The Venusian atmosphere is stel lar system . They may overcome the technical and prac­dense, at least twice that of Earths. [Atmospheric pressure tical restrictions and are preparing for the abandonment ofat the surface is about 90 times that of Earth.] I t apparently their planet. They may be seeking a younger, more suitablelacks oxygen and may also l ack water. [Oxygen has not been planet on which to l ive and perpetuate their race.detected, but there is about 0.002<Yo water vapor, with 96.5% [An aside: Judging by the arrows and lines he scratchedof the atmosphere carbon dioxide.] Some liquid matter is on the above paragraph, Keyhoe was wowed by i t . ]present. [The only liquid is lava.] The planet is perpetually There are some races in t h e Universe that w i l l neversurrounded by great depths of clouds. Life could exi st there, have the opportunity to meet each other. Some races wi l l dieand may have to breathe gases other than oxygen . through wars on their planet, through lack of technological Though not necessarily speaking ofVenus, some scien­ development, or through interplanetary wars within theirtists have speculated that l i fe on other planets might breathe own stel l ar system.fluorine, chlorine, ammonia, or hydrogen fl uoride, rather For a l l we know, planets may be the rule rather than thethan our earth-based mixture where plants take in carbon exception. Recent observations of the binary stars 6 1 Cygnidioxide and breathe out oxygen. If an advanced civilization [ I 1 .4 l ight years di stant] and 70 Ophi uchi [ 1 6.6 l ight yearscould have developed on the surface ofVenus, their progress away] have indicated that non l um inous bodies of a lmostcould have been retarded as, perhaps, the dense, foggy planetary size are associated with both stars. There may beatmosphere would preclude astronomy. planets orbiting about the score or so stars that lie w ithin a [As for the other planets, prospects for a haven for dozen l ight years of our own sun. At this time, modernadvanced l i fe are poorer yet. ] At Mercury, the temperature telescopes are incapable of differentiating planets fromranges far beyond o ur scale for l ife: much too hot on one their mother suns, as, i n comparison, they are much tooside, and much too cold on the other. The other five p l anets sma l l and their reflected l i gh t is much too dim to be seen byare deep in a cold temperature range unsuitable for l i fe. even our most powerful telescopes. I U R + 30:3 4
  • [Odell i s referring in the above paragraph to events in l ayers high above Earth. But some do escape our atmo­1 942- 1 943 when astronomers announced that careful ex­ sphere with less interference. Not long ago, we transmittedamination of a long record of observations ofthese two star radar signals to and received echoes back from the M oon .systems had indicated the presence of a dark planetary body [Th is was Proj ect Diana, conducted on J anuary 1 0, 1 946.]tugging gravitational ly at the outer of the two stars i n the The ether of space i s a carrier of energy. l t i s always waitingsystems. This claim was considered reasonable through the to transmit such waves with the speed of l i ght.1 940s and 1 950s and was a foundation stone of a new Radio transmission s of fai rly h igh energy have beenacceptance by astronomers of the i dea that p lanets were coming from stations on Earth for perhaps 20 years. Through­probabl y common. M i l itary writers, though not referring to out the past generation, therefore, these transmissions havethese two systems, spoke of extraterrestri al planets in both l e ft this planet and sped through space with the speed ofthe Project Sign and Saucer reports. Odel l seems wel l read l i ght. B y now they could have been intercepted by powerfulon these matters.] and deli cate dev ices in the hands of an advanced race on a distant planet. I fwe, with our relatively amateurish attempts at technology, know principles of electronic detection andEXTRATERREST R I A LS AMONG US? transfixing, then such an advanced race would as wel l . TheyWe wonder how other races would ever come to know that would have no difficul ty i n detecting our transm iss ions,inte l l i gent l i fe exi sted on Earth. Recent reports of unusual mon itoring them, and locating their source in space.phenomena i n our atmosphere [U FOs] have reopened the I fthe so-ca l l ed "flying saucers" are craft of extraterres­suspicion that travelers from outer space may be reconnoi­ trial origin whose engineers are capable of monitoring radiotering Earth. N umerous men of scienti fic background have transmissions and undertaking space travel, why would theyflatly opened their technical reputations to censure by stat­ have ventured near to our planet only during the last fi veing that these uncommon sightings are of extraterrestrial years? ln addition to this q uestion, are there solar systemsorigin. These include engi neers and sc ientists from all fields near enough to receive, decipher, and elect to investigate ourand all nations. transmissions at their source? It may wel l be so. [An amazingly strong and enthusiastic statement by an To make interstel lar travel practical, it must be atAir Force officer at the Pentagon. He could have been tremendous speed, approaching the speed of l i ght. G rantingreferri ng to the Navy ba l l oon proj ect wizards, l i ke Charles this, the location of the investigating race in outer spaceB . Moore, Cmdr. Robert Mc Laugh lin, J . J . Kaliszewsk i , and must be no more than I 0 or 1 2 1 ight years away ( the d i stanceothers; or to the Project Sign boys; or to Prof H ermann which gives our signal I 0 or so years to reach them, thenOberth, who was just making his views known in Ger­ perhaps two years for monitoring, deci phering, and study,many-and he was probab ly influenced by all of them, and and another I 0 years for space travel to reach us). So, givenmore.] 20 (or so) years, the super-inte l l igent race should be located G ranted that super intell igences on a planet in another within a locus of points not greater than I 0±2 l ight yearssolar system have mastered the problems of interstel lar distant.travel and are looking for a suitable planet for a second It has already been mentioned that 6 1 Cygni and 70home, why would Earth be singled out from other planets in Ophiuchi are in this sphere. [ Despite the current progress inspace for reconna issance? [ Keyhoe was also impressed by extrasolar planet detection, no bodies have been detectedthis paragraph and put it in the book.] around these two stars.] There are 1 5 other suns within 1 2 Some bel ieve that the explosion of an atom ic bomb on light years of our own. [Actual ly, 20 are now known withinthis planet could be noticed from outer space. This is that distance.] Each one of these stars is bigger or brighterdoubtfu l . Such an explosion might be seen from the M oon, than the Sun. This might lead to the idea that such a staror maybe from somewhat greater distances if Earth was might support a planetary system equal to or greater than ourunder observation at that precise moment. But to be seen on own. From any of these, an outer space race could havea planet l ight years away seems remote. Such an event from received our radiant signal s and have had time to respondastronomical distances might draw no more attention than with an exploration as described.phenomena associated w ith sunspots or a large meteor It does seem strange that 90% of these sightings occurhitting a planet. One would need tremendous telescopes to in the Western Hem isphere, and most of these in the U n itednotice such an event. States. It is difficult to believe that an i nterstel lar space B ut, for some years, electromagnetic emanations from expedition would ignore the remaining l and area of theoutside our atmosphere have been received by radios here g lobe. Our planet, because of its thick atmosphere andon the surface. Some refer to this as "cosmic static." These amount of water vapor, is always screened from outsideemanations origi nate from somewhere in space. T do not observation by large patches of cloud. Only over aridrai se thi s as support for a theory of extraterrestri a l races regions or deserts does the vapor screen di ssipate and leave( though it may lend weight to such a theory), but to point out a c lear v iew of large areas of the Earth s s urface. Of those,the abi l ity of space to transmit radiant energy. Most of our the vast stretches of the Sahara and Gobi deserts have extra­own radio waves are trapped and reflected by atmospheric sparse habitation. The nomads there have l ittle education. I U R + 30:3 5
  • The arid areas ofthe American Southwest are l ittle different worms fro m craw ling out of their designated cans at regularin c l i mate but are populated by modern intellectual men. interval s . Ode l l s worm got out, but scared and uncertai nS uch a region would speak wel l for a possible point of editors l e t it crawl back i n , and the rest o f u s never saw i tcontact with Earth Man. [Hmmm . . . where did that Roswell Keyhoe and h i s friend J i m R iordan, a retired m i l i tarything occur, again?] pilot, d i d see it, and neither of them l iked the visions that the One might also reason that an advanced extraterrestrial essay brought to their minds. Both of them insi sted to onerace, upon a thorough study of our radio transmissions, another that extraterrestrial invasion was not what was beingmight become attracted by the humanitarian aspect ofAmeri­ set up by this UFO survey of Earth that seemed to be goingcanism. [Oh for the innocent idealism of the 50s, eh?] That on. B ut, irritatingly the idea embedded in Odel l s piecei deology might be said to more c losely approach the way of nagged. R iordan finally said, "It s stil l a hell i sh idea. Evenl i fe on a higher plane. But [such an analysis] takes more than though I dont believe it, I wish that I hadn t heard it" Theya pinch of salt. actually had already heard it, though , i n another form : This, however, leads to a ki ndred thought: A study of No one would have bel ieved, i n the l ast years of theour beamed radio transmi ssions over a period ofyears might n i neteenth century, t h a t h uman affa i rs were beingcause extraterrestrial inte l l igences to elect to survey our watched keenly and c l osely by i nt e l l i gences greaterplanet rather than abruptly descend upon it. This study of than m an s and yet as mortal as his own; that as mencountless broadcasts m ight cause another race to wonder i f busied themsel ves about their affa i rs they were scru t i ­Earth is a su itable p lace t o visit after a l l . They might come n i zed a n d studied, perhaps a l most as narrowly as a m a nto bel ieve that their search should continue elsewhere, w i t h a m i c roscope m ight scru t i n ize the t ransient crea­hoping to find other races in the Uni verse, whose way of l i fe tures that swarm and m u l t i ply i n a drop o f water. W i t hmore c l osely dovetai ls with their own, rather than the i n fin ite complacency mean went to and fro over t h i sbarbaric exi stence evident on Earth. g l obe about t h e i r l i t t l e a ffa i rs, serene i n t h e i r assurance of their empire over matter. I t i s pos s i b l e that the Thus ends Keyhoe s notes and my attempt to recon­ i n fusoria under the m i c roscope do the same. N o onestruct Odel l s essay. Now some com mentary on the essay. gave a thought to the older worlds o f space as sources Donald Keyhoe was exceptionally boggled by this of human danger, or thought o f them only to d i s m i ss theessay, and even more so by the simple fact that it had gotten idea o fl i fe upon them as i m poss i b l e or i m proba ble. I t ispast the Pentagon s censors. He dedicated the cl imactic curious to reca l l some o f the mental habits o f thosechapter-and-a-half of his book to ruminations about the departed days. At most, terrestrial men fan c i ed therehypothesis ofextraterrestrial colon ization and to the puzzle­ m i ght be other men upon M a rs, perhaps i n ferior toment over what the heck was going on in the Pentagon. themselves and ready to welcome a m i s s i onary enter­Keyhoe s in tuition (which he had expressed many ti mes in prise. Y et, across the gul f o f space, m i nds that arc to ourboth The Flying Saucers are Real and Flying Saucers fi·om m i nds as ours are to those of the beasts that peri sh,Outer Space) that a deep and even vio lently emotional i ntel lects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regardeddivision ex is ted inside USAF intell igence was true. Colonel t h i s earth with envious eyes, and s lowly and surely drewOdel l s article was j ust one spectacular example of a high­ their plans against us. And early in the twentiet h centuryranking o fficer who took U FOs and the extraterrestrial came the great d i s i l l us ionment.hypothesis very seriously. The fact that the piece passedUSAF security review is surely another example of that As Riordan and Keyhoe grimaced over Odel l s essay inseriousness (everyone in the " U FO chain" from AI Chop to early 1 953, H ol lywood s release of The War o he World, ftMaj . Dewey Fournet to Col. W i l l iam Adams to Col. Weldon based on H . G. Wel lss 1 898 novel, was only weeksaway. +Smith were strongly pro- U FO and would have open ly coun­tenanced Odel l s v iews). The timing of the article, j ust afterthe C I A panel had angered the pro-U FO wing with its bully OWN ALL OF N I CAPspolicy of ridiculing the subject, plus the q uashing of the U . F.O. I NVESTIGATORSrelease of the Tremonton, Utah, fi lm, may wel l have beenseen by the pro-U F O wing as part of a last ditch effort to C U FOS now has available a C D - RO M containing all ofhead off the new policy. the i ssues of the prestigious U F 0. investigator, pub­ I m sti l l with Keyhoe here, though. ! m sti l l amazed that li shed by the National I nvestigations Committee on Aerialthe essay snuck out. What that says to me is that the opinion Phenomena from J u ly 1 95 7 to J une 1 980. Additionalof many of my U FO col l eagues, that the inte l l i gence com­ N J CAP material from the 1 950s, 1 960s, and 1 970s i s alsomunity was so sharp and organized that it could manage included. To get your copy, send $50 ( in c l udes both U . S .anyth i ng at any l evel of detai l so sl ickly, i s j ust bunk. I f and overseas postage) to:something could be h e l d very tightly among j ust a few C U FOShands, OK, maybe. B ut something l i ke U FOs, no way. The 2457 W . Petersonsubject was too big and the Pentagon too massive to keep Chicago, I L 60659 I U R + 30:3 6
  • pARANOIA OR SURVEILLANCE? BY NICK REDFERNW hen deta i l s of the N ational Sec urity a l l ow the aforementioned nations access to a vari ety of Agency s ( N SA ) domestic surveil lance S i gnals I ntelligence data for mutual use. program surfaced late i n 2005 , a storm of l t i s also a matter of official record that G C H Q s protest and controversy fol lowed. But such collection and study of S i gnals Inte l l i gence data i s under­spying activity is nothi ng new. Coincidental ly, as the worl d s taken band-in-glove with the NSA. From declassified Free­media were reporting t h e story about the NSA, I was putting dom of I nformation Act releases, we know that N SA sthe final touches to my latest book, On the Trail of the headquarters a t Fort George G . Meade, Maryland, holdsSaucer Spies: UFOs and Government Surveillance. That fi les of Signal I n te l l igence-derived U FO data. G i ven thatbook addresses the issue of official, widespread survei l ­ fact, it seems most unl ikely that elements ofGCHQ wouldlance of American and British citizens w h o are, or were, never be exposed to simi lar material .engaged in U FO research. In Britain, in several instances, But can we prove as much? Yes. N ot only that: The onethat surveil lance was d i rectly linked to the activities of the case that more than any other demonstrates direct interest inBritish equivalent ofthe NSA-the Government Communi­ the U FO puzzle on the part of GCHQ also reveals wide­cations H eadquarters ( G C H Q ) , situated in the c ity of spread official survei l lance of the prime i nvestigator of theCheltenham. case, a man named Robin Cole. In 1 997, in my fi rst book, A Covert Agenda: The By the mid- 1 990s, Cole, a lifelong Cheltenham residentBritish Government s UFO Top Secrets Exposed, I docu­ who was at the time the head of a U FO research group namedmented the col lection and study of U FO data by staff at Circular Forum, had cu ltivated a number of sources whoG C H Q . Though G C H Q has cons istently denied having worked at GCHQ and had guarded ly provided him with aany l inks to the U FO subj ect, the trai l of evidence strongly wealth of data on U FOs. These incl uded information onsuggests otherwise. radar-visual encounters reported by Royal Air Force person­ Establ ished one year after the Al l ied victory over Nazi nel in the early 1 950s; evidence that GCHQ studied gun­Germany i n the Second World War, GCHQ supplies British camera footage ofU FOs taken by British military pilots in theagencies and departments, c i v ilian and m i litary, with Sig­ late 1 950s; the fact that GCHQs li brary held a large numbernals I ntell igence-based data. Th is is in accordance with the of publi shed books on UFOs; and revelations to the effectmandate of the British government s Joint Intell igence that, as late as 1 996, GCHQ analysts were sti l l monitoringCommittee, the function of which is to produce a weekly U FO encounters when they involved the m i l itary.survey on various aspects of inte l l igence operations for One particular GCHQ department imp! icated in U F Osenior sources within officialdom. This survey is cal l ed the i nvestigations, C o l e learned, was known a s t h e OakleyRed Book. I nstallation, which is home to two i mpressive structures the GCHQ is known to obtain much of its S ignal I nte l l i­ staff has nicknamed the Pleasure Dome and the Barn. Bothgence materi al from i ntercepted overseas communi ca­ were constructed with the benefit of a multi m i l li on-poundtions. For this purpose, it control s the Composite Signals budget.Organization, which operates from locations both within Accord i ng to Cole, "The Pleasure Dome has acq u i redthe borders of B ritain and abroad. In 1 94 7 , the govern­ its nickname because the higher your status, the h i gher upments of a number of nati ons-specifi cal l y the U nited you work inside the buil d i ng, thus giving the employee aK ingdom, the U n i ted States, Canada, N ew Zealand, and more panorami c view across Cheltenham and creating aA ustra l i a-signed the U KU S A Agreement, designed to n icer environment to work i n . The B arn covers sixteen and a half thousand square feet and comprises two floors on theNick Red ern is a British-born freelance journalist who f south and three on the north. This contain s so many comput­c urrently lives in Texas. He has written books on ers that a speci a l c h i l l er unit was built to keep them all coo l .cryptozoology and u ology, the most recent being On the f Both sites are a s b i g underground a s they are above ground,Trail of the Saucer Spies (Anomalist, 2006). as far as square working footage is concerned, with enough I V R + 30:3 7
  • room at the [nearby] Ben hall s ite-known to the employees around to me. What do you do? Who do you work for? as the Funny Farm-that lorries can be driven in to unload What s your i nterest in the UFO phenomenon? I told them, equipment and supp l i es, thus al lowing both to remain i n they seemed satisfied, and got up to leave. But j ust at that complete operation should war break out." point, Trish arrived, and it turned out that she did know ln 1 997, Cole wrote a detai led, privately pub l i shed them; so they were legitimate pol i ce officers. " report on his discoveries, titled "GCHQ and the UFO Cover­ But official interest in Robi n Cole was far from over, Up." Shortly after its appearance Cole was interviewed on however. a British television news program, something that set a "On the fol lowing day, I telephoned Cheltenham C I D strange series of events in motion. As Cole described the and asked t o speak with D . S . Camp-I j ust wanted t o make situation : sure that I hadnt said anything which was going to get "Just after my report was pub lished, I was i n tervi ewed Matthew into hot water. When I asked for Detective Ser­ with regard to its contents by Central Television. They geant Tim Camp by name, the guy in C I D said, W e don t p icked up on it straight away and did a damned good piece have a Detective Sergeant b y that name work i n g here. which was shown on both the evening and late-night shows. "At that point, I heard the guy say to one of his W e l l , the fol lowing morning the phone rang. M r. Cole? colleagues, Who the hel l s Detective Sergeant T i m Camp? said a voice . . . . This is Detective Sergeant Tim Camp from I could hear mumbling and then this chap came back on the Chel tenham C I D [Criminal I nvestigation Department ofthe l ine, Detective Sergeant Camp isnt with C I D; hes with British Police Force] . Can we come and have a chat with Special Branch . you, please? "Eventual ly, I got through to his col league- D. S . "Wel l , I was obviously a bit stunned, as i t s not every Camp wasn t avai lable-and he basical ly said, Don t worry, day that you get a call from C I D, and I said, Y es. But why Mr. Cole, we ve got a l l the informat ion that we wanted to exactly? Oh, nothing to worry about, Mr. Cole, they said. know. This got me thinking. Why is Cheltenham Polices W e d l i ke to ask you one or two questions. I said, Any­ Spec ial Branch interested in [Matthew W i l l iams s] U FO thing spec ific? Camp repl ied, What do you know about a investigations group which, at the time, was based in South group cal led Truth-Seekers ?" Wales? It didnt add up. Well, I now have a strong feeling Truth-Seekers was the brainchild of a British U FO that Spec ial Branch were using Matthew as a front to check investigator named Matthew W i l l iams, who pub l i shed a me out-to see if I had Nazi banners on the wa l l or anarchyconspiracy-oriented magazine, Truth-Seekers · Review, from signs on the front door.the mid-to- late 1 990s, and who was also investigated by "The reason I say this is because,j ust recently, I learnedel ements of British I nte l l igence from the mid- 1 990s on­ of a radio presenter in the north o f England who waswards, as On the Trail of/he Saucer Spies reveals. interested in doing a piece on G C H Q and asked people with "Wel l," conti nued Cole, "I wondered what they wanted knowledge to contact him. Lo and behold, the next day,and j ust said, O kay, I know about Truth-Seekers. They Special Branch was around to question him. So, I find thisrepl ied, That l l do for us; can we come and have a chat? I a l l a l i ttle too coinc identa l . And it does suggest a d i rect linksaid, Y eah, sure. When would you l i ke to come? Can we between (a) U FOs; ( b) G C H Q; and ( c ) Special Branch."come now? The Metropo litan Police Spec ial I rish Branch was "As it happened," Cole el aborated, "I wasn t doing formed in March 1 8 83, initially as a sma l l section of the C l Dmuch, so it wasn t really a problem. But then it dawned on of the Metropol itan Police. I ts purpose was to combat, on ame: I d only got their word for it that they were who they national basis, the then-ongoing I rish campaign ofterrorismclaimed to be. Well, I have a friend named Trish who works on the British main land. Subsequently, the term " I ri sh" wasat Po lice H eadquarters in the Inc ident Room. I cal led her dropped from the branch s title, because over time it took onand expla ined what had happened and asked if she could get responsibi l ity for counteri ng a wider range of extremist andover to my flat to check this guy out when he arrived. I n the terrorist activity.meantime, I surreptitiously set up a tape recorder in my Current ly, Special B ranch gathers, col lates, analyzes,l iv i ng room, so that when D. S. Camp arrived, I could get the and exploits i ntel l igence on violent political extrem ists. I tentire conversat ion down on tape. Wel l, then, of course, he initiates, develops, and conducts inte l l igence operationsand a col league arrived. against terrorists; disseminates i n te l l igence for operat ional "I opened the door, but the two guys didnt give their use to law enforcement agencies at local, national, andnames; i nstead theyj ust came i n and sat down. I said, Sorry, i nternational levels; and provides armed personal protec­you are . . . ? Detective Sergeant Tim Camp . H is colleague tion for M i n isters of State, Foreign Y I Ps, and other personsstayed silent. As you know, Mr. Cole, he said, wed j ust if it is bel ieved they are potential terrorist targets.l ike to ask you one or two questions about Truth-Seekers I n addition Special Branch pol ices the ports within theand what you know about them. I t s nothi ng to worry about; London area to detect terrorist or criminal suspects whilewe werej ust concerned that they m ight be a front for an I RA traveling i nto or out ofthe country, assists other governmentgroup and we have to check these thi ngs out . agenc ies to counter threats to the security of the U n i ted "We chatted about Matthew . . . and then they got Kingdom from public disorder, the pro l i feration ofweapons J U R + 30:3 8
  • of mass destruction (nuclear, b iological, or chemical ) , in­ were a part of the roof, b u i l t i n . I thought that was odd,vestigates espionage by foreign powers, subversion of the particularly when it occurred to me that where they weredemocratic process, terrorism by Irish or International parked was also right next to the telephone j unction box.groups, and sabotage of the infrastructure of the U K. "At that point, I grabbed my camera and put the l i ght on I n mid-2000, I contacted Chel tenham Police to i nquire in the office. But as I did that, the van suddenl y started upabout the visit made to Coles home by elements of Special and went quickly down the road . Well, a couple of weeksBranch to discuss the activities of both Cole and W i l liams. later, the van turned up again. This time, 1 ran down the stepsSeveral days l ater, l received a telephone call from police at outside my flat and dashed i nto the road; and again the vanCheltenham inform i ng me that the only comment that De­ started up and shot off. But it was enough for me to gettective Sergeant Tim Camp of Special Branch would make details of the van s registration and make, which was ato me was "no comment." Bedford. Then I set about trying to trace the van. As fasci nating as Coles reve lations were, sti l l further "It so happens that I got a friend, a retired police officer,evidence existed to show that his attempts to b low the l i d off to pass the deta ils on to a serving officer who put the deta i l sthe secret U F O world ofGC H Q attracted the keen attention through t h e police computer. W e l l , a few days passed. Butof the Security and I ntel l igence services. I ntriguingly, it on getting home one evening, J found a few messages on myappears from Coles revel ations that the official surveil­ answer-phone from [the retired police officer] in a veryl ance of his activities commenced months prior to the exci ted state. As it was about I I o clock at n i ght, I thought:publ ication of his report in 1 997. ln other words, from the I t s too late to phone him now; I I I give him a call tomorrow.very day that he began looking into what G C H Q knew about I went to bed, but at 1 2 : 1 5 , the phone rang; it was him.U FOs, his every move was being watched and scrutin ized. " H e said: That vehicle-you were right to be suspi­One such example was truly eye-open ing. It took pl ace in c ious about it. The registration regard ing who actua l l y ownsM arch 1 99 7 . Cole told me: it is blocked, but the address that i t s registered to is a " l hadjust got home after a Sunday night out. I had some Mini stry of Defense post office box in W i l tshire . This wasstuff to dump in my office and didn t switch the light on. I heavy stuff. But I ve not seen the van since. But this was realput the things down and j ust glanced out of the wi ndow. proof that I was under some sort of survei l lance."Wel l, outside my wi ndow there s a street li ght and beneath Indeed, it was, and the case of Robin Cole is but oneth is was a white van. At fi rst I j ust registered that the van example of survei l l ance of U FO researchers. As On theseemed out of place. You know what its l i ke: You tend to Trail o lthe Saucer Spies demonstrates, there are countlessrecognize the various cars and veh icles in your own street. other such examples that span the 1 940s to the present day.But then I thought: Well, it wasn t there when I came in I 0 In fact, the evidence I have uncovered suggests that we mayminutes ago. Why is it outside my flat under the streetl ight? be faced with the extraordinary fact that deep surveil lance ofAs I looked at it, I noticed that on top of the van were these the U FO research c om m unity i s the norm, not thetwo, weird, silver domes one behind the other-as if they exception. +pALOMAR GARDENS C A F ET h i s is t h e famed restaurant, formerly owned byA l ice K. Wel ls on Palomar Mountain north of San Diego, California, where contactee George Adamskiworked as a cook and met frequently with hisfol lowers. I t was here in the late 1 940s and early 1 950s that Adamski set up his sma l l telescope anda l l egedl y took photos of dozens of U FOs. I had long suspected there might be a postcardthat showed the cafe, and it turns out there are atleast two-this one, and another showing the fewtables inside. I n fact, the man visible in the windowto the right of the front door l ooks very much l i keAdamski himself, a lthough I cant verify it. Wells, who died in 1 980, also owned the ad­joining land where a few cabins stood, one ofwhich Adamski now s your chance. See www.pa lomarproperties.com/out/l ived in. A lthough the cafe is long gone, the location where outoakknoll/i ndex.htm l .it stood is now occupied by the Oak Kno l l Campground, The site i s l ocated near t h e intersection of state h ighwayoperated from 1 999 to 2005 by Larry Read and E l izabeth 76 and South Grade Road ( formerly known as H ighway toN orris. The property is c urrently for sale, so ifyou have $ 1 . 5 the Stars), a winding route with hairpin turns that leads tom illion to invest i n a ufologically sign i ficant campground, P a l omar Observatory. -George M Eberhart I U R + 30:3 9
  • CLOUD CIGARS : A FURTHER LOOK BY HERBERT S . TAY LORc loud c i gars can be deservedly regarded as one of the most important aspects of the UFO phenomenon, one that will be central to obtain­ ing any meani ngfu l answers as to what th isenduring mystery is a l l about. Despite their relative smal lnumbers i n comparison t o other U FO categories, c loudc i gars are often dramatic and spectacular sightings that arevery difficult to attribute to mundane causes. They haveseveral features that set them apart from other U FO cases.These incl ude the observation of multiple obj ects, includingthe cigar-shaped U FO i tse l f, as wel l as other smaller U FOsthat often are ej ected from it; an odd c loud or haze that oftenmasks the centra l U FO; the large number of witnesses to theevent; and a high percentage of dayl ight cases. Putting a l l ofthese together shows how distinctive cloud-cigar incidentsare and why they deservedly occupy the ir own category i nt h e U FO phenomenon. There is no better place to begin a deta i led examinationof these cases than with a comprehensive account of anextraordinary report that occurred during the French wave J//ustration fi· ·om France-D imanche showing Georgesof! ate summer and early fal l of I 954. ( I t was mentioned only Fortin s observation: In (1 ). a cloud looking like a carrotbriefly in "Satel l ite Obj ects and Cloud Cigars," in fUR, emerged ji-0111 the other clouds. In (2), a trail of white2 9 : I , Spring 2004 . ) Note that the fol lowing account is taken smoke jelted out.fi· ·om the base of the cloud, then averbatim from Ai me Miche l s book on the French wave, brilliant disc emerged. maneuvered, and reentered theFlying Saucers and the Straight Line Mystery ( I 958), which cloud, which (3) then rose up and disappeared.many people today have not read: reader and h i s letter an investigation was made. ( H ow The phenomenon was observed aga i n j ust three weeks many extraordinary sightings must be sti I ! u n known for after Vernon on Tuesday, September 1 4, 1 954. This want of such good luc k ! ) t i m e the spectacle took place i n fu l l day l i ght and was One wi tness was Georges Fort in, then 3 4 years old, observed by h undreds of wi tnesses scattered through who operates a farm at a p l ace cal led La Gabe l l iere, near h a i fa dozen v i l lages in the department ofVendee, about St-Prouant, a l i t t l e vi ll age of 300 i nha b i t an ts . H e re­ 250 m i l es southwest of Paris. N evertheless only one ports: local newspaper mentioned it and this sighting i s com­ " I t was about fi ve in the afternoon. l was working in p letely u n known except i n the region where it hap­ the fields with my men when all at once, emerging from pened. The wi tnesses were mostly farmers, and a few the t h i c k layer of c l ouds that looked l i ke a storm comi n g priests and schoolteachers. A reader in a nearby v i l l age up, we s a w a sort of l u mi nous b l ue-v iolet mist, of a heard of the matter and wrote to me, and thanks to that regular shape somet h i n g l i ke a c i gar or carrot. Actua l l y ,Herbert S. Taylor has long been active in serious UFO the object came o u t of the layer of clouds i n an almostresearch and has a deep and abiding interest that goes back horizontal position, s l ightly t i l ted toward the groundmore than hal a century. He lives in Oceanside, New York. f and pointing forward ( l ike a submerging submarine). I U R + 30:3 I0
  • dart i n g here and there a t great speed, sometimes speed­ ing up, then stopping for a few seconds, then going on again. In t h i s manner i t flew i n every d i rection over the region between St-Prouant and S i gournais, v i l l ages about fou r m i l es apart. F i n a l l y , when i t was a l most a m i l e from the vertical obj ect, it made a fi n a l dash toward i t at headlong speed, and d i sappeared l i ke a shooting star i n to the lower part where i t had first come out. Perhaps a m i nute l a ter, the carrot l eaned over as it began to move, accelerated, and d i sappeared into the clouds i n the d i stance, having resumed its original horizontal posi t ion, point forward. The w h o l e t h i ng had ¥�rc:; u n e s.ouc<XI� o n c ;p no lt tn lot m t de coro l t � A • tr � 0 s t n r o b r r 61 lasted about h a l f an hour." �: t t � q u i Hmbltnr odh�rtr •olo n t , c r sC tf.l P J: ;) r t R e c t , to < f" dt 0•1· q " t t bHIIo n h qu1 i•olut n f o " r our. Oo u:f"rc p:H M. F o r t� � tre o u r tt1- Standing next to M . Fort i n was h i s fa rm hand, Louis G re l l i er, 3 6 years o l d , a l so from La Gabe l l iere. Ques­A nother view ofthe Vendee objectfi ·om France-Dimanche. t i oned separately, he gave an identical accoun t , with fu rther detai l s about the gyrations o f the d i s k . "Th i s l u minous c l oud appeared rigid. Whenever it M m e . P i zou, a 6 7-year-olcl-widow, o f St-Prouant, moved ( and i ts movements had no connection with the was work i n g i n a cabbage fi e l d about a m i l e away from movement o f the c l o uds themselves) i t d i d so a l l o f a M M . Fort in and G r e l l ier. p i ece, as i f it actua l l y were some gigantic mach i ne "My attention was first attracted about fi ve o c lock," surrounded by m i sts. It came down rather fast from the she said, "by the arri v a l of a strange carrot-shaped c loud c e i l i n g of c l ouds to an a l t i t ude which we thought was that seemed to have detached itse l f from t h e c e i l ing of perhaps a hal f m i l e above us. Then it stopped, and the c l ouds that were mov i ng h1st, carried by the wind. I t point rose quickly until the object was i n a vert i c<1 l came near us, pointed downward, and then stra i g h tened posi t i on, where it became mot i on less. up. It looked to me as i f another, smal ler c loud t h en " D u ri ng this time the dark c louds went on scudding formed above the carrot, making a k i n d of hat for i t . across the sky, d i m ly l i ghted from underneath by the "Then w h i t e smoke c a m e out l i ke a t h read from the v i o l e t l u m i nosity o f the object. I t was an extraord i nary base o f t h e vert ical carrot and began to draw designs a l l sight, and we watched it i ntent l y . A l l over the country­ around i t . Then t h e tra i l went away toward t h e v a l ley, side other fa rmers had a l so dropped their too l s and were where trees hid whatever happened next; I was told that staring up at the sky l i ke u s . a d i sk came out o f the tra i l , but I cannot say that I saw " A l l at o n c e ( by n o w we had b e e n watc h i ng for it, because from where I stood the treetops reached several m i n u tes) wh ite smoke exac t l y l i ke a vapor tra i l al most to the base o f t he vert i c a l c l oud. In my opinion came from t h e lower e n d o f the c l oud. A t first it pointed it was not a real c l oud, for it stayed mot ionl ess and kept toward t h e ground, as i f spun from an i nv i s i b l e shuttle its shape w h i l e other c l ouds were g l i d i n g away very fast fal l i ng free, then i t gradua l l y slowed down w h i le turn­ above it, toward the horizon. i n g around, and fina l l y rose up to describe around the " F i n a l l y , when I had been watch i ng for about half an vert i c a l object an ascend ing spiral which wound it up i n hour, it moved clown i nto a horizontal position again, its c o i l s . W h i l e the rear o f the tra i l w a s d i sso l v i ng and went away rap i d l y i n the d i rect i on toward which i t rap i d l y in the a i r, carried o ff by the w i nd , the beg i n n i ng w a s sl anted." got sharper and fi ner a l l the t i me, as if it were gradu a l l y With Mme. Pizou were a daughter and a farm hand, drying up at its source, b u t without any s l o w i ng down o f who confirmed the o l d ladys story i n every deta i l ; the the unseen object t h a t w a s con t i n u a l l y spinn ing it i nto objec t s maneu vers, t h e compl icated designs drawn by the a i r. the t ra i l , the duration of the a ffa i r. " I t t h u s went on up, t u rn i ng around, up to the very At the same t i m e ten or t w e l ve peop l e were in the top o f the vert ical object, and then started to come down streets and farmyards of St-Prouant. A l l saw t h e same again, t u rn i ng i n the other d i rection. O n l y then, after the sight the arr i v a l o f the horizontal "cloud," i t s rising to smoke t ra i l had vani shed e n t i rely, could w e see the a vert i c a l pos i t ion, the smoke tra i l , the fantastic l i nes i t obj ect that was so w i n g it, a l i tt l e meta l l ic d i sk s h i n i ng drew, and i t s w i n d i ng around. B u t these w i t n esses i n the l i ke a m i rror and reflecting, in i ts rapid movements, v i l lage could not see what took p l ace c lose to t h e ground flashes o f l i ght from the h uge vert i c a l object. any more than M me. Pizou cou ld, because of b u i l d i ngs "The l it t l e d isk a l most i mmed iately stopped turning and trees. around t h e l u m i nous cloud and went down toward the Other farmers in the fields and v i l lages i n the river ground again, t h i s t i me moving away. For q u i te a few v a l l ey or between St-Prouant and S igournais a l l gave m i nutes we could see i t fly i ng low over the valley, accounts that confirmed one another and t h e stories of I U R + 30:3 I I
  • the fi rst w i tnesses. Some of them saw the c i gar lean i ng footbal l held at arm s length and sharply outlined. I t d isap­ toward them, others saw it slant toward the right or to peared over rooftops of houses. Scattered c loud and d u l l the l e ft, according to where t hey were. We may ment ion moon I i ght. ( Roger H . Stanway and Anthony R . Pace, Flying M. Daniel Born u fart [another source says Boni fa i t­ Saucer Report, UFOs. Unidenti ied, Undeniable, 1 96 8 . ) f HT], an electrician who was at La Gabe l l i ere at fi ve J u ly 1 970, Ro me, O h i o , mid-afte rnoon. W itnesses p . m . ; M. Ti ssot at La Legerie, and several others work­ were John and Mary P i l ichis, daughter Bonnie, and her i ng w i t h h i m ; fi n a l l y many farmers at La L ibaudi ere, friend. Stated their son Dennis, "My father was c utting grass Chassay, Le Coudrais, La God i n i er c , and elsewhere in on our property and my mother was busy putting a l l the a l l , several hundred w i tnesses." [ M ichel mentions the freshly-cut grass into big sacks. My father happened to l ook Nantes newspaper La Resistance de I Ouest of Septem­ up, and there not too h igh in the sky was a huge c i gar-shaped ber 20, 1 954, but not the national wee k l y newspaper object, about the size of an imported smoking c igar held at France-Di111anche, which a l so carried some drawings arm s length. He cal led my mothers attention to it, and they as we l l . ] both just stood there watching this thing as it sent the rays of the sun off its body. Clearly a remarkable observation i nvolving hun­dreds of witnesses! What can be said about it? Critics THE PILlC<iiS SIGHTI!lGmight attempt an explanation in terms of some type of ( ! ) AS FIRST SEEN B Y m PARENTS :meteorological or atmospheric man i festation. H ow­ever, I defy them to point out anything in the standard ( / ----7 . -----"" / . . . CIGAR-SHAPED OBJECTtextbooks on meteorology or atmospheric physics that ( 2 ) AS SEEN BY m SISTER AND FRIENDzcan come even remotely close to providing a prosaicanswer to account for what was seen that day, includ­ � § 4,-- § �@ . . . . . , . .} SILVERY DISCSing any attempt to invoke a tornado or someth ing (}) AS SEEN BY NY PARENTS : ) DISCS AND CIGAR �lOVE INTO CLOU D :simi lar as a possible answer. Not only does the testi­mony of the many wi tnesses preclude any such prof­fered exp lanation from being taken seriously, but themeteorologi sts were defi ni te on the point that therewas no tornado anywhere in France on September 1 4. � �� -Whatever it was that was seen in the skies of theFrench Department of Vendee more than half a cen­ �--�� 2� _r---J ( �� �� �� . <--- � , tury ago remains a baffling mystery to this day. -(END OF OHIO UFO !iliPORTS SZCTION ) - ""-----.M O R E R E PORTS FOR T H E R EC O R D "In the meantime, my sister Bonnie and her friend were at a swimming pool about one-hal f mile from our parentsC loud c igar reports have been with us almost from the and they saw 3 silvery disc-shaped objects flying end-to-endbeginning ofthe modern U FO era in 1 94 7, and they continue toward our home. My sister began waving and ye l l ing to mytoday. In this section I present a representative sampling of parents who were now seeing the discs coming in on thethese cases spanni ng al most 50 years. cigar too, but they didnt hear her. As the d iscs got c l ose to J u l y 1 8 o r 1 9, 1 952, P o u i l ly-en-A u x ois ( Cote d O r the cigar, this object and the 3 discs then went i n l i ne frontDepartme nt), Fra nce, 6 : 00 p . m . Residents of Pou i l l y and to back into a huge pecul iar cloud nearby ( one of the fewVenarey-les-Laumes saw a "spindle, having neither wings clouds in the sky at that time). My parents waited 3 or 4nor protuberances, emitting a brief, strong, winking l ight at mi nutes thinking the U FOs would re-emerge from the cloud,regular intervals, and giving ri se to a very thick white smoke but as they watched, the c l oud began to break apart -asthat rapidly dispersed." The obj ect was described as about Mom said, . . . as if a tornado was ripping it apart . The cloud30 meters long, i n a vertical position, and accompanied by disintegrated and there were no U FOs; perhaps they hada loud rumbl ing noise. ( .Jacques Vallee, A natomy o a f already left the cloud i n a manner that those on the groundPhenomenon, 1 965 . ) couldnt see." ( Ohio UFO Reporter, Sept.-Nov. 1 97 1 , double September 6, 1 967, M ei r, Stoke-on-Trent, England, issue 5-6. ) W i tnesses first noticed a vertical sau­a p p rox. 9 : 50 p . m . February 1 2, 1 98 1 , Flagstaff, A rizona, night. "Thesage-shaped cloud in the eastern sky that seemed to have a craft was cigar-shaped looking, kind of l i ke a large b l imp.l ight behind it, which flashed at i rregular intervals over a Was at night, white looki ng, with veins of some sort on theperiod of about 20 seconds. Then a bright, g lowing orange, outside of the craft, dark in color, around the craft. Thereoval-shaped obj ect came from the cloud and flashed at a was a very small white obj ect at one end of the b l i mp. After"fantastic speed" across the sky in a southeasterly direction, about two minutes, the smal l bright round object took offdoing this in about three seconds. The l ight i n the c loud from the main body of the craft. It took off at a very h igh rateg lowed agai n for about I 0 seconds, and then stopped. of speed and disappeared in the sky. The b limp object lostObject [presumabl y the orange oval-H T] was as big as a its l ight and d isappeared into a kind of fog type look, and I U R + 30:3 12
  • drifted away. At least 25 to 30 people saw this event happen moving l i ke the other c louds. ! told him that at first I thoughton the i nterstate freeway that night." ( National UFO Report­ it was a meteorite. We then deci ded it was some sort ofi ng Center. ) contrai l , but there was no aircraft i n sight. We contin ued to M ay 2 2 , 1 996, Tasm a n ia, Austral ia, a p p rox. 3 :30 watch, and he saw a nickel colored object fly out of it. Ip . m . A motorist on the West Tamar H ighway near Brady s didnt see it at first, then I kept watching, and I saw it fl y backLookout noticed an upright, vapor- l i ke tra i l to the north into it. Then a few seconds later it shot back out and flew a l ltowards the Georgetown area. The trail changed into an around t h i s contrail or whatever it was. Then i t disappearedupright, bronze-colored cigar shape which somehow j ust for a few minutes. We kept watching, and it fl ew back outdi sappeared i n front of the witnes s s eyes. ( TUFOIC News­ and disappeared. We never saw it again. I was scared by th is.letter, no. 7 9 . ) I dont know what it was, neither did my husband. It started M ay 29, 1 996, Lau nceston, T a s m a nia, Austral ia, out as some sort of weird contrai I, and then it becamea p p rox. I : 00 p . m . A vertica l , misty-type c loud was seen stationary. Then this nickel-colored object flew a l l aroundagainst the c lear blue sky. It appeared to form i nto a vertical and in and out of it for about 1 5 minutes. Very weird. Whenupright cylinder which seemed to have a l ong hole. The this object was flying you could hear no sound, or see anywitness and a friend who had observed the object looked contrail coming out of it. I dont know what it was. I haveaway for a second, only to fi nd that the object had di sap­ never seen anyth ing l i ke it. . . . A lso about an hour after wepeared in that brief time. ( TUFOJC Newsletter, no. 79.) saw this we heard jets flying, we looked out and they were J u ly 2 1 , 1 998, N a poleon, O h io, I I : 1 9 p . m . "The main headed in the same direct ion as to where we saw the thi ng, object appeared in the sky suddenly. It was the size ofa sma l l for lack of a better word. I would not have thought thattrai ler. It emitted a dense fog around i t , and w e never saw the strange unti l they went back several ti mes, l i ke they werereal craft. I t stayed stationary for seven minutes, and then doing a grid search. That s about it." (National U FO Report­branched out from the front and seemed to grow . Five ing Center. )sma l ler craft were seen circling the main craft as i fto protectit. The large craft seemed to dissolve and disappear. For SO M E CONC L U D I N G T H O U G HTSseveral mi nutes later the sma l l craft still ci rcled." ( N ationalU FO Reporting Center. ) I t sho u ld be evident by now that cloud cigar cases have a October 1 0, 1 999, Lewiston, M ic h igan, 1 1 : 45 p . m . di stinctive and narrow set of recurrent patterns. (A lso, see" I was looking out our bedroom wi ndow watching the sky my two other fUR articles, 29: I and 29:4, on c loud cigarsand saw this obj ect through the haze. It was crystal cl ear last and satell ite obj ect cases). These patterns have been estab­night, that s why I rea l ly noticed this haze. It was oval l ished and are durable, and the importance of this fi ndingshaped with white lights that would get very bright and then cannot be stressed enough. Whatever the nature of what hasget very dim, l i ke a very slow pulsing light. What rea l ly got been seen globa l ly and through the years, witnesses haveme was a l l the other I ittle I ights fl ying around it. I asked my described it in re latively similar terms. And, it is importanthusband to look at it, and he couldn t fi gure out what it was to note that when people think of " fl y i ng saucers," theeither. It was stationary and a l l these other l ittle l ights were concept of cloud cigars is certa inly not what comes to mind.buzzing around it. It reminded both of us of moths flying Even today, with all the informat ion available on U FOs,around a l ight bulb. There was no set pattern to their fl ight, cloud cigar sightings rema in virtua l l y un known to the mediaand it looked l i ke some of them flew into this thing. We and public. This gives us more confidence in the reports, andwatched it for about 45 minutes and it didn t do anything makes it unl ikely that witnesses are fabricating these re­else, so we went to sleep as we have to get up early, and it ports. Further, the usual gamut of explanations that accountwas almost 1 2 :45 a.m. I got up a few hours later and looked for the large majority of raw U FO reports do not apply toto see ifit was sti l l there, and it was gone. No haze, no lights, c loud cigars in any conceivable manner. They pose annothing. I guess what really made us notice this thing was enormous c hallenge to science, as, ofcourse, does the wholebecause of the haze that surrounded it. There was no other of the UFO phenomenon. What w i l l it take for the scientifichaze around, and neither one of us had ever seen anything community to awaken from their long slumber and come tothat looked l i ke that. Sure would l i ke to know what it was." the same obvious conclusion? How much longer must we( National UFO Reporting Center. ) wait? + October 29, 1 999, Tusca loosa, Alabama, 5 : 4 5 p . m ." I was on my way to drop the kids off at c hurch when I saw ARCH IVES FOR U FO RESEARCHsomething out of the corner of my eye. It looked l i kesomething fal ling out of the sky smoking. N othing was The Archives for U FO Research i n Sweden has for manyv isible. We never saw anything come out. It looked like a years done a splendid job of col lecting U FO literaturecontra i l after i t ful l y appeared. I dropped them off and went worldwide. AFU has even been able to obtain an internback home. I immediately told my husband to come out on recently to help them arrange their fi les, and they have athe back porch to see if he could tel l me what it was that I lot of fun baking alien cakes. Check out their website atsaw. H e l ooked and he said it is a cloud, but it was not www.afu . info/projects.htm. I U R + 30:3 13
  • THE AMATEUR ASTRONOMER AND THE UFO PHENOMENON BY GERT H E R B AND J . ALLEN H Y N EKEditor s Note: Th is article was origin a l ly incl uded in the Thus, with the Center s support, Herb gained the coopera­Fall 1 980 i ssue of the CUFOS Bulletin, a newsletter that the tion of three groups and mai led questionnaires to a l l theirCenter pub l ished for several years. We are reprinting the members.article in 1 UR for several reasons. M any current readers of Although Sturrock s survey is often and correctl y citedI UR have never seen this article, or any issues oft he CUFOS as important evidence that scientists-at least astrono­Bulletin for that matter. M ost importantly, the article pre­ mers-supported U FO study and have even seen thi ngs insents results from an intriguing research project that has the sky they could not identify, H erb s survey i s in somebeen mostly forgotten by today s ufologists and the U FO­ ways more significant. As the authors note, amateur as­interested pub! ic. tronomers are usua l l y more fa mil iarw ith the sky, especially Gert H erb was an amateur astronomer who l i ved in the with the naked eye, than professionals. The l atter group mayChi cago area. H e became a volunteer at the Center in the look outside for a break from an observing session, but 1 970s, and he eventua lly proposed that the Center survey professional observers spend their time work i ng with aamateur astronomers to determ ine their attitudes about the telescope, taking measurements and photos, and not usingU FO phenomenon and the number and types of any U FO the telescope for visual observations. Amateur observerssightings they may have had. H erb hoped the survey would routinely scan the sky and normally ( at l east back in thebe a companion to the one that Peter A. Sturrock carried out 1 970s) do much of their work visua l l y .among professional astronomers ( Report on a Survey oj"the Consequently, U FO sighti ngs b y amateurs should beMembership of" the A merican Astronomical Society Con­ more frequent than those by professionals, and amateurscerning the UFO Problem. Stanford U niversity Institute for m ight even be better able to fi nd an explanation for oddPl asma Research, Jan uary 1 97 7 ) . thi ngs seen in the sky. And whether they are more frequent G iven today s attitudes toward U FO organizations and or not, U FO sighti ngs by amateur astronomers should bethe U FO phenomenon in general , it is rather i nconceivab le more trustworthy and bel ievable than those from the pub l i cthat amateur astronomy groups wou ld give perm ission for a a t l arge. That is t h e key point t o take from t h i s artic le.survey of thei r members about U FOs. Times were very We will add commentary in brackets to the articled i fferent in the 1 970s. The study of U FOs, wh i l e not quite where appropriate to highl ight various poi nts or to addrespectable, was attracting serious scientific attention, and perspective from today to Herb s findings.it wasn t completely crazy or goofy to be studying U FOs.M any of our readers are acquainted with the or 4% of the professional respondents, reported that they Sturrock Report, the survey of the views of had observed events or objects they fai l ed to identify, 1 6 of professional astronomers on U FOs, par­ these being dayl ight sightings. ticularly with reference to whether they felt The question natura l l y arises, if this was the responseU FOs are worthy of scientific i nvestigation, and to any U FO among professional astronomers, what m ight be the re­experiences they themselves m ight have had. Of 2,6 1 I sponse from the l arger population of amateur astronomers,questionnaires mailed out, 1 ,356 were returned ( 52%). L n espec i a l l y as regards the question of personal sightings.answer t o the question whether U FOs were worthy of A fter all, contrary to popu lar opinion, professional astrono­scientific attention, only 20% ofthe respondents expressed mers spend l ittle time in the actual observation of the opena defin ite negative attitude ( 1 7% "probably not" and 3% skies, being extremely m i ssion-oriented in examining very fobablr l ]"certainly not"), the rema i n i ng 80% being favorabl y in-c l i ned, 23% say i n 0 "certain I/," the othe r s St i l restricted fields through large telescopes, while amateur Tyn� fllilr tlllli m � lllllml Wl�m �m�n �fill[ �Btrunomcr5this was nearly eigh t times as many as said "certainly not." skies. Further, professional astronomical observation isIn response to the question of personal UFO sightings, 62, a l most entirely done with instruments rather than with the I U R + 30:3 l4
  • eyes, concentrating again on m inute portions of the sky. It from the Astronomical League members was relativelyhas been estimated, for i nstance, that i f the worlds largest poor, i f bulk m a i ling had also been used. Of the 505telescope were used every n ight of the year, it would take members receiving questionnaires, however, 290, or 5 7%several hundred years to cover the entire sky and accompl ish responded! [Yes, this is a fantastic response rate, given thethe type of detai led observations done with such instru­ circumstances.]ments. The amateur astronomer, on the other hand, often Our main concern i n this venture was to determinescans the entire sky avai l able to h i m several times a n ight. whether the amateur-astronomer population as a whole F urther sti l l , serious amateur astronomers are often contained members who had had a UFO experience of somem uc h more fam i l iar with the appearance of the night sky sort. H erb had been disturbed by Arthur C. C larkes state­than professional astronomers ( as odd as that may seem), to ment in his book Promise ofSpace ( Harper and Row, 1 968)whom each star is merely a number in a catalogue. Then that amateur astronomers have not reported U F Os. ( M aybeagain, they have avai lable easi l y maneuverable or mobile no one asked them before ! ) He also asked them whether theyoptical equipment, suitable for resolving short-l ived aerial believed U FOs "probably or certainly exist," "possiblyphenomena, whereas their professional counterparts are exist," or "probably or certainly do not exist."constrai ned by l arge and unwieldy in struments. Too, they Although 67% of all the amateurs felt that UFOs cer­are more widely di stributed geographically than their coun­ tainly, probably, or possibly exist, responses to this questionterparts. cannot be given the same weight as the question, " H ave you Thus amateurs should be able to spot unusual occur­ ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaus­rences as wel l as to weed out, because of their training and tive efforts at i dentification?" This is not the same as theexperience, sky phenomena that often puzzle the public and question, " H ave you ever seen a U FO?" The l atter, and thelead to spurious U FO reports-meteors, planets, twinkl i ng earlier question about belief in U FOs, depends largel y onstars, and even advertising planes. what one s defin ition of a U FO is. Is it a visitor from outer All of these factors made it quite natural to query space, a natural phenomenon, a man-made device, or what?amateur astronomers about their possible experiences with The question as to whether they could or could not identifyvery unusual sky events, and one of us ( Herb) was the one an object is direct and unambiguous.who proposed that this be done, and who undertook to do it. Let us therefore go directly to the results of that ques­ Fortunate ly, a l most a l l amateur astronomers are affi l i ­ tion. Mr. Clarke, take notice: Ofthe total of J ,805 respondentsated w i t h one or more organ izations devoted t o their hobby. from a l l organizations, 427 said "Yes" to that question!These organ izations are the Astronomical League, the As­ That s nearly one-quarter of the respondents (24%) [andsociation of Lunar and P lanetary Observers (A LPO), the verifying the supposition that amateurs would see moreI nternational Occu ltation Ti ming Association ( I OTA), and unidentified phenomenon than professional s ] . H owever,the A merican Association of Variable Star Observers that overa ll result deserves closer analysis. Were a l l the(AA YSO). observers of the same proficiency? How much observ i ng Herb approached all four organizations, with the ful l experience had they had? H ow did the reported s ightingssupport o f the C U FOS scientific director ( H ynek), and that differ: Were they a l l faint l i ghts in the night sky, were thereof the Center, asking for cooperation in this venture. Only some daytime sightings, were there sightings of h i ghthe AA YSO refused to cooperate (hardly a tribute to an strangeness? Were any of them observed or photographedopen-mi nded, scientific attitude), but the Astronomical through a telescope? How many b i nocular observationsLeague, which publishes the magazine The Re flector, kindly were made?sent our q uestionnaire to their subscriber list of some 7,800persons. H owever, only I ,622 (2 1 %) responded. Somehow, OBSERVING PROFICIENCY A N D REP O RTSone would have wished astronomers to have done better![Actual ly, since the s urvey was sent by bulk mail, this is a As to proficiency, H erb establ ished a proficiency scale insurprisingly good response and suggests interest i n the UFO which the fol lowing factors were considered: Did the as­subject.] tronomer keep regul ar observing records? Did he or she The two sma l l er organizations, A L PO and I OTA, with fol low a structured personal observing program? Did h e ora total membersh ip of 726, were polled as a s ingle popula­ she work i n cooperation with a national organization such astion. Though sma l l , these groups are comprised of people ALPO, A A YSO, etc . ? How long had this person been andevoted to more speci a l ized aspects of amateur astronomy amateur astronomer?requiring special ski l l s and often more speci a lized astro­ Herb then selected, on the basis of rep lies to thesenomical equipment, as wel l as dedicated motivation. questions, 26 1 "senior" observers who had rated h i ghest on H owever, only 505 members received questionnaires, the above criteria. Mostofthese, as might be expected, cameas was determi ned by a fol l ow-up that was possibl e in this from the ranks of ALPO and lOTA members.case. S ince bulk mailing was used, this may have accounted N ow, Mr. Clarke, rea l l y take notice! The seni or observ­for the 22 1 members who stated they had not received ers, all ofwhom are thoroughly fam i liar with the n ight skies,questionnaires. This may a lso explain why the response reported 74 objects "which resisted most exhaustive efforts I U R + 30:3 I 5
  • at i dentification." [This is a greater percentage, more than (the c loud itselfwas 25° l ong). As is the case w i th most U FO28%, than the sighting frequency by a l l observers .] photographs, they remain unexpl a in ed and very puzzl i ng, W e l l , what sort of objects? Herb subdivided a l l reports but prove nothing positive. The whole fie l d ofufo logy hasreceived i nto five c l asses, according to their trajectories and yet to produce one good photograph of a strange object atapparent angular sizes. These divisions bear some resem­ c lose range.b lance to both the U F OCAT c lassifications and the six We properly point out two considerations i n assess ingc l assifications originally proposed by one of u s ( Hynek) . these startl ing results from the amateurs. ( I t was thought atThe c l assifications are: the start that the questionnaires m ight even show that ama­ teur astronomers never saw anything strange i n the course of Class De finition their observations, and that perhaps M r. C l arke would be 0 Point source in uniform motion proved correct. N one of us expected such a harvest of l Extended source i n uniform motion unknown s . ) There is a strong possibil ity that those who had 2 Point source i n erratic motion made a sighting would very probably be more apt to fi l l out 3 Extended source in erratic motion the questionnaire and return it than the nonsighters. They 4 Object observed at short enough distance as to certainly ought to have been more motivated. If, therefore, leave no doubt in observers mind that something one counts a l l persons pol led, and not on ly those who strange was observed responded, we get a minimum of about 5 . 2 % U FO sighters, as agai nst 23 . 7% when we consider a l l respondents ( 427/ C lasses l , 3, and 4 are c l early of great interest. An I ,805). The "true" percentage is thus somewhere betweenextended object in either uniform or erratic motion is of these two l imits, but even if only 5% of a l l amateur astrono­i nterest because it is most unl ikely that a meteor or a h igh­ mers made valid sightings of truly unusual objects, thisflying p lane would fool trained observers: They are a l l too would stil l be of great significance. [By compari son, i f wefam i l i ar with them. Further, almost a l l observers have bin­ make the same calcu lation for professional astronomers inoculars handy, and they were general ly used. Even a point the Sturrock survey, the sighting rate drops to 2 .4%, whichsource i n erratic motion can be of considerable i nterest. is sti l l i mpressive. I n contrast, the sighting rate among theC lass 4 is, of course, the most i nteresting of all; that four general pub l i c is somewhere between 5 and I 0%, dependingsuch cases were reported by the selected sen ior observers is on which survey result we use.]noteworthy. I t is i nteresting that no amateur astronomer reported a close encounter of the third kind, that is, with creatures66 U N KNOWNS S E E N T H RO U G H A T E L ESCOPE peering out of portholes or standing by their craft on the ground. With peer pressure being what it is, it is l i kely thatWith so many amateur astronomers reporting observations had such a case actually been observed, it might wel l havethat resisted attempts at explanation, one i m mediately asks, not been reported!"How many observations were made with the astronomers H erb is now preparing a compendium of what wastelescope or binoculars, presumed handy at all ti mes?" actua l l y reported in each case. When completed, it w i l l beS ixty-six out of 427 observations of a l l sorts were made avai lable for exami nation at the Center; it is hoped thatthrough a telescope, generally after the object was spotted funds wi l l become available to publish the catalogue and afirst by eye. Forty additional objects were observed by more extended report. [ Regrettably, H erb never completedb i noculars alone. Thus, nearly a quarter of the puzzling a final report of the survey results . ]observations were made with optical aids! Finally, w e conclude t h i s report with a word ofcaution. H erb next singled out cases of high strangeness; i.e., Amateur astronomers are no less subject to psychologicalcases of sources i n erratic motion and the "c lose encounter" aberrations than the general publ ic; their i ncreased compe­cases. Fourteen of these were observed through a telescope tence in distinguishing between k nown and u n knownand 1 7 through binoculars. phenomena need not necessarily be matched by a desire for disinterested j udgment. Thus the results of this survey should not be accepted as evidence for the existence ofSEVEN OBJECTS PHOTOGRAPHED UFOs . Here we run into the ever-tr oubles ome matter of theSeven objects were photographed: Three were of point defin ition of a UFO. We believ e that the survey amplysources; one was of an extended object, somewhat egg­ demon strates that even amateu r astron omers , surely more theshaped, and was taken through a telescope; one object had capabl e than the genera l public in identifying object s in n ight sky, come across things in the sky that defy explan a­six photographs taken of it i n q u i c k succession (this was ofan object which transited across Saturn l i ke a l i�tle moon); tion. If we remem ber that the "U" in UFO s1mply means ranother photo was of two symmetrical c loud-hke obJ ects "unide ntified ," then the survey does prove that amateu astron omers report U FOs, quite contra ry to Arthur C .moving in u nison. This last was a photo of a "cloud" that themoved rapidly at irregular i ntervals, moving toward and C lark e s conten tion. B u t then, that gentle man fal l s into .away from the sun in ! 5 ° arcs, more or less along the echptic (continued on page 24) lUR + 30:3 16
  • BooK REVIEWSin A lien Heat: The Warminster Mystery Revisited, by Steve the latter 1 960s, when that magazine-largely owing, I learn Dewey and John Ries. San Anton i o : Anomalist Books, in this book, to the half-mad Gordon Creighton s excitation 2006. 322 p. $ 1 7 . 9 5 . (which never took much to ignite, i n any event)-gave i t A passionately energetic, coverage, some o f it s i l l y and gull ible, some o f it appropri­uncritically minded, and mys­ ately skeptical. T i l l now, the only book on the subject tot i c a l l y i n c l i n ed smal l -town appear in the U nited States was the widely unread UFOjournal ist begins to pub l i cize Prophecy, published three decades ago on a tiny imprintlocal reports ofnocturnal l ights owned by contactee/New Age entrepreneur Timothy G reenand other oddities. He has ties Beckley. Dewey and Ries won t recognize that name, but i tto an urban tab loid which fur- IN AUEN HEAT w i l l tel l American readers a l l they need to know about how seriously ufologists here took the matter.ther c i rc u l ates the c l a i m s , The Warminster Mysll!ry Revisitedpromoting the notion that the Warminster is a touristy sort ofplace, located in Wiltshirecommunity is uniquely attrac­ to the rural southwest of London. Over a decade, but mosttive to otherworldly visitors. actively around approximately the end ofthe 1 960s and theC uriosity seekers, occultists, very early 1 970s, local j ournal i st Arthur Shuttlewood, not adrug-addled hippies, and a few ufologist as such but a saucer buff on h i s way to h i s trueufologists arrive to partici pate calli ng as a contactee, sti rred the U FO pot. And it happened in sky watches, during which some mi stake ordinary phe­ while Dewey and Ries were growing up there. l fnot for thatnomena, n atura l ( astronomical bodies) and art i fi c i a l accident of birth and geography, this largely point less,( sate l l i tes and airp lanes), for extraord inary thi ngs. H oaxers spottily interesting book would not exist, I m sure. For al land practical j okers take advantage of the situation. The their loathing of ufology and ufologists, even they can tj ournalist goes on to claim i n teractions with pure-hearted bring themselves to dec lare Warminster a momentous mo­space people, who spout the usual drivel, and writes some ment in UFO history. These days i t i s barely a g l i mmer eveni n an e books. I n due course the affair runs i ts predi ctable in the col lective memory of saucerians.course and is recal led, if by practical ly nobody, with "Saucerians," by the way, i s a phrase that never appearsam usement or embarrassment. in the book. In a charitable i nterpretation, that is because the Sound l ike a book you can hardly wait to read? Well, authors-whose grasp of the nuances of the U FO contro­maybe a novel-preferably a l iterary, not a science-fi ction, versy and its personali ties is c lose to nonexistent-haveexercise-could make something of such unsurprising and never heard of it. It is, however, a useful way of separati ng,unprom ising material. As nonfi ction, possibly an extended as the rel igious-studies scholar J . Gordon Melton observedjournal article on an obscure moment in popular imagina­ many years ago, those foc used on unidentified phenomenation would do. ln response to underwhelming demand, whose nature is undeterm i ned and can only be specu latedhowever, Steve Dewey and John Ries have produced more about from those who hold that the phenomena are i denti­than 300 pages worth of In A lien Heat: The Warminster fied and known, specifical l y as spacecraft p iloted by friendly,Mystery Revisited. Nobody w i l l accuse i t of being a page­ god! ike extraterrestrials. The former are u fo logists, who ( i nturner. Well, at any rate nobody short of British skeptic varying degrees o f intel lectual sophistication) are empiri­David C l arke, who spares no hyperbole or enthusiasm in a cists, and the latter are saucerians, who harbor what amountsq uote on the back cover ( "fresh . . . fascinating . . . should be to a religious sensibi l i ty.read by everyone who wants to know the truth behind the Supremely confident that UFOs are nonsense, the au­U FO mystery") . Suffice it to say that other readers, s logging thors c hoose not to take note of such inconve n i entthrough a book that sometimes feels more l ike 600 pages, distinctions. To them ufologists, nearly to a man and woman,w i l l have no trouble sparing both hyperbole and enthusiasm. are i diots who have "no references to the real worl d," are What is a "Warminster mystery"? I have heard of it "members of the N ew Age," bel ieve Queen Elizabeth has abecause I was reading England s Flying Saucer Review i n secret identity as a reptilian a lien, and subscribe to a "techno- I U R + 30:3 l7
  • religion." U F O evidence consists i n its entirety of "photo­ Ma Eyes Only, by Ryan S . Wood. Redwood City, Calif. : jic grap h s and v i deos of dubious q u a l i t y . " Hoaxes are The author, 2005 . 32 8p. $30.00. "fundamental to u fology," and U FOs are either (to fantasy­ Although Ma Eyes Only jic prone u fo logists) alien spaceships or (to those who reside i n i s subtitled "Earth s Encoun­ the real world with the authors) just a bunch o funrecognized ters w i t h E x traterre s t r i a l IFOs. C lose encounters otherwise unexplainable are hallu­ Technology" and contains a c i nations. Not only that, but Carl Sagan, whom Dewey and long list of poss ible crashes or Ries cite frequently on questions related to psychological retrievals of alien technology, anomalies, is the final word on altered states of conscious­ it i s also an argument for the ness, and the true authorities on UFOs are somebody named reality ofthe M ajestic- 1 2 ( MJ - John T. S ladek, who years ago wrote a Martin Gardner-style 1 2 or M aj ic) documents. I t is debunking opus, and somebody else named Christopher clearly a book written by a Evans, who did the same. believer and written for be­ - . - Where Warminster is concerned, the authors a l low as lievers, which is not necessarily ��� how they couldn t be bothered actual ly to i nterview any­ a bad thing. RYAN S. WO· �.. FOREWORD BY JIM MARRS body who participated in the affair. Consequently, they ve For those who don t know, "# done no more than assemble a body of contemporary writ­ the original M J - 1 2 documents were de l ivered i nto the hands ings and appended jeering commentary. In other words, thi s of Jaime Shandera, a H o l lywood producer, and W i l liam J . i s neither the approach taken by the c lassic close-up study o f Moore, a writer and U FO researcher. The documents were an ongoing saucerian epi sode, When Prophecy Fails discovered on a rol l of undevel oped 3 5 mm fi l m sent to ( 1 95 6)-which I ve always thought of as a comic novel Shandera, apparently from Albuquerque, N ew Mexico, in masked as a sociological tract-nor a seri ous effort to the early to mid- J 980s. These original documents were an reconstruct what happened from the actual memories and alleged 1 952 briefing for president-elect Dwight Eisenhower testimonies of those who were there. Retrospective ac­ and a letter on White H ouse stationary authori zing the counts have their obvious l i m i tations, but surely it i s creation of MJ- 1 2 by President H arry Truman. Moore and worthwhile t o know what the supposed witnesses th ink Shandera also located in the National Archives, they clai med, today. ( From decades-old testimony, I once learned, for a memo from one government official to another that men­ i nstance, the truth about an al leged historical U FO incident tioned MJ- 1 2. Later, additional documents would be received and the social circumstances that gave rise to it.) Actua lly, by a host of other researchers. one suspects that participants views, in addition to what­ But rather than worry about this and to point out that the ever else they m ight bring to the discussion, wou ld simply arguments for and agai nst MJ- 1 2 have appeared in manyhave been more interesting than the authors . magazine articles and books ( i ncl uding Top Secret/Majic by There are also the odd anachronisms. When was the last Stanton Friedman and my 2002 book Case MJ- 12: The True time, to cite one example, that you heard someone call a Story Behind the Government s UFO Conspiracies. for wave a "flap"? Dewey and Ries seem not to have left the those interested in pursuing this), I l l deal mainly with the ufological sensibility of the 1 950s (which perhaps explains, I i st of crash retrievals and debris recovery detai led in Ma ic j too, their weird obsession with extraterrestrial spacecraft). Eyes Only.They also labor under the curious m i sapprehension that Wood has selected the cases from the long l i sts that John Keel and Jacques Vallee must be skeptics because they have been produced by others, including the late Leonard reject extraterrestrial spacecraft as one explanation for UFO Stringfield. He begins with the crash of an a irship in Aurora,reports. In reality, Keel and Val lee abandoned the ETH for Texas, in 1 897 and ends with the event on the I sle of Lewis,far more scientifically i mprobable notions based in occult­ Scotland, i n late 1 996. In between are cases that are solid,i sm and, in Val lee s case, conspiracy theory. One suspects, solidly investigated, cases that are weak and solidly inves­though, that for Dewey and Ries, a l l that counted in this t igated, and some that havent been i nvestigated at a l l . Somecontext was the cynical max i m that the enemy of my enemy are only si ngle-witness cases. Others are based on docu­is my friend. ments that suggest something unusual and possi b l y U n l i ke Prophecy, In A lien Heat is neither terribly extraterrestrial happened that resulted in the recovery o fenlighteni ng nor terrib l y entertai ning, except in the unlikely alien materia l .event that you demand n o more than boilerplate i n your T h e first case reviewed is, i n t h i s context, o n e of theanalysis. One sometimes has the sense that the authors did most d isturbing, at least to this reviewer. Wood rates theno more than cram the contents of a few debunking books Aurora, Texas, crash as high, meaning it has an "authenticityi nto a random-word generator and preserve the results level of80 to 1 00%." Wood defines this as " . . . v irtual l y a l lbetween covers. I guess that s how debunkers get to "the ofthe avai lable i nvestigative channels and ideas have beentruth behind the U F O mystery" these days. It is easier than pursued, and with each test the case or document has shownactual inte l l ectual effort, and who wants to think too hard to be authentic or nearly problem free. At this level, multipleanyway? -Jerome Clark witnesses are present that have seen the crash or aftermath, I U R + 30:3 18
  • or read a document in an official capacity. . . . Physical Wood defines it such "that a considerable amount of i nves­ev idence i s avai lable; for example, rocks to test, scarred tigation has been completed. W itnesses are present, storiestrees, photographs or direct ET materials . . . . a l l indicate the appear genuine, a few anachronisms may be present buthighest level of authenticity. A t least several researchers are have reasonabl e explanations. Forensic testing, i f possible,in substantial agreement about the core evidence ofthe case, has been partially completed, and there are strong s igns ofoften for many years." case validity . . . . " Yet, with the Aurora, Texas, crash, we have none of Fair enough. But, what about the Santa Rosa, N ewthose things. The eyewitness testimony, taken i n the early M ex ico, case of the spring or winter of 1 963? I t is single­ 1 970s, is at best contradictory with these witnesses tel l i ng witness, there are no corroborating witnesses or documents,one researcher one thing and another something else. The and i t is somewhat preposterous on the face of it. Yet, it isphysical evidence, gathered in the 1 970s, cant be l i n ked to labeled as medium-high. Wood does not seem to appl y h i sthe airship crash and is therefore inelevant. And the docu­ rating system even ly and consistently.mentation avai lable, in the form of newspaper artic les, does At least with the Indiantown Gap case from the w internothing to prove the case. l n fact, according to Jerome Clark of 1 969, Wood admits that i t i s single-witness, stating, "Thein the second edition of his UFO Encyclopedia, "Wise only known source to this crash retrieval incident comesCounty hi storian Etta Pegues looked into the story . . . . from Sergeant I st C l ass C l i fford Stone."Among the old-timers she interviewed was M rs. Robbie Stone claimed that the craft was "wedge-shaped" andHanson, who declared, I t was a hoax . l was i n school that that there were bodies found. S tone said that he was told today and nothing happened . " take readings with a Geiger counter and as he did, he Tak ing it further, Clark noted, "M oreover, Pegues real i zed that he was seeing something that was not fromwrote, i fthe Aurora story had been factual rather than fiction Earth.C l i ff D. Cates would have included it in his Pioneer History Wood rates the case as needing more research, but inof Wise County which he publ ished in 1 907 . . . . Al so, if i t reality , there is but a single w i tness and that witness, Stone,had been true, Harold R. Bost wou ld have included it in h i s has been caught in embel l ishments in other stories he hasSaga ofA urora." told. l f nothing else, these facts should impact on the overa l l But even with these criticisms, i t should be noted thatrating of the case, moving it from high t o , a t best, medium Wood has done a real serv ice here. As Stringfield did beforeand probably to medium low. him, Wood has provided some interesting i nformation on There are other such problems. Cases that have been incidents in which i t i s possible that alien artifacts, or thethought of as hoaxes for decades have new l i fe here incl ud­ remains of i nterstel lar craft, have been recovered. He pro­i ng the Maury I s land case of J une 1 947, the Plains of San vides the e lements of the case, commenting on the value ofAgustin crash of J u l y 1 947, and the Aztec, New Mexico, the speci fic case, and giving the sources of the information.case of 1 948. Stringfields hope had been to learn more about a report One of the footnotes i n the section on the Plains of San through the pub l i cation of the information. Wood seems toAgustin is troubl ing to me. The information about Roscoe have a simi lar goal in mind. Wi l meth, who supposed ly heard about the crash and the These l istings, a l l 75 of them, are the heart of the book .bodies and even talked of a "bodies site," was attributed to But wrapped around them are the arguments for the exist­me i n A History of UFO Crashes. ence of the M aj estic- 1 2 . Nearly all U FO researchers agree W h i l e that information is accurate, it is not the whole that if there were an alien spaceship that crashed nearpicture. Robert Drake gave the information about Wilmeth Roswe l l , then a committee like M J - 1 2 wou ld have beento Stan Friedman. Friedman tried to contact W i l meth, but created to exploit it. The q uestion has always been i fMJ- 1 2was never able to do so. Wi lmeth died before Friedman was that committee, o r i f i t was the creatio n o f U F Ocould interview h i m . So the information about the bodies researchers to fi l l i n gaps i n their knowledge.from Drake comes second hand, at best. ln a chapter called, "The Authenticity of the Special Worse stil l , there is no corroboration for Drakes tales. Operations Manual," contributed by Robert Wood (father H e said that he was riding back to A l buquerque with three ofthe author and longtime ufologist), there is an expl anationother men after he had learned of the crash out on the Plains of the manual. This was a document apparently created as afrom a cowboy on a ranch where they had stopped. Accord­ guide for those who are responsible for the crash retrievals. ing to Drake, originally, they a l l discussed the crash on their A document which then leaked into the UFO community away back to A lbuquerque. I nterviewed separately by Tom number of years ago.Carey, each denied the conversations had taken p lace. It Robert Wood l i sted a n umber of objections that oppo­means that Drakes testimony is unsupported by any inde­ nents have made over the years. One ofthose objections waspendent fact and does nothing to corroborate the crash on that there had been no document control n umber. Wood, the Plains. I n fact, and worse sti l l , it is contradicted by those worki ng w i th Don Berliner who received the original fil m men Drake said woul d be able to confirm his account. with the manual o n it, found that one o f the documents For a case level as medium high, or 60 to 80% authentic, (continued on page 24) JUR + 30:3 9
  • FUN AND GAMES IN THE DESERT NEAR LAS CRUCES BY MrcHAEL D . SwoRDs T here is an u n in teresti n g Project B lu e Book record relatively c lear and they were l ooking at the stars to see i fthe card that reads "25 Jan 54. Las Cruces, N ew c larity was suffi ci en t to calibrate thei r instruments. M e x i co . B lob oflight which changed brightness. Observer I saw the moving l ight i n the northeast, Was astronomical ( M eteor). " That Observer 2 i n the north-northwest. For Ob- ,-------, description does n t sound pro m i s i ng or war- server l , the l ight moved in a shallow arc rant further rev iew. from the northeast to the southeast. From the But turn the page. There you w i l l fin d a view of Observer 2, i t was from the north- cover envelope stating that C lyde Tombaugh northwest to approximately east. The l i gh t brought t h e case t o t h e proj ect. Hmmm. The /. � was star- l ike, a "ye l l ow-w h i te radiation best astronomical observer of his day, a man � " curve," s i m i l a r to the stellar classification l � who could recognize meteors i n his sleep, t, GO (on the H arvard scale; this i s close to the thought that a simple write-off meteor was S u n s c l assification as G 2 ) . The l ight was < worth sending to the U FO project? What would visible to Observer I for about 6 seconds and prompt him to do so? Now Tombaugh wasn t the observer (al- �/1 i t pu lsed at about I IS-second i n terva ls. Its rel ative brightness varied from less than though he had at least one U FO s ighting, also magni tude 6 to greater than -I ( for com pari- i n Las Cruces i n 1 949, and he also saw the son, magnitude 6 i s barely v i s i b le to the famous green firebal l s in New Mexico). The naked eye while the upper value i s character- w i tnesses were two guys who worked with i s t i c of a bright planet such as J u piter). The Tombaugh. Someone (perhaps Tombaugh) two observers comm unicated to one another convinced one of the observers to write up the by i ntercom and compared notes. report, which then fol lows i n the case fi le. Their comparison a l l owed them to make The reporter ( last name Schaldach, but Clyde Tombaugh a rough cal c u l ation ofthe l ights d istance and w e l l call h i m Observer I ) was a c i v i l ian speed. Even given 25% slop in their esti- employee i n the Technical Service U n i t at Whi te Sands mates, the report turned in by Observer I concluded that the Proving Grounds. The service he provided was camera object was about 1 2 m i les away at the time of its brightest monitoring of missile launches, so he was no random Joe pulse [and thereby about 9 mi les h igh, in a rough calcul ation who just happened to see a meteor i n the sky. He was a by this author, not the observers]. The velocity was 1 2,000 graduate ofCoJum bia Univers i ty, had worked as an astrono- mph. Putting in error bars, the object was 1 2±3 miles d i s ta n t mer at the Low ell Ob serva tory (no, astronomers never see · an d movmg a t 1 2 000±3,00 0 mph. UFOs), and was a temporary This was a good faith try facu lty mem ber for the Uni ver- at obta inin g wha t Ed RuppeIt alw sity of Chi cag o at the Yer kes Ob servatory. A me teo ays wanted for Blu e Boo k: r. . . tna ngu /ate d dat a. ,lm mm aga m. Som eth i ng doe sn t fit aga in . Tom bau gh wo uld nat ura . l l y hav e learn ed abo ut th sm ce l�e h:e d m Las Cru is cas eTH E SIG HT ING ces and wo u l d hav e bee n i nte res ted Ill eve ! yth mg unu sua l sai l i ng aro und in the hea ven s WI It wa s I 0 o clo ck in the Ob ser ver 1 told h i m tha eve ni ng wh en h e wa s set t he wa s abs olu tely cer tainbal listic cam era to mo ting u p his wa s no �m d of me teo r, wh tl�a t t;l�� . nito r the miS S! I e. S eve . . nte en md es ich he stat es em pha tica llysou t h eas t of h i m the sec t h e All For ce rep ort tvvice i n ond w i tne ss (Ob ser ver for m, Tom bau gh wo uld 2) wa s do i n b e pre ttthe sam e thm g (se e d i agr cer tam tha t we had a UF am o n the nex t pag e). The O o n our han ds. A fter all ni gh t wa� , the se we r� tram ed obs erv ers , Wit h one bei ng an astr ono meJ·. M oreo ver , JUR + 30:3 20
  • upon peculiar tracks i n the desert sand. There First sighting of U F O were more than two dozen of these marks, ap­ parently strung out in a "series." , · I I The marks were pecul i ar, to say the least. ·. , ---- �, I / 0 bjecrs Concentric circles cut i nto the ground w i th a O b s erver 1 / brightest pulse; c. 12 m i les / / from O b serve r 1 , d u e E ast, 9 miles raised center point, an "arm" extending from the �1:::_:: - - - - - ::- .. .· h i g h and c . 8 miles ground distance. 1 ------� 7 ·. circles terminated by marks made by three or fou r c law-like "hands." The c i rcles were de­ I scribed as "perfect," and varied between 1 Y2 to 3 feet in diameter for the largest one. C irc les I� I seen on one trip were wind-eroded on another, II �� I I but a new set appeared fresh on a third visit. "1z. I Mrs. Weiss was moved to tell the newspa­ II ; �> -:. I �� So I --- -� per, while M rs. Sanders reported to White Sands. " - _..... �... ., I - - -- - The two i nvestigators from W h i te Sands went --- - - -- --- -- out with the l adies and saw the marks them­ 1 1t 0 " �"" selves. I t was reported that the tracks j ust sud­ denly began and sudden ly stopped w i th no other mark ings of any sort leading to them or away. The White Sands guys, Caption Ross Orcutt andmeteors don t appear visible at a low altitude w ithout H enry H erman ( described as a C I D agent), went back to thep utting on a much more extensive l i ght show, as Tombaugh base without comment. The ladies were left with the impres­knew. As Observer I stated i n his concluding remark on the sion that these were the marks of "some a l i en obj ect."form, "I have observed many thousands of meteors and can My overactive i magination wonders i f there was notdefi n itely state that this object was not any kind of meteor." someone at White Sands who knew that something unex­ So, how on the great green Earth could the record card plai ned was making marks i n the desert near Las Cruces instate, "Was astronomical ( M eteor)"? You o l d hands at late January 1 954, and that on the evening of the 2 7th, twoufology a l ready know, don t you? On that same envelope camera scienti sts had seen an odd pulsing "non-meteor"which mentioned that the case came from C lyde Tombaugh flying at 1 2,000 mph going east. A l l, probably, very uncom­was penci led i n : "H old for return to Dr. Hynek ." A l len, you fortable for the old paradi gm, and, maybe, too, for nationalwere a very bad boy i ndeed in 1 954, and I don t care i f the security. Still, as weve seen, J. A l len H ynek most l i kely hadRobertson Panel was j ust one year earl ier. the answer. Everyone now: Breathe deepl y and relax. Editor s note: Too late for these observers, HynekWAIT, T H E R E S MORE considered this case to be a good one, and he had it o n his " l 0" I ist of unexplai ned observations by astronomers, ac­B ut, maybe t h e L a s Cruces story wasn t quite over. You can cording to R i chard H a l l . A l len was not averse to changingbe the j udge of th is next story. h i s mind, for better or worse. + There is no case report on the material which fol l ows,but there are newspaper cl ippings which give a fee l ing that I S O U R S U N A B I NARY STAR?some report m ust have been completed, somewhere, forsome agency. The Binary Research I nstitute has found that orbital I n the £/ Paso Times of February 7-9, 1 954, three short c haracteri stics of the trans-Neptunian p lanetoi d 9 0 3 7 7news stories appeared. Two married women ( M rs . Weiss Sedna demonstrate t h e possibi l ity that our sun m ight beand Mrs. Sanders) who enj oyed rock-hounding were on one part of a b inary star system. Sedna, first detected in 2003ofthei r "girls-day-out" excursions to a place called K i lbourne by Cal Tech astronomer M ic hael Brown, provides whatH o l e, about 25 m i les west of Las C ruces. There, on more could be indirect physical evidence of a solar companion.than one ofthese trips in the latter half ofJanuary, they came Matching the recent fi nd i ngs by B rown, showing that Sedna moves in a highly unusual e l liptical orbit, Walter Cruttenden at B R I has determined that Sedna moves i n resonance w ith previously publi shed orbital data for a hypothetical companion star. I n the May 2006 issue of Discover, Brown stated: "Sedna shouldn t be there. There s no way t o p u t Sedna where i t is. I t never comes close enough to be affected by the sun, but it never goes far enough away from the sun to be affected by other stars. " -B inary Research Institute, A p r i l 24. f UR + 3 0 : 3 2l
  • SCIENTISTS WOULD INVE STIGATE SIGHTINGS BY OTHER SCIENTISTS·- WOULDNT THEY? BY MARK RoDEG H I E R 0 v e r t h e years, o n e o f the common contentions of U FO skeptics i s that, i f U FOs real l y ap­ There are t h i ngs we observe but which we sti l l can t calcu­ late or even predict. Thus, as Laugh l i n notes, "Ordinary peared as frequently as pub l i c sightings i mply, water ice disp l ays, at last count . . . eleven d i stinct crysta l l i n e then science would already know about U FOs. phases, n o t o n e of w h i c h w a s correctly pred icted from first The simple reason ing i s that U FOs appearing so often would principles." have been detected many t i mes over by various scienti fi c Laugh! i n s point i s that t h i n gs that we know to be true instruments, but since U FOs have seem ingly n o t been de­ by simple observation may have profound and deep theo­ tected by scientifi c gear or various monitoring systems, then retical underp i n n i ngs that are not obvious or a con se­ there m ust be nothi n g to the phenomenon . q uence of other wel l -known physical laws, or of the prop­ There are various approaches to refute t h i s argument. erties of their constituents. H e describes in h i s book why We can point to radar detections, theodol ite observations, or physic i sts often reject theories based on emergent proper­ even sightings by scientists themselves. There is p lenty of ties for ph i l osoph ical and social reasons ( background this type of evidence to demonstrate that scientists do see train ing, e x i st i ng research agendas, etc . ) , not for s o l i d and record U FOs. scientifi c motives. There is, though, another way to deal w i th this skeptical Sc ientists are often prone to ignore both theories and c l a i m . Science makes amazing advances l itera l ly every day, data that they don t bel ieve could occur or think are very and so we can eas i l y forget how l ittle is known about the unl i kely because they contradict other wel l-estab l i shed data world around us. Astronomers and physicists are growi n g and theories. This is genera l l y a good strategy, but the ever more confident i n their knowledge of the development approach fai l s when something i mportant goes u n recog­ of the cosmos from the moments after the Big Bang until n ized and thus unstudied. And that i s the fate suffered by today, i nc lu d i ng the recent d iscovery ofthe mysterious dark U FO s ightings, even from scientists. energy. Mean w h i le, b io logical scienti sts learn more and more about the h uman genome and how our bodies function, INDIAN SCI ENTISTS SEE U FO leading to m i nd-bogg l i ng advances in medicine. The pace and scope of scienti fi c k nowledge is i mpressive o n a l l As some of you may have read, on September 27, 2004, a fron ts. group of Indian scientists from the Indian Space Research But how much do we really know about phenom ena that Organization saw a strange object in the Samudra Tapu we observe every day or that a ffect us directly? Ofte ntim es glacier region in Hima chal Pradesh state. not muc h, acc ord ing The team of;mn er m phys J cs, and to Robert at Sta nfordin, nNobsityPrize pro fess or B. Lau ghl U iver el glaciologists and geologists were on a week -long expedit ion as wn tten the fas ci nat . He to stud y the gla crer and wer ing boo k, A D L Je1-ent e camped at an elev atio n . fj; rr . Umvers e.· 1 7, ooo fee t. Ear ly tha t mo of a b ou t · ventmg PhyR em sics fiom the Bottom D.ow . rn i ng, one of the exp ed i tion n (20 05 , B asJc pm teJ s spo tted the obj ect _ _Bo oks ), wh ich argues tha on top of a mo unt ain ridg t the wo rld is dom i nat ed e.gen t pro per·f ( sue h as by emer- The obj ect floa ted/mo ved Ies . the pro per ties of a sol id, j ust a few fee t from the . wh ich are . groun d, appro a � hm g thed r ffer ent tha n tho se of i cam p alo ng the mo unt ain ts i n d i vi d ual ato ms and s l ope . mo lecu les ). B oth sen ror scre ntis t An i ! V K u l k ar.n r. an d a cowMark RodeghLei- IS scz·ent ifi gra bbe d cam era s and too · ork er · · z Lc director ofthe J. All k sev era l p hot os.Centerf U . . en Hynek . The obj ect was sma ll and or FO Studies. obl ong , mo stly w h i te be­ twe en thre e and fou r fee t hig h. I t had an odd sha pe, i th � IUR + 30:3
  • appendages and a cyl i n drical head with two b a ll oon-type the object, whatever it was, doesn t exactl y cry out for a nattachments. It eventual l y came within 50 meters of the extraterrestrial expl anation.scienti sts, hovered motionl ess for a few seconds, and then B ut by any reasonable definition, the obj ect is a U FO ,started a steep ascent. It rose h i gh i nto the sky, hoverin g and a n d t h e report does demand some explanation, which doesntappearing as only a w h i te dot in the bright sunl i ght. seem too probable at this point. So i fthis sighting doesn t get The photographs demonstrate beyond doubt that the scientists i nterested, are we doomed to never attract thescientists saw someth ing that morn i ng, and that they accu­ serious attention of the scientific communi ty?rately reported what was observed. As geologist Raj esh The short answer is: Yes, we j ust m i gh t be doomed,Kal i a said, " I t didn t l oo k l ike a man-made object." u n l ess things change drastic a l l y w i th the phenomenon. B u t The scientists, being cautious and beli eving that what i s this a fai lure of science? Or t o p u t i t d i fferently, whythey saw had to be man-made, contacted various i nstitutes should science be i nterested in thi s sighting? W hen theto check about ba l loon launches, and also to see whether the question i s posed that way, i t might seem that the answer isobj ect could have been an u nmanned aeria l vehicle ( U A V), obvious: to learn something new about the world. Looki n gmany of which are used by the m i l itary. H owever, there are at i t from another angle, though, reveals the practical hurd l esno bal loons that match the shape of the object (and its the study of U FOs faces among academics and profession­behavior was not exactly bal loon- l i ke), and there are no als.known UA Ys that match the obj ect s shape, e i ther. The We shou l dn t speak of science i n the abstract, but ofobject moved agai n st the wind, making a bal loon expl ana­ scientists. And we shoul d n t refer abstractly to scientists,tion even more improbable. but to scientists i n spec i fi c fields. So lets l ist a few : I t is possible, of course, that the obj ect was a super­ biochemistry, geology, psychology, environmental sciences,sophisticated UA V being flown by the U . S . m i l i tary that got zoology, astronomy, mathematics, and anthropology. Thenoff track. The sighting l ocation is in the far northwest of ask yourself: What would be i n trigu ing about this sighting toI ndia, and a lthough it is not hard by the border with Pakistan, someone i n one of these fie lds? What about this sightingit isn t that distant. I t is a l so near Kashmir, the s ite of much would be worth studying because it might lead to an advancefighting between Pakistan and I ndian, along with terrorism in one of these fields?from separatist movements. But the object didnt have the Put that way, the answer becomes i nstantly obvious.aerodynamic shape of a U A V, and it wasn t making any There isn t anything about the encounter-the obj ect or i tsnoise from an engine. behav ior-that has d i rect I inks to any of these subjects, and As of this writing, the object remains un i denti fied, most any other one that we could name. Studying this reportdespite the best efforts of the exped ition s scienti sts, who w i l l probably not advance the research program in thesewould l i ke to know what they saw. fi elds. This is certainly true i f the object was an exotic U A V ; i f it were something even more exotic ( an a l i e n craft?), it sti I IA FA I LU RE OF SCIENCE? wouldn t contribute unless w e could get o u r hands on the device itself� or the inte l l igences behind it ( exoanthropology,Outside of the exped i t ion members and their i mmediate anyone?).col leagues, it is fai r to say that worldwide scientifi c i n terest Certa in ly, academics or professionals in one of thesein this i ntriguing sighting has been, wel l , nonexistent. fields may be i ntrigued by the sighting and want to study it.K u l k a rn i has not been i n v i ted to present a paper about the But if so, they won t be doing i t to advance their fields ( andsighting at a scientific meeting, new expeditions have not defi n itely not their careers ! ). They w i l l be i n vest igating i tbeen p lanned to observe the obj ect aga i n , photoanalysts because oft h e intrinsic fascination ofU FO reports a n d whathave not been clamoring for the original negatives to do may be revealed about the u n iverse or other i ntel l igences.i mage enhancement, and i ntensive efforts have not been That s absolutely good motivation, but its not d i sc i p l i ne­underway to find the terrestrial object that might have been specific incentive. And therein l ies the rub. If scientiststhe cause of the report. don t have a professional reason to i nvestigate a report, i t s H ere we h ave a U FO sighti ng, in daylight, by scientists. a l i tt l e hard t o b l a m e them for not i nvest i gat i n g it.The obj ect was photographed at a range that makes this a None of this i s meant to absol ve certai n scientists, suchc lose encounter case. The witness descriptions are consis­ as Donald Menzel, Carl Sagan, or Edward Condon, of theirtent. A l though there is no physical evidence itself, the case share of guilt i n ignorantly and w i l lfu l l y dismissing U FOotherwise would seem to be the type that we dream about, sighti ngs and U FO i n vestigations as a waste of time. I f abut it has aroused zero enthusiasm. scientist does l oo k at the U FO evidence but then not treat i t Admittedly, the sighting was not p u b l ished in a peer­ honestly, w e can fee l cheated, and w e are a l l the poorer,reviewed j ourn a l . ( How could it be?) The obj ect was not i n c l uding science. And there have been equ a l ly i ntriguingl arge, nor d i sc-shaped or triangu l ar. I t d i d n t z i p away at sightings by scienti sts that have been ignored that do morei ncredible speeds, or d isappear i nstantly. Nor were there strongly suggest ETI as a source.unusual physical effects on any equi pment, or the w i tnesses. N evertheless, we shouldnt be disappointed or sur­And certai n l y no sign oflife was seen i n the smal l obj ect. So prised when scientists don t l eap to the study of the U F O I U R + 30:3 23
  • phenomenon fro m their l abs and computers. People needi ncentives to break away fro m their rout i nes. Somewhat BOOK REVIEWS-continuedFom page 1 9amazingly, U F O sightings, even by fel low sci entists, don t photographed had been s o d i ffi c u l t to read that Berl i ner hadg i ve t h e average scientist an incentive t o work profession­ not made a copy of i t . When it was printed, here, accord i n ga l l y on the problem. t o Wood, w a s the document control page. T h i s w a s a point So just what would cause a scientist to study U FOs? I t s that argued for authenticity .t h e same thi ng that gets many members o ft h e publ i c excited A nother obj ection was that the manu a l , dated 1 954,about U FOs-having their own sighting. Even then, there s menti oned Area 5 1 , b u t Area 5 1 d i dn t exist i n J 9 5 4 .no guarantee that someone w i l l take action, but i t s usually Wood said that h i s research showed that the beg i n n i n g ofthe best predictor of con t i n u i ng i nterest, i f nothing else . + the fac i l i t y was i n 1 95 1 . Okay, as far as it goes, but t here is no evidence that the term, Area 5 1 , was in use in 1 95 4 . T h i s i s a push, as t h e y s a y i n N evada. N ei ther s i de has a nASTRONOM E RS-continued jrom page 1 6 advantage.same trap that the general public does: that U FOs c a n mean Wood, in his argument for authenticity, wrote, " A l lo n l y one thing-v i si tors from remote regions ofspace. l fwe these c l a i ms of fakery h a v e led me to create a summary l isthold, as we do at the Center, that a U FO phenomenon exi sts, of phony claims offakery . . . . " He impl ies that j us t becausethen certai nly the amateur astronomers have observed the the government says they are fake documents doesn t makeU FO phenomenon, and by no means necessarily craft from it so. That archi ves can t l ocate them does n t mean theyouter space. don t exist. And I would have to agree with these points. J ustCoNC L U D I N G THOUG HTs because the government says they are faked does n t make i t so. A n d i f the documents were as highly c lassi fied a sI t i s worth mentioning that C U FOS and other U FO groups alleged, i t s n o t surprising that t h e y are n t l ocated by docu­continue to receive U FO sightings from amateur astrono­ ment searches. They simply would n t be fi led i n l ocationsmers. A summary of recent sightings by these observers that are open to public scrutiny.would be a welcome add ition to the U FO l iterature and But there i s one point that Wood makes that doesn tstrong evidence that unexplained things are i ndeed ob­ work. H e puts t h e statement, "There i s no provenance," o nserved in the skies. + h i s l ist o f phony claims of fakery. Sorry, t h e lack of prov­ enance on the manual for the M J - 1 2 documents, a l l of the documents, i s a real problem. In all the searching that has GRAssRooTs UFOs: been done, no one has located a document that re fers to, is CASE R E PORTS FROM part of, or suggests in anyway that a committee named MJ- 1 2 has ever existed . This simply does not wash. THE T I M M E RM A N H owever, th is book does pretty m uch what i t set out to FI L E S do. I t provides a perspective of the M J - 1 2 documents and why both Robert and Ryan Wood beli eve the documents to Thousands o f i nterviews be authentic. I t addresses the claims that there i s no physical recorded at 92 C U FO S U FO evidence by enumerating nearly a h undred cases of clai med exh i b i t locations d i s t i lled to 406 recovery of some sort of debris or materia l . Granted, many unexp lai ned, o ften amazing, ofthem are fairly weak, but then, only one has to be authentic sightings from everyday people for the case to be made. across the g lobe, from N ova Yes, I d i sagree with some ofthe ratings and the value of Scotia to the island of G uam. A some of the cases, but then, t hose rati ngs are subj ective . softcover book with 250 pages, Some information t h a t the Woods find persuasive, I find less including deta i led sketches and than convincing. Some i n formation l find persuasive, they photos from these never-before­ find less than convincing. When deal i ng w ith this subj ect, recorded experiences. that i sn t a l l that surprising. Send $22 by check or For those who are interested i n completing a l ibrary of money order, for U . S . U FO books, t h i s i s a necessity. I t g i ves a look at M J - 1 2 , the media m a i l (add $ 5 for recovery of alien arti facts, and an overview, though I im i ted, surface mail to a l l over­ of this state of research . seas addresses), to: B ut i t must b e remembered that the book w a s written by C UF O S a true bel i ever and there are points when I b e l i eve the 2457 W . Peterson standards for accepting evidence should have been h igher. C h icago, IL 60659 But we can say that in many UFO cases and about many U FO books . -Kevin D. Randle + IUR + 30:3 24
  • LETTERSKECKSBURG CONTROV E RSY documents. Of course, as Kean writes, John M urphy thought he sawTo the editor: "Army" and "Air Force" u n i forms at the pol ice barracks In Lesl i e Kean s art i c l e about Kecksburg ( " Forty Y ears back in Greensburg. He probably couldnt tell the d i fferenceof Secrecy: N A S A , the M i l i tary, and the 1 965 Kecksburg between the w i n ter b l ues worn by the L i eutenant and the O DCrash," fUR 30: I ), she boasts that in 2003 there were "two fat i gues, festooned w i t h A i r Defense patches, worn b y theexc i t i n g developments" which "demol i sh" the two skeptical EMs. The deta i l s oft he report that this newsman made, i n h i sexplanations: a meteor or a Soviet sate l l ite. o w n l i fetime, support the official version of events. The satellite explanation, specifica l ly Cosmos 96, has The most i nteresting revelat ion in Kean s article was thatactual ly been a central explanation offered by the promoters her groups investigation managed to locate several membersof a mysterious crash recovery, such as Stan Gordon, since the of the U S A F 662nd Radar Sq uadron who participated in the1 980s. I t s strange that this fai led explanation has suddenly eventsofthat night. Guess what they repOited? Their40-year­been declared a "preferred exp lanation" of the skeptics. old memories also support the offi cial version. As for the meteor explanat ion, Kean never d i scussed it U n t i l the long-pub l ished photographs are d i scussed forat a l l , except to dismiss w i thout explanation the "amateu r the support or refutation they o ffer to the a crash theory, thephotographs," some of which were taken by a professional real Kecksburg crashed saucer cover-up of p ictures andM ic h i gan newspaper photographer, and the many 1 965 documents proving the true nature of the December 9 , 1 9 6 5 ,eyew i tness reports. fireball w i l l cont inue. M ost curious i s her d i s m i ss i ng, w i thout d i scussion, the Readers shou l d n t get too excited about these newexplanation of astronomers who ana lyzed photographs, developments, as they don t rea l l y offer anything new. Theeyew i tness reports, and a sei smometer record i ng, pub! ishcd old farmers out there still chuckle when they talk aboutfour decades ago in a peer-reviewed sc i ence j o u rn a l . " M urphy s U FO": the burn i n g pile of brush at the N orvelt Kcan u s e s n o t h i n g more t h a n the clai med eyewi tness Golf Course construction s i te, where the i ntrepid newsmanaccounts decades later of tree damage seen in the dark at a first thought he had his "War of the Worlds."site a hal f m i l e from the real search on another farm, but Robert R. Youngpubli shed by m istake in a l ocal newspaper. For decades, as Harrisburg. Pennsylvania"new" w i tnesses surfaced w i t h their strange accounts, thisremai ned the o n l y pub! ished location for the event . Further­ The author respond�:more, if you pick two trees, of course you get a "path" Anyone fam i l iar with the basic strategy of U FO de­between them. But how many other trees were examined for bunkers is aware that their fi rst rule is to deny any evidencedamage in t h i s heav i l y eroded, re forested area? that contradicts their position. I n the Kecksburg case, scores Kean ignored a lot in her article. Like Kecksburg of people, i n c l ud i ng representati ves ofthe press, attest to themystery mongers before her, she makes much of an exci ted presence of m i l itary personnel at the search location, and a1 965 radi o report by the late John M u rphy, but curiously number of witnesses descri be standing w i th i n a few feet o fignores the part where he said the only m i l i tary people he t h e object, h a l fembedded i n a gul ley. N evertheless, amateuractua l l y saw at the site were in the back seat of a po l ice car. astronomer Robert Y oung i s so smitten w i t h h i s bel ief thatThese were obviously the three U S A F men mentioned in the the i n c i dent was merely a meteor flyover that he i s forced toProj ec t B lue Book fi l e in the National Arc h i ves. i ns i st that every w i tness who recal l s deta i l s not match i n g A lso, Kean does n t i n form her readers of another tidbit th i s scenario i s e ither wrong, unrel iable or l y i ng. WhenJohn M urphy reported i n the program, which was rebroad­ Young was asked for his o p i n i on by Philadelphia Inquirercast on W J M radio on the 1 995 anniversary of the i ncident. reporter Ralph Vigoda i n 2000, he explained away the entireH e reported that the m i l i tary present were from the "Army Kecksburg case as nothi n g more than "urban rumor." A662nd Radar Squadro n . " So, a week after the inc ident rumor, even though scores of w itnesses have given indepen­M urphy was sti l l confused about the true identity of the dent, first-hand testimony to what they saw? And the i nci­m i l itary u n i t i nvolved. T h i s A i r Force unit was located on dent occurred i n a remote, rural location. It appears thatthe Army faci l ity at Oakdale. Confusion about t h i s is why, Young i s not always carefu l about his choice of words.in 1 965 and later, some peopl e t h i n k the A rmy was there. M r. Y oung is entitled to defend the A i r Force pos ition Kean d i s i n genuously says that her i nvestigation has i f he wants, but I would be i nterested to know how many ofestabl i shed that personnel fro m this Army fac i l i ty were the key Kecksburg w itnesses he has personally i nterviewed,present, but doesn t inform her readers that t h i s i s where the i f any. Has he spoken to Robert Gatty and Ernie Hoffman,U S A F 662nd Squadron radar s i te was located . S he prefers reporters who were o n the scene and were c learly capabl e ofi nstead to promote a continued mystery about Army "stub­ determ i n i ng the Army presence? Or to Jerry Betters, B i l lbornness" because they can t come up with non-exi stent Bulebush, o r James Romansky, whose i ndependent reports IUR + 30:3 25
  • of c lose encounters with the object on the ground corrobo­ reports. However, in work i n g w i t h Stan Gordon for the l astrate each others descriptions? few years, I have learned that the majority of the w itnesses For many years, Young has doled out a l l manner of he has spoken with over fou r decades have not gone p u b l i c,d i stortions and factual i naccuracies about the Kecksburg and that there is actual l y a great deal more i nformation i ncase to defend h i s one-poin ted opi n ion. Take t h i s rather support o f options two a n d three than Young o r anyone elseamusing statement, for example, as reported in the same is aware of, some of it from h i gh l y sensitive sources. Th is i sPhiladelphia Inquirer piece: a statement I don t l i ke to m a k e because prom i ses o f "And to those who say the object floated, s l owed down confident i a lity prec l ude i t s veri fication. Youngs asser­or changed d i rection, there s t h i s explanat ion: People were tions, however, beg the q uestion.watch i n g the bright vapor tra i l , which was l i kely buffeted by As waves of witnesses came forward at d i fferent t i m es,w i nds." Gordon was careful to w ithhold certain detai l s about the T h i s defies logic when one exami nes the detai led de­ case to use as checks for wi tness authenticity. There i sscriptions by wi tnesses, such as Randy Overly of the acorn­ absol utely no w a y that a n y serious investigator can d i sm i ssshaped object a few h undred feet above the ground. The the abundance of evidence showing the l i ke l i hood thatmany others from Westmoreland County who reported the something did i ndeed come down in Kccksburg on Decem­i n c ident described either a fi reba l l , or a physical object, ber 9, 1 96 5 .someti mes w ith a fi ery tai l . The notion of"vapor buffeted by Nonetheless, thousands i n four states did see a bri l l iantthe w i nd" as an explanation for the object s turns riva l s any fireba l l m i nutes before anything happened in Kecksburg. Atnumber of the more absurd explanations o ffered by desper­ the time this was assumed to be a meteor, yet today scientistsate debunkers over the years. d i sagree as to the nature of that fi reba l l , and how i t actua l ly Another example can be found at the beg i n n i ng of behaved.Youngs letter, where he declares that the Cosmos 96 Over the years, Young s a rgument has h i nged on a 1 967argument was not used by skeptics, but was promoted by paper by astronomers Yon Del Chamberl a i n and David J .Stan Gordon (who has been i nvestigat ing the case for 40 Krause p u b l i shed in the Journal ofthe Royal Astronomicalyears) . Y oung must be aware that the l eading skept i c on the Society ol Canada. "The F i reba l l of December 9, 1 965-Kccksburg case, .James Oberg, has actually been the l oudest Part I " provides the authors calcu lation of" the traj ectory o fvoice c l a i m i n g that it was e i ther the Cosmos 96 capsule or t h e fi reba l l , w h i c h they state w a s a meteor.other debris from the fa i led Sov i et probe that landed in I n the paper, Chamberl a i n and K rause used triangu la­Kccksburg. Oberg has been i nterviewed for numerous docu­ tion of two photographs, taken a few mi les apart i n M i c h i ­mentaries stating that this i s what the w i tnesses saw-case gan, t o purportedly show t h a t t h e traj ectory for the fi reba l lc losed. ( Recently, however, it seems Oberg s posi tion has was such that i t would have been a t a right angle t o achanged due to N icholas .J ohnson s findi ngs; see more traj ectory bringing the obj ect i nto the Kcc ksburg area. Thebelow . ) Gordon, on the other hand, simply o ffered this astronomers col lected 66 standardized forms comp leted byexplanation as one of many poss i b i l i ties i n an unsolved case. eyewi tnesses, inc l uding the accounts of the two photogra­ These n i t-picky, o ften i rrelevant mi sstatements arc phers. Based on these reports, they esti mated the eventcharacteristic o f Y oungs repeated d iatribes debun k ing the lasted o n l y about four seconds and res u l ted in the explosionKccksburg case. (1-1 i s convol uted statement that I have used of the meteorite over the western end of Lake Erie nearonly accounts of "tree damage seen in the dark" one-half Detroit. ( I nterestingly, the authors note, "several observersmile from the "real search" to determ ine the location is reported that some material apparently continued beyond,another example; we know where the correct s ite i s due to a long the original trajectory. " ) The paper stated that thethree w i tnesses, unk nown to each other, who escorted Stan event occurred at 4:43 p . m . EST, based on nearby seismo­Gordon there i ndependently, as described in my p iece. The graphic records o f a shock wave produced by the fireba l l .tree damage was observed i n broad day I ight the day a fter the A lthough this study incl udes three interesting i mages o finc ident by w itness John H ayes, and was photographed by the fireba l l s smoke trai I, Young does not seem t o b e awareGordon years l ater. ) of the meti c u lous work of scientist David Rudiak exposing Whats i m portant to address here is the bottom l i ne. the probl em s p l aguing the study. Rudiak provided a briefThere are three basic pos it ions that have been put forward to summary o f his fi ndi ngs f me in a recent ema i l ( greater orexplain the Kecksburg inc ident: ( l ) A meteor, meaning that deta i l and h e lpful i l l ustrations are on h i s website, www.not h i ng came down; ( 2 ) a man-made obj ect so sensitive that roswel l proof.com/Keckburg_triangulation_error. htm I ) .its retrieval was covered up; ( 3 ) an obj ect of u nknown origin I . T h e JRASC art i c le assumes absol ute prec ision i nretrieved by the m i l i tary and also covered up. measuri ng triangu lation angles to two "points" i n t h e fi re­ The fi rst option, which Young bel ieves to be true, bal l tra i l . This i s unscien t i fi c methodology, as there isrequ i res that its proponents dismiss out of hand the testi­ always some error i n any measurement, and there is no errormony of dozens of eyewi tnesses and some media coverage. analysis in the art i c l e .My f UR art i c l e went i nto detai l about the cred i b i l i ty of the 2 . T h e two triangulation "points" should actual ly beKecksburg w i t nesses and the l arge n umber of corroborating large, fuzzy areas with boundaries determi ned by the possible I U R + 30:3 26
  • is also consistent w ith a Kecksburg landing over 200 m i les away. 7. The P ittsburgh A irport time of 4 : 4 7 p . m . for the firebal l (vs. about 4 : 4 3 p . m . i n Detroit) cal l s i nto q uestion the meteor fi rebal l explanation. This would be too slow for a meteor, which should have traveled the di stance in less than a mi nute. In addition, sonic boom reports from western Pennsyl­ vania, phoned i n to various agencies, confirm the presence of the fi rebal l over that state. What was this firebal l , which looked l i ke a meteor, and what was its relationship to events in Kecksburg? Could there have been two separate events, a meteor and some­ thing else unrelated that came down in Kecksburg? Or could the fi reba l l have sent off someth ing-j ust before i t expl oded i n the "puff captured on fi l m-that ended up grounded i n Kecksburg? Or, d i d the fireba l l itself, being something other than a meteor, make a gradual descent into Kecksburg? Th i sOne photo fi ·om the JRASC paper used to triangulate thetrajectory o/the December 9, ! 965.jireball. The photo i s part of t h e mystery t h a t we w i l l probably never sol ve,was taken about 20 miles north o Detroit and shows the f unless the U . S . government comes c lean about the case.smoke trail just afier the fireba/1 disappeared following What we do know, according to Stan Gordon s i nter­an explosion. shown by the pufjo/smoke at Point B. views with many people in local communities who saw a fiery s l ow-mov ing obj ect, is the very specific trajectory ofmeasurement errors. I nstead of one I ine between two precise something unusual descending over Westmoreland County,points, the paper should have presented a broad range of Pen nsyl van ia. Beg i n n i ng at about 4:47 p.m., a l u m i nouspossible trajectories within the range of these error regions. obj ect was fi rst seen over the greater Pittsburgh area as news 3. Small angle errors i n determ i n i ng d i rections to the media and pol ice phones were i n undated with sightingtwo smoke tra i l points of only ±0 . 6° ( or 1 .2° overa l l ) would reports. (Or was this simply those pesky vapor tra i l s b u f­be sufficient to change the trajectory by nearly 90° from the feted by the winds?) The bri I I iant obj ect then moved to­one suggested, al lowing for a trajectory towards Kecksburg. wards the southeast and passed over G reensburg, made a 4. Errors are easy to make when measuring i n the field. turn to the south, and headed towards the Laure l v i l l e area.Sources o f such potential errors could have been: getting After mak ing another turn , it traveled northeast towardscompass d i rections sl ightly wrong; not prec isely locating Kecksburg, where it turned aga i n and descended i nto theone or both photo l ocat ions to w i t h i n i nches ( smoke tra i l woods. The news media reported that the Army and Stated i rections c a n only be determined relative to nearby objects, Police cordoned off the area where the object was bel i evedsuch as trees, so precise location of photo s i tes is vita l ) ; a to have landed. "Nothing that happened earl ier i n four othersma l l scal ing error in one or both photos ; tra i l dri ft due to states wi II change these facts," Gordon poi nts o ut.wind, since the two photos were taken half a mi nute to a N ew i n formation i s com ing to l i ght all the time aboutm i n ute apart, shifting the smoke tra i l points between photos the Kecksburg event. Recently, Gordon obtained a newspa­and thus changing the apparent trajectory. ( I n fact, scrutiny per article from the Mount Pleasant Journal published onof the three incl uded photos shows clear evidence of such December 1 7, 1 965, eight days after the incident. Despi tehigh w i n d s . ) reporting that the state police capta i n said that nothing was 5 . T h a t t h e trajectory i s l ikely i n error i s strongly found and "we re satisfied it was meteor," the headl i nesupported by the photos themselves, clearly showing that reads, "M ystery S urrounds Area s Fallen Object-M an ythe smoke tra i l gets thi nner over time. The most l ikely Questions Sti l l U nanswered." T h e story states, "seven areaexplanation is that the object was moving sharply away from residents reported seeing a smoldering object crash to thethe camera rather than sideways, as stated in the article. ( I f earth." It goes on to say that Army person nel were suppos­i t were actual l y s ideways, the tra i l should remain constant i n edly among those sea l i ng off the roads in the area, where upoveral l thi ckness since the distance to the camera would to 400 "curious onlookers" had gathered. "Why have U . S .rema i n unchanged . ) Estimating the thinning of the tra i l Army officials hastened t o t h e scene issued n o statement o nresults i n a trajectory at least towards Kecksburg or even the res u l ts o ftheir search? A n d why, with reported sightingsmore to the southeast. from many other areas, were so many officials concentrated 6 . T h i s away-from-camera trajectory also results in a on the search here?" queries the article.cal c u l ated angle of descent that i s gradual ( much l i ke an This story also notes, as has been confirmed by otherairliner coming in for a l an d ing) rather than the steep (52°) sources, that the search for the obj ect continued the fol l ow­ca lcul ated descent a n g l e o f t h e article. T h i s gradual descent i ng day ( Friday). I f i t was determi n e d early that morning, as IUR + 30:3 27
  • the A i r Force stated, that noth ing came down and this was entered the atmosphere and broke up. N A S A experts stud­o n l y a meteor, why did the search contin ue? "By Friday ied fragments from the obj ect but records of what they foundevening, the area had been thoroughly scoured by police, were l ost in the 1 990s." Steitz said N AS A looked at them i l i tary authorities, scientists with Geiger counters and fragments and boxed them up, o n l y to misp lace a l l relatedother v o lunteers," the story states. documentation. ( Steitz has dec l i ned to expl a i n w here this Young writes that the "most i nteresting revelation" ofmy i n formation came from i f n o documentation exists, despitestory was the reports of several members of the Air Force my repeated requests for an answer to that q uest i o n . )662nd Radar Squadron who were involved with events that S o , t o m a k e thi ngs even more com p l i cated for M r.night. Young states that these reports support the official Young and everyone else, we now have one governmentposition that nothing came down. I ndeed, one l ieutenant did agency contradicting another. N A S A headquarters i n Wash­say that he searched for the object and found nothing. How­ ington says it was a Russian satel l i te; the Air Force says itever, in the same i nterview, he also contradicted what we was a meteor; and to add to the chaos, space debris expertknow about the circumstances at the s ite from numerous news N icholas Johnson of the N A S A Johnson Space Center saysreports describing the extensive m i I itary and poI ice presence, it couldn t possibly have been a Russian sate l l ite or anythe cordoning offof the area, and the many civi I ians descend­ man-made obj ect at a I I , for that matter. And eyewitnesses oning on the location. As I mentioned in my article, this the scene say it was a strange acorn-shaped cra ft withl ieutenant said there was no mil itary or police presence on the i l legible symbols on the outside. Which was it?roads or in the area, and no excess civi l ian activity. The latter I have n o idea why Young i s on a m i ssion to ridic u l e aobservation is simply impossible, and raises numerous inter­ large portion o ft he evidence on this case, without any regardesting questions that I explored in my story. to the accuracy of h i s statements in doing so, and why he so Young may delight in the fact that this man said noth ing fanatica l l y sticks to his particular belief about the i ncident.was found, but he has chosen to disregard the rest of his I n the meanti me, the fact i s that we sti l l have a real mysteryi nterv iew, which i nvolved puzzling inconsistencies with the on our hands, sti II unsol ved and sti II under investigation.facts, and therefore ca l l s into question the re liab i l ity of the Leslie Keanl i e utenan t s story. The l ieutenants o fficial written report Doc u M ENTARY M EM O R I ESabout h i s search was for some reason not included with theProj ect B l ue Book fi les, and has not yet been released by the To the editor:Air Force, despi te my spec ific requests for it accompanied I thoroughly enjoyed the Robert Barrow article on theby an a ffidavit from the lieutenant. movie: Unidenti ied Flying Objects. which I am fortunate f Other discrepancies exist i n the various rather convo­ enough to own. M y l i fe long i nterest in U FOs was probabl yl uted stories reported to me by the 662nd officers: In one born when I was a I 0-year-old youngster and m y mothercase, an officer said that h e s pos itive no search was con­ took me to see this long-ignored movie. I can sti l l rememberducted at a l l , and yet another officer told me hes convinced the sense of awe and wonder that I experienced as I gazedthat the objec t was a Russian sate l l i te . Both of these state­ upon the huge movie screen above me, tota l l y enveloped byments actually contradict the official version, rather than the introductory open ing title: Unidenti ied Flying Objects: fsupport it, as Young claims. Young has chosen to select The True Stoly ofFiying Saucers ( shown in the upper right­from these accounts one part of one story that fits his pre­ hand corner of the last / UR cover). It abso l utely captured thedeterm ined belief that the incident invo l ved only a meteor, attention of that I 0-year-old kid, who is now a l most 60, andw h i l e ignoring everything else. This selectivity is to be stil l fasci nated by the subject o f U FOs, and sti l l entertai nedexpected-picking the evidence to s u i t h i s position and by this grand old black-and-wh ite fl ick. My thanks to Robert ·ignoring the rest i s the name of the game. Barrow A n d Youngs i nterest i n t h i s set of witness i n terviews Peter Restarai ses another question: He has chosen to accept contradic­ A rnold. Mmylandtory reports of a few former A i r Force officers with "40-year-old memories," w h i l e rejecting dozens of corroborat­ LOOKING FOR ARNOLDing reports from other i ndependent witnesses. Does this To the editor:make sense? I am trying to trace the daughter of the late Kenneth One fi na l note: The official position that Young so Arnold. I hope to make the defi n i tive documentary o n thestaunchly defends has recent l y been challenged not by a late Kenneth A rnold and cement h i s rightfu l p l ace inmere j ournal ist or UFO i nvestigator, but by a U . S . govern­ u fo logical h istory. His daughter i s K i m Arnold Purv i s .ment agency. N A S A , which reported l y had a rol e in the I f you know where I c a n contact Kim P urvis, or knowi n c i dent but has not provided information about the case of anyone who migh t be able to help me locate her, I wouldthrough the F reedom ofln formation Act, is now contradict­ be gratefu l . P lease write to me: P h i l i p Mantle, 49 East Leighing the A i r Force findings. U n expectedly, last December, Drive, Tingley , N ear Wakefield, West York s h i re, WF3 l P FN AS A spokesperson D av i d Steitz told the Associated Press England. E-mai l : p h i l i p@mantle83 5 3 . fsworldco . u k .that "the object appeared to be a Russian satel l ite that re- Philip Mantle I U R + 30:3 28
  • Volume 30, Number 4 International UFO Reporter• THE BRITISH Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK MoD STUDY : Air Defence Region: Ex�utive Summary SCIE�IAC & TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM · No. 55/VOO PROJECT C oNDIGN L PKRF.;C;TRlCT"f_j J LIK b.) l:.. ONL � AN E..XA. filt UAP FOitMATlO� OF Tm:: TrtiA!.. L.Ul<1( I V JI•, UK 1:.r.::i ONO" u UK RESTRJC:IE� I ,,,,., L I) lJKt:l"E$0:ll IK Hf: RirTFJ) rr T
  • INTERNATIONALUFOREPORTERE ditors :Jerome C l arkGeorge M . EberhartM ark RodeghierContributing E di tors:B i l l ChalkerR i c h ard F. H a inesKev i n D . RandleJenny RandlesChris RutkowskiWeb site:www .cufos.orgE-mail:I n focen ter@cu fos . orgAnswering m a c h ine: � ·v� / 4 /1 0( 77 3 ) 2 7 1 -3 6 1 1 - 1 9 1 - 1 986THE B R ITISH MoD STU D Y : PRoJECT CoNDIGN by David Clarke and Gary A nthony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .T H E CORE PHENOM ENON A N D THE SECONDARY PH ENOM ENON by Jerome Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ............... ..................... 1 4ToM TowERS: T H E OTH E R A L CHOP by Robert Barrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . ..... ... . ......... ....................... 17STRANGE DAYS by Michael D. Swords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . ..... ... . ... ..... .. .. ..... .. ........ ....... .... .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... ... ........ ................ .. 20W H E R E A R E T il E CLOSE ENCOUNTERS? by Mark Rodeghier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26LETTERS ···························································· ························································· ····· ············· ··································· 27Published in August 2006. international UFO Reporter ( I S S N 0720- 1 74X) is pub­ I l l i no i s 6065 9 . Address all subscription correspondence to Inter­l i shed quarterly by the J. A l len Hynek Center for UFO Studi es, national UFO Reporter, 2457 West Peterson Avenue, C h icago,2457 West Peterson Avenue, C hicago, i ll in o i s 60659. A l l rights I l l i nois 606 59.reserved. Reproduction w ithout perm i ssion is strictly p ro h i b i ted. The International UFO Reporter i s a benefit p ub l icationCopyright © 2006 by the J. A l l e n Hynek Center for UFO Studies. mail ed to Associates of the Center for a contri bution o f $ 2 5 .00 orT h i rd-class postage p a i d at C hicago, J l l i nois. more. Foreign Associ ates add $5 .00 for del i very. A l l amounts i n Advertisements accepted for p u b l i cation in t h i s magazi ne do U . S . funds. Other p u b lications also ava i l ab l e for contrib utors ofnot necessar i l y reflect the v iewpoints ofthe J. A l l e n Hynek Center larger amou n t s . For deta i l s , write to the J. A l len Hynek Center forfor UFO Studies. U F O Studies, 2 4 5 7 West Peterson Avenue, C hicago, I l l in o i s Address all art i c l e submissions, letters to the editor, and 60659, U S A .other editorial correspondence t o international UFO Reporter, Postmaster: Send Form 3 5 7 9 to C U FOS, 2 4 5 7 W e s t PetersonCenter for UFO Studies, 2 4 5 7 West Peterson Avenue, Ch icago, Avenue, Chicago, I l l i nois 60659. IUR + 30:4 2
  • THE BRITISH MoD STUDY : PROJECT C oNDIGN BY DAVID CLARKE AND GARY ANTHONYCond ign, adj. Severe and well deserved ( usually of punish­ hear [from official studies] for years?"2ment) . -Concise Ox ord Dictionary f That may well be the c ase, but it seems the negative reaction was main l y because the report s author concluded there is n o evidence this "phenomenon" has an extraterres­E arly i n May 2006 we revealed to the worl d s trial source. He attributes the residue of unexplained media t h e existence of a secret study o f U FOs, i n c i dents to "natura l , but relatively rare phenomena." codenamed "Condign," commissioned by the Some of these are w e l l known, i f l i ttle u nderstood, s u c h as UK M i n i stry of Defence ( M o D ) . The di scovery b a l l lightning. Others, such as atmospheric p lasmas, "areof the study s four-volume report, completed in February sti l l barely u nderstood" and the report makes i t c l ear that2000, was the c u l mi nation of al most 1 8 months of i nvesti­ "the conditions and method of formation of the electri ­gati ve research involving a team of Britai n s most experi­ cally-charged p lasmas and the scientific rationale forenced U FO researchers . 1 s usta i n i n g them for s i g n i fi cant periods i s incomplete and The story made news headl ines around the world, but not ful l y understood . "the superficial nature of the coverage can be summarized by N evertheless, this fi nding and additional speculationthe headline of the London Sunday Times, M ay 7, 2006: concerning the possible effects of plasma-related magnetic"Sorry E T-you re j ust a puff of plasma." At our press and electric fields on h umans became the focus of a l l theconference, held the fo l lowing day in London, it quickly subsequent media and ufological discussion. However flawedbecame apparent that the news media were happy to base these fi ndings may be, the fac t that a study ofth i s magnitudetheir coverage of the MoD study upon the contents of the was commi ssioned by the U K government as recently asExecutive S u mmary alone. Few j ournal ists had the time to 1 996 m ust be significant. During the course of the study, thescrut i nize the 465 pages of the m a i n body of the report when British government continued to maintain , i n pub l i c at least,the ful l contents were released on the MoD website shortly that they had n o i n terest in U FOs. I n deed, they i n s i sted onafter our announcement. a n umber of occasions, both i n parl iame ntary answers and i n The reaction ofufologists was equal l y superfi c i a l , with statements i ssued t o the media, that they had never carrieddismissive cries of whitewash, garbage, and dis information out any detai led exam i n ation of the phenomenon.w i dely d issemi n ated across the i nternet, even before the The fact that the report was commissioned at a l l raisescomplete text was avai lable. U nfortunately, i n the c lamor to a n u mber of q uestions. At face value the study was commis­express an opinion and take a position, a number of com­ sioned to determine, once and for all, i fthe UFO phenomenonmentators overlooked the h i storical signifi cance of the posed any form of threat to UK national security. The maind iscovery and its more i n teresting contents and fi ndings. outcome, as would be expected, was to support the M o D s The key finding from the perspective of u fology is policy-w h i c h h a s rem a ined consi stent for more than haifaexpressed i n the i ntroduction to the study, where the reports century-that U FOs, whatever their origi n , were "of n oauthor states that it is a n i n d isputabl e fact that some U FOs, defence significance."or UAPs ( U n identified Aerial Phenomena) as they are Why then, after years of p laying down U FOs, did thedescribed throughout the report, are generated by an un­ MoD decide at this late stage to commi ss i o n a study,known phenomenon. As British skeptic J o h n R i mmer however i ncomplete or i nadequate, i nto the phenomenon?commented, "lsn t this what ufologists have been wanting to And i fthere was nothi ng to h ide, why was the study carried out i n great secrecy and o n l y u ncovered as a result of ourDavid Clarke is a senior lecturer injournalism at Sheffield sleuthing using Britai n s new Freedom of lnformati o n leg­Hallam University, UK, where he teaches research tech­ i s l ation?niques and use of the Freedom ofInf ormation Act legisla­ This article w i l l attempt to answer some of these ques­tion. Gary Anthony is an amateur astronomerji-mn York­ tions. We first summarize the nature of the M o D s i nterestshire who has been interested in the UFO phenomenon/ or i n U F O s . We w i l l then explain i n detail how we came to learn20 years. of the report s existence and how we obtained it, drawing JUR + 30:4 3
  • upon original M o D documentation released to us under the ful l copy after l e ngthy negotiations w ith the departmentF O I A . F i n a l l y , we w i l l look at the contents of the report concerned.itself, the sources used by the author, and the scientificcre d i b i lity of the conclusions and recommendations. ON T H E TRA I L OF CONDIGN The existence of the study emerged from extensive contactsT H E MoD, FOIA, AND U FOs we have had with desk staff at the D i rectorate of Air StaffThe very existence of the UK MoD report would have since 2000. DAS is the M o D secretariat currently respon­remained a secret if our team had not persisted in efforts over sible for U FOs and is often referred to as "the U FO des k . "a n umber of years to gain access to official records on U FOs I t is t h e most recent i ncarnation of t h e various secretariatswithheld from the public under Britains stifling secrecy laws. that have, since at least 1 954, dealt with administrative tasksBefore the m i l lennium, the UK governments i nterest i n in support of the R A F . One of these is to act as the M o D sU FOs had remained obscured b y the shadow o f the more focal point for U FO inquiries from the publ i c, the press, andextensive and h ighly publ i c USAF Project B l ue Book. Before Members of Parliament. Since the 1 950s this respons i b i l itythe publication ofthe Colorado University study (the "Condon has been held by a n umber of different branches, includingReport") brought the U S A F s public responsibility for U FO S6 ( A ir), S4 (Air), D S 8 , and Sec( A S ), the latter being thereports to an end in 1 969, British Air M inistry pol icy on the name it used in 1 99 1 - 1 994 when N ick Pope was empl oyedsubject was heavi l y influenced by the USAF and C I A . as a desk offi cer there. Sec( A S ) fi nally became DAS in yet F o r decades, few deta i l s of t h e A i r M i nistry s own another Whitehal l reshuffle late in the year 2000.interest in U FOs emerged into the public doma i n . This was For many years, MoD has i n si sted that this secretariatpartl y because of a decision taken as early as 1 95 2 or 1 95 3 was the single and o n l y branch with responsibil ity for U FOt o p lay down t h e subject. The fact that the A i r M i n istry, reports, a task that took up o n l y a fraction of its time. I t i swhich became part of an expanded M i n i stry of Defence i n certa i n l y true that D A S a n d i t s predecessors acted as a1 964, maintained an office i n Whitehall that dealt with U FO public focal point at M o D for U F O matters. H owever, insidereports as part of a range of other duties has been pub l i c the confines ofWhitehal l , DAS was j ust one of a n umber ofknowledge for decades. What h a s remained a mystery was more special ist MoD branches whose job i t was to assessthe extent of the M o D s i nvestigations and research. For any defense or intell igence impl ications of UFO sightings atyears, letters from c i v i l ian U FO researchers to Whitehall a much higher level of security clearance. The most secre­went unanswered or were stonewal led, and even MPs found tive and shadowy ofthese branches is the Defence I ntell igencei t d i ffi c u l t to discover anything substantive about the Staff ( D I S ) whose space weapons section, D I 5 5 , has beenM i n istry s policy on the subject. responsible for assessing the "scienti fi c and technical" This situation did not arise because of a "conspiracy of aspects of U FO reports since 1 96 7 . The fact that D I 5 5s i l ence" concern i ng U FOs i n particular. For much of the played a rol e i n the study of U FOs d i d not emerge p u b l i c l yCold War, Brita i n s secrecy laws covered every single unti l 1 98 6 when a standard M o D U FO report form thataspect of the W h i teha l l machinery. Before the mid- 1 990s, contained an i nternal di stri bution l i st was released ( Figurethe Public Records Act, which kept all official papers secret 1 ). Such l i sts were normally edited from forms released tofor a mi nimum of 30 years, and the Official Secrets Act, the public, but in this case a c lerical error revealed the truewhich prevents m i l i tary and c i v i l servants from speaking in extent of the m i n i stry s i nvolvement.public on any topic, ensured nothing significant could leak In J u l y 200 I , we asked DAS if D I 5 5 continued to keepout of the MoD machine. records or fi les o n U FOs. The answer was: "As part of the As a result, before 1 994 it was v i rtual l y impossible to M o D s assessment of aerial sightings, [ U FO] reports wereobtain access to any UK government fi les unti l 3 0 years after copied [by the Air Staff Secretariat] . . . to [a branch of] theaction on them was fi n a lized . H owever, under an i n i tiative Directorate o f l n te l l igence Scientifi c and Technical ( D J ST ) .p i oneered under the Major administration a l imited right of Towards the e n d of 2000, D I ST decided that these reportsaccess to government documents was i n troduced. This were of no defence i nterest and should no longer be sent toal lowed researchers to gain access to a certain amount of them . The branch sti l l retains fi l es conta i n i ng reports re­material p reviously withheld. It was the proactive use ofthis ceived up to 4 December 2000. "legislation that a llowed us to obtai n early release of M o D Fol lowing up this i ntriguing response, w e asked thefi les o n the Rendlesham Forest incident a n d t h e report by the MoD to c l arify the current position and were told that forF l ying Saucer Work i n g Party during 200 1 -2002.3 more than 30 years U FO reports had been routinely copied S i nce 2005, researchers have had a new weapon to help to Dl55 "in case they contained any information of valuethem access offi c i a l i n formation . The Freedom oflnforma­ relating to their primary role of analysing the perfom1ancetion Act has brought to l ight masses of i n formation held by and threat of foreign weapons systems, nuclear, chemicaloffi c i al agencies on U FOs and other unexpl a ined phenom­ and biological weapons programmes and emerging tech­ena. And i t was through careful use of the FOI that we n o l ogies." However, towards the end of 2000 they haduncovered the exi stence of the MoD study and obtained a decided these reports were "no longer valuable" and should I V R + 30:4 4
  • ANNEX BMODCIS (RAF!O) ANNEX A TO S OP 502 EEPORT OFANUNIDENTIF]EDFJ,YJNG OBIECTl. Date, Time 262050 Local Apr 93 several minutes & Duration of Sighting2. Description of Object Like a puff of cloud, then circular, very light with a red light (No of objects, size, flashing (note - crossing from right to left) shape, colour, brightness)3. Location, indoor/outdoor, Outside stationary/moving4. How observed (naked eye, naked eye binoculars, other optical device, still or moving)5. Direction in which object frrst seen Going from Wimbledon towards Roehampton (A landmark may be more useful than a badly estimated bearing6. Angle of Sight (Estimated heights Not known are unreliable)7. Distance (By reference t o a None es timated known landmark)8. Movements (Changes in 5,6 & 7 Seemed to be about the speed of an aircraft may be of more use than estimates of course and speed)9. Met conditions during observations Clear sky (Moving clouds, haze, mist etc)10. Nearby objects (Telephone lines, high Nothing of note voltage lines, reservoir, Jake or dam, swamp or marsh, river, high buildings, tall chimneys, steeples, spires, TV or radio masts, airfields, generating plant, factories, pits or other sites with floodlights or night lighting)1 1. To whom reported (Police, military, press etc) AFDO12. Name & Address of Informant X xX X X x XX X>< XX X.XX:XX: just off Wimbledon Common UK EYES ONLY �� � .f TED Page B-l ·· "� vn t: i ;, Fig. I . Standard UAP reportform used by the Air Ministry and MoD. IUR + 30:4 5
  • ��cJiET �!.u - . UK RESTRICTED UK EYES ONLY 13. B ackground of Informant that may be volunteered_ .. ) Sensible, was partially mollified by the Airship Ford Mondeo 14. Other Witnesses 15. Date, Time of Receipt (in AFOR) 2 6 1 955Z Apr 93 1 6. Any Unusual Meteorological Conditions 17. Remarks Would have believed the Airship Ford Mondeo but for the fact that we were told it was operating in the Ilford/Romford area. May we have a Telephone No for the operators of the airship so that we may check its operating area? That would be very helpful. Xx X X XXX 5 . 4 0 Date: 26 Apr 93 · R02 Duty Operations Officer Air Force Operations , Distribution: Sec(AS)2, Room,.,c()( Main Building AEWf-A, , Roomxxx Main Building I. DI 55, Room 1..-i:i Metropole Building File D/AFOPSnJS/1 NB. Please note that the format of this form accords with Civpol formats TO ALL AFDOS; PLEASE USE TillS AS A MASTER COPY AND IMMEDIATELY ON OPENING USE TilE "SAVE AS " FUNCTION TO MAKE A COPY FOR TilE AcnJAL REPORT! SORRY BUT IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE TO PUT TillS REMARK AT TilE START OF TilE REPORT,AS IF TRIED ALLTilE BLOCK SETI1NGS ARE DESTROYED! ! ! UK EYES ONLY UK RESUUCTED Page B-2 � ( �. a �� : : , �t � � l Fig. 1 (continued). UAP reportform. IUR + 30:4
  • n o l onger be sent to them. ln the 1 950s, the then Air M i n i stry produced a "min i ­ This decision was a surprising one. I n effect i t marked mum format," o n e page, " U F O" reporting procedure forthe end of the Defence I ntelligence Staffs i n v o lvement i n both p u b l i c and m i l i tary reporting of the phenomena.U F O matters. Their i n terest could be traced a l l the way back T h i s procedure has remained unchanged and a l l eventto the deli berations of the F lying Saucer Working Party and analysis in this report i s based on an analysis of athe report they produced which was used to brief Prime volumi nous paper database, which spans about 25 years.M i nister W inston Churchi l l fol lowing the Washington, D . C . , Further, it is not within the remit of the department toU F O flap i n 1 95 2 . What possibly coul d have happened i n pursue w i tnesses to e l i c i t any further i n formation be­2000 t o lead them t o decide the phenomenon was o f n o yond that which they have provided t o the MoD on thefurther defense i nterest? standard form . T h i s inform ation source has many inad­ As we puzzled over this question, we agreed such a final equaci es-and much of the i n itial work concentrated onpol icy decision m ust have been based on a study of some the conversion of this material i n to computer databasek i n d . So early i n 2005 we deci ded to use the U K s newly format.arrived Freedom of Information Act ( FO I A ) , to requestcopies of correspondence between D 1 5 5 and the c i v i l ian What also emerges fro m the report is that neither D I 5 5" U FO desk" from the relevant period, c i rca 1 997-2000. o r any other M o D branch had carried out any study, other We were already aware from other released material than a basic n u merical l isting, of the thousands of reportsthat a "po l icy review" on U FOs had been carried out by the they had received s i nce the 1 950s. Even worse, record­MoD in January 1 99 7 . This led us to suspect that whatever keeping was so poor that desk officers were unaware ofhad caused D I 5 5 to abandon U FO work may be revealed i n work carried out on the subject in the past in a l l but thet h e correspondence generated b y this review. As a resu lt, i n vaguest terms. Large col lections of sighting reports andA ugust 2005 a number o f M o D documents were released correspondence, including i ntel l igence reports, had beenunder the F O I A . These dated back to 1 993 and i n c luded a routinely destroyed at five-year i n tervals unti l 1 967 as theycopy of a m i n ute dated December 4, 2000, that announced were deemed to be of "transient interest." As a result,the completion of the D l 5 5 study ( Figure 2 ) . The security relevant papers, such as that by the F l y i ng Saucer Workingc lassification ofth is document was "Secret," with the caveat Party, had been "lost" i n the defense arc h i ves for decades." U K Eyes O nly," but even th is information was withheld I ronically, the six-page report summarizing the Workinguntil release on appeal early i n 2006 ( see Appendix B ) . Party s findi ngs was not discovered i n MoD arc h i ves unti l I n many ways these backgro u n d documents were 200 I as a direct resu l t of our requests, al most a year after them o re i nteres t i n g than the contents of the report i t s e l f. Condign report s author had completed h i s study !They revealed how s i nce the 1 960s U FO reports received This level of interdepartmental ignorance is highl ightedby the M o D had been rou t i n e l y copied to a range of by a Sec( A S ) fil e note from 1 995 that sums up the M o D sspec i a l i st branches. i n addi ti o n to Sec( A S ) or D A S-the knowledge o f i t s own work o n U FOs a s fol lows: "Essen­s u pposed "focal p o i n t"-a l l reports were copied to D f 5 5 t i a l l y , we don t do research i n to the phenomena; we have n ta n d vari o u s R A F u n i ts deal i n g w i t h a i r defense a n d radar. done any; w e o n l y w o u l d ifthere were some good reason forIt was these spec i a l i s t branches that were respo n s i b l e for doing so-i .e., evidence of a threat. I t remains the case thatm a k i n g further i n q u i ries i n to cases deemed to be of n o threat has been d iscerned which has been attributed to andefense i n terest. unidentified flying obj ect." These documents reveal a sign i ficant fact which is Several attempts had been made pre- 1 996 to pressurecrucial to any critical evaluation of the cred i b i lity of the the MoD i n to carrying out a study of U FOs. The mostreport s conclusions. This is the lack of any i n-depth inves­ sign i ficant occurred during the UFO flap of 1 967- 1 968,tigations carried out by the M o D. After 1 967, when the l ast w h ich saw a substantial i ncrease i n the n umber of reportsfield i nvestigations were carried out i nto U F O reports, none received by W h i tehall. As a result, the M i nistry found i tselfof these branches were a llowed to fol low u p reported particularly v u lnerable to pressure from the press, from M P ssightings or i n terview witnesses. This procedure, which a n d Peers of t h e Realm, many of them encouraged bywould appear to be essential for any serious appraisal of the u fologists. The idea for a study at this stage was abandonedphenomenon, was strictly ruled out as it was deemed to when the negative conclusions of the Colorado U n i versitycontradict p ub l i c statements that MoD had n o i nterest i n the team, commissioned by the USAF, were publ ished i n 1 969.subject. I ndeed, one document notes that for a period of The MoD was then able to claim that the U . S . i nvestigationmore than 20 years, due to pressure on staff resources, UFO supported their i n formal conc l usion that UFO reports didreports copied to D I 5 5 had been simply glanced at, then not represent a defense threat. They argued that any Britishfil e d away. study was l ikely to duplicate t h e USAF findings and would The basic source material utilized by the report s author therefore constitute a waste of public money.was, therefore, l imited to a standard rep011 form that had been U n l i ke the U SA F , however, in 1 970 the M o D decidedused by the Air M i nistry and MoD since at least 1 953 ( F i gure to continue to receive U FO reports but would not commitI , pp. 5-6). I n Volume I of the Condign repot1 he writes: any resources to i nvestigate them u nless a threat to U K IUR + 30:4 7
  • defenses was identified. A lmost two decades later i n 1 986, to admit that no study had ever been carried out. I n a 1 99 7under great secrecy, staff in a scientific support branch, i n ternal exchange concerni ng t h e nature of D I 5 5 s i nterestScience 3 ( R A F ) , drew up a p lan to produce a computerized in UAPs, this d ilemma is summarized as fol lows: "The l ac kdatabase o f th e thousands of U FO reports they had o n fil e . of evidence to date i n D I S o n t h e extraterrestr i a l hypothesi sThey fel t thi s c o u l d h e l p other branches categorize sightings h a s to reflect t h e fact that we h a v e n o t carried o u t a n yand answer queries from the public. This proposal was analysis."supported by D l 5 5 . But when news of the p l an leaked to This concern i s in effect the genesis of the dec i s ion toSec( A S ) in February 1 98 8 , officials were furious and de­ commission the Condign study. In support of the i dea of amanded that a l l work on the database stop. A handwritten U K study, a D I official added : " I am aware, through inte l l i ­note from the head of Sec( A S ) found in policy documents gence sources, that Russia beli eves that s u c h phenomenareleased i n 2005 reads: " . . . spoke to [ Sc ience 3] explai n i n g exist and has a small team study i n g them. I am also awarethat th i s coul d be very embarrassing for u s and urging that an informal group exists in the US i ntel l i gence commu­caution. I t i s exactly what we (and M in isters) have been ni ty and i t i s possible that this reflects a more formalsaying for years we do not do, and could not j ustify ! " organ isation . . . . It is d i ffi c u l t to meet our rem i t of advi s i ng As a result o ft h i s i ntervention, the D l 5 5 officer backed on poss ible threat impl ications s i nce we have never studieddown and sent a memo to the D i rector General of Scientific the topic of UAPs."and Techn ical I ntel l igence ( DG S T I ) on M arch 1 1 , 1 98 8 , However, despite its i n itial opt i m i sm Dl55 said i t couldw h i c h read, " 1 understand that w h e n Sec( A S ) heard about not afford to d ivert any of its desk officers to exam i ne U FOthe study, they decreed that a l l work should cease as it was fi les "to determ ine whether we should apply any s ignificantin contravention of M i n i sterial statements to the effect that effort to the matter." They went on to propose the employ­U FOs did not pose a threat to the U K , and that resources ment of an outside contractor-a person "we l l k nown towould not be di verted from more important work to inves­ D J 5 5 "-who cou ld be offered the task as an extension on antigate U FO i n c i dents." existing defense contract. This would, they said, avoid Fortunately, the i mpetus to produce a database of cases havi n g to put the proj ect out to tender which "would poten­that could form the basis for a defi n itive study did not end t i a l ly expose the study to too w i de an audience . . . s i nce awith this shamefu l episode. Curiously, i t was D l 5 5 who potential ex ists for political embarrassment."conti nued to champion the cause for a fu l ly funded study of D l 5 5 attached a draft copy of the proposed contract forU FOs i n the face of contin ued attempts by the U FO desk­ the U FO study which speci fied the employment of" a degreeSec( A S ) -to place obstac les i n its path. On June I , 1 99 3 , level engineer, with a [technical inte l l i gence?] background,t h e D l 5 5 d e s k officer wrote t o h i s n e w opposite number i n to prepare an U n identi fied Aerial Phenomena ( UA P ) data­Sec( A S)2a, N ick Pope, w h o w a s a l ready noted a s being base." Even at this early stage the project h i t a fam i l i armore sympathetic to the subj ect than his predecessors: "You obstac le-cuts in defense funding-and the i n itiative d i dmay be i nterested to hear that at long last I have had some n o t go ahead. D l 5 5 made two further attempts i n 1 995 tofunds al located for serious U FO research. The study w i l l gain approval for fundi ng, but the timing c lashed w ith thei nc l ude a review o f our data, t h e construction o f a database, onset of a Defence Study deemed more important thana deta i l ed rev iew of specified inc idents and recommenda­ U FOs, and the project was shel ved yet agai n .tions for the future . . . . Need l ess to say we do not want thisbroadcast and i t i s for your information only." T H E CoNDIGN REPORT Of i nterest here is the original i ntention to includew i t h i n the context of a ful l y funded study "a detai led review After three years of prevarication, on December I I , 1 996,of spec i fied i n c i dents." This seem ingly fundamental re­ 0 1 5 5 fi nally wrote to their favored contractor asking h i m toq u i rement was removed from the Terms of Reference at a i n itiate a computerized database of their U FO records. Hel ater stage, apparently for financ i a l reasons. A fol l ow-up was given complete access to the departments U FO records,m inute fro m D l 5 5 to Sec( A S ) , dated October 1 8, 1 993, which included 22 fi les dating back to the mid- 1 970s. Theunderl ines their determ i nation to undertake the study : "A database, they stipulated, should i n c l ude at the m i n imum,cursory glance at [our] fi les i nd icates that over the years a • an event number for each i nc identlarge amount of data has been accumulated. We have never • detai l s of location(s) incl uding any potential m i l i-therefore estab l ished i f U A P s exist and, if they do, whether tary or economic targetsor not they pose a defence threat to the U K . Some recent • times and datesevents, and a c ursory examination of the files indicate that • w i tness deta i l sthe topic may be worthy of a short study." • categorization ofthe event ( e . g . , aircraft/space j un k/ In short, by the m id- 1 990s with pub l i c i nterest in U FOs hoax/u n i dentified)runn i ng at an a ll-time high, D I 5 5 felt the M oD was particu­ • any possible explanation, such as m i l itary exercises.l arly vulnerable if closely questioned on their standard l i n ethat U FOs were of n o defense significance. They bel ieved i t This contract ( N N R2/366) formed the "Te1ms of Ref­would be d i fficult to sustai n this position i fthey were forced erence" for the U A P proj ect, which was i n c luded as an I U R + 30:4 8
  • appendi x to the final report. At this stage D I 5 5 warned the would be passed t o speci a l i st staffs i n t h e future.contractor, "because ofthe sensi t i vity ofthi s activity it most These documents reveal m u c h about the compartmen­[sic] be conducted o n a str i c t need-to-know basi s at tal m indset that operates within the M oD , where it is q u i teS ECRET UK EYES B level. The activ i ty w i l l be known as possible for one department to be unaware of work beingPROJECT CON D I G N . " carried out by another at a h i gher security lev e l . They also M uch spec u l ation h a s surrounded t h e meani n g of"Con­ give the lie to claims that the c iv i lian U FO desk was the foc a ldign," with connections made to the USAF proj ect S ign and p o i n t for what N i c k Pope h a s described a s "the Britishthe U n i versity of Colorado Condon report. One defin ition of Government s UFO Project." The newly released docu­Condign, c i ted earl ier i n this art i c l e, refers to a p u n ishment ments provide unambiguous evidence that, since 1 995,wel l deserved. This may be a reference to the M o D s attitude Sec(A S ) ( renamed D A S in 2000), were out of the loop andto the " U FO problem," as they described it. Pub l i c l y they were not i nvolved at any stage i n the study or production ofi n s i st that Condign, as in the case w ith other codenames for the report.M o D proj ects, was a ran domly generated word and any According to the D I ST m i nute of December 4, 2000,connections w ith Condon are "purely coincidenta l . " announcing completion of the study ( Fi g ure 2 , pp. I 0- 1 1 ), T h e i dentity of t h e contractor w h o carried o u t the study only the D i rector General ( Research and Technology) alongand produced the report remains unknown . The MoD say his w i th D l 5 5 and D I S ! received copies of all four vol umes.identity, or that of the company he worked for, cannot be The U K Air Defence Groun d E n v i ronment ( U KA DG E )revealed under an exempti on to the F O I A which protects the received t h e Executive S ummary a n d Volume 3 , whichdeta i l s of defense contractors . This exemption i s current l y contains "sensitive" materia l related to the l i m itations oft h e subj ect of an appea l t o t h e I nformation Commi ssioner UK radar in the detection o f U A Ps." S ummaries of the U APwho has the power to order the M o D to reveal information report were sent to the Deputy C h i ef of Defence 1 n te l l igenceif he decides the release of the i n formation i s in the public ( D CD I ), to the I n spectorate of F l ight Safety ( RA F ) , and toi nterest. HQ M ATO ( M i l i tary A i r Traffic Organ i sat i o n , R A F The documents released by the MoD do provide a U xbridge).l i m i ted i n s i gh t i nto the background of the report s author, The D I ST m inute revealed that D 1 5 5 had concl udedwhom we henceforth designate " M r. X ." They reveal he has sighting reports provided nothi n g of value in its assessmenta background in the RAF and technical i n te l l i gence and had of"threat weapons systems." As a resu l t , the department hadbeen called upon by the MoD to offer expert adv ice on U FO decided to "carry out no further work on the subj ec t [ofreports on a n umber of occasions in the past. He may also U APs]" and added, "while most of the report is c l assified athave had a personal experience of his own, w h i ch he on l y R ESTRICTED U K EO [see Appen d i x B] we hard l yrevealed when discussing the standard M oD U FO question­ need rem i nd addressees of t h e medi a i nterest and conse­naire that h e says was " invented" in the 1 950s, adding: "I q u e n t l y t h e sen s i t i v i ty of t h e report. P l ease protectknow because 1 fi l led one i n myselfafter a sortie when flying accordingly, and discuss the report only with those whoin the RAF at the time." have a need to know." I n the same memo, addressed to M . J . Ful ler at Sec(AS) Sec( A S )-renamed D A S in 200 1 -was consp i c uousand dated J an uary 22, 1 997, M r. X emphasized that he w ished by its absence from th i s priv il eged d istribution l ist. Presum­to keep "a low profi le," writing to Sec( AS) as fol lows: "as ably this was because someone at a h i gher level in the[deleted] one could i magi ne the embarrassment to [deleted] pecking order felt they had no "need to know." This dec i s i onif my activities were media knowledge-especially as they may w e l l be a direct res u l t of the activ i ties of the formerwou l d undoubtedly soon l i nk these with my other known Sec( A S ) desk officer N ick Pope, who had gone public withactivities o n . . . and probably connect my long-standing h i s pro-U FO beliefs i n 1 996, a period that coincided with thei nvolvement with D l 5 5-wh ich we also wish to avoid." doubl i ng of the workload for the U FO desk staff. ft was only as a resu l t o f th i s correspondence between We asked D A S staff how, i f they were n o t i n c l uded i nF u l l er and Mr. X early i n 1 99 7 that Sec( A S ) first l earned the d istribution o f the report, they learned of D I S T s deci­that D I 5 5 was now working on a detailed study of the sion. The reply, dated N ovember 23, 2005, stated: "[We]contents of i ts UFO arc h i v e . This revelation came at have searched our U FO Pol icy fi le for the period and thereprec isely the t i m e when Sec( A S ) had embarked upon a i s no document speci fical l y concerni n g this i ssue. [We] canreview of i ts U FO p o l i c y . The review itself was a res u l t of therefore only assume that we were i n formed by telephone."the mounting workload generated during 1 996- 1 997 by So much for claims that Sec( A S ) was the central focali n q u i ries fro m the m ed i a and pub! ic fol lowing a n u mber of point for all U FO matters within the M in i stry of Defence!h i gh-profi le U FO stories. The rev i e w was a i med at c l ari­fyi n g the M o D s ro l e in UFO matters and reducing its UAPs IN THE U K AIR D EFENCE REGIONworkl oad o n the subject. A s a result, from M ay 1 99 7Sec( A S ) agreed to c o n t i n u e c o p y i n g reports to D I 5 5 and t o The report s Executive S ummary opens with this unequivo­A i r Defence staff. H owever, only those w h i c h Sec ( A S ) cal statement: "That [U FOs] exist is i n d i sputab l e. Creditedj udged to be w e l l documented, corroborated, and t i m e l y w i th the abi lity to hover, land, take-off, accelerate to excep- I U R + 30:4 9
  • LOOSE MlNUTED/DIST/ l , ,lo N/ ! d S4 December 2000DCDIDG(R&T)ADGEIFS(RAF) (FS ATC)HQ MATO (OPS (IF) 1)AD/DI5 1Copy to: AD/0155UNIDENTIFIED AERIAL PHENOMENA QJAP) - DI55 REPORT1. The DJS has received copies of UAP sighting reports from Sec( AS) for about 30 years. Untilrecently these have bee n filed with only a cursory look at the contents b y Dl55 to discover whetheranything of intelligence value could be detennined. However, it was obvious that any value from thes1ghting data could only be deri ved by c arryi n g out a Study of a signi ficant sample of the reporls.Consequently, over the past 2 years DI55, under low pri ority taski ng, has compi led a database ofinformation taken from reports received between 1 987 and 1 997, and has carTied out an analys i sbased o n data statistics. A report is n o w avail able. With t h e exception o f DG(R&T), w h o receivesthe full report, other addressees are being provided with the Executive S u mmary only, which detailsthe main findi ngs of the Study. Should you require the full report, or parts of it, contact detai ls aregi ven on page 3 of the Summary.2. The main conclusion of the Study is that the sighting reports provide nothing of value to theDIS in our assessment of threat weapon systems. Taken together with other evidence, we believe thatmany of the sightings can be explained as: nus-report ing of man-made vehicles; natural but notunusual phenomena, and natural but rel atively rare and not completely u nderstood phenomena. It i sfor these reasons that w e have taken the decision to do no further work on t h e subject and w i l l nolonger receive copies of sighting reports . . 3. In addition to this major conclusion, however, the study produced subsidiary findings whichwill be of int�rest to addressees. The potential explanations of UAP si ghtings, the characteristics ofnatural atmospheric phenomena and the consequences of sightings from aircraft will be of interestto those responsible for flight safety. S i m i l arly the characteristics of some of the phenomena withrespect to their detection on UKADR systems will be of interest to both the ADGE and flight safetystaff. Finally, DG(R&T) will be interested in those phenomena assoc i ated with plasma fonnations,which have potential applications to novel weapon technology.4. Although we intend to carry out no further work on the subject, we would value any commentsyou may wish to make on the report . Please d i rect such comments to AD/DI55. Fi na ll y, while mostof the report is classi fied at o n l y RESTRICTED UK.EO, we hardly need remi nd addressees of the media interest in this subject and consequently the sensitivity of the report. Please protect this subject Fig. 2. DIST minute a/December 4, 2000, announcing Condign Report. I U R + 30:4 I�
  • accordingly, and d i scuss the report only w i t h t hose who have a need to know. x x xx x. x x x >< - ) . 4 0 X X. >< XX DI ST XXX. X X )( ><. X X. - Enclosure: lFS(RA.r), HQ M ATO, - Executive Summary DCDI, UKADGE - Executive Summary and Volume 3 DGR&T, ADl/5 5 , ADl/5 1 - Executive S u mm ary and Vol umes 1 ,2 and 3 Fig. 2 (continued). DIST minute a/December 4, 2000, announcing Condign Report.tiona! veloc ities and van ish, they can reportedly a l ter their report, all i n j ust over three years. We requested a processedd i rection of fl ight sudden ly and c learly can exhibit aerody­ electronic copy of the Condign U A P database, but the M o Dnam i c characteri stics well beyond those of any known informed u s t h a t a s i t was surp l us t o requ i rements it wasai rcraft or missile-either manned or unmanned ." destroyed shortly after the study ended. H owever, from Throughout the report, M r. X refers to U FOs as U A Ps Volume I , Annex D, i t s possible to see what t h i s databaseor U n i dentified Aerial Phenomena ( see Appendix A for an looked l ike. Whether i t could or should be reconstructedexplanat ion) and says that, w h i l e they most definitely exist, from M o D records, to fol low the train of study, is arguab le"there i s no evidence that any U A P, seen i n the U KA D R [Air for i m portant points hereafter.Defence Region] are inc ursions by a i r obj ects of any intel- When eyewitness data i s util ized in scient i fi c experi­1 igent ( extra-terrestri al or foreign) origin, or that they ments i t i s usually obtai ned by face-to-face interview orrepresent any host i l e i ntent." other qual itati ve methods. (The latter i s also u t i l ized effec­ Signi ficantly, draw ing upon his access to the contents tively i n law enforcement. ) These offer the i n terviewer otherof the D l 5 5 U FO arc h i ve, the author adds: "No artefacts o f non-lead i ng opportuni ties to ask the w itness to c lear upun known or unexplai ned origin have been reported o r ambiguities, observe trai ts, and c larify detai Is without manyhanded t o t h e U K authoriti es, despite thousands o f U A P natura l l y indisti nct phrases h i ndering the process. Some ofreports. There are no S I G I NT, E L ! N T or radiation measure­ these could not be picked up on the telephone and thereforements and l ittle usefu l video or sti l l ! M I NT." S I G l NT is subsequent errors arise.signals i ntel l i gence, E L ! N T i s electronics i ntel l i gence, and The very quality of data used as the bas i s oft h e Condign! M I N T is i magery inte l l igence. study i s therefore questionable. I f a s k il led researcher had The study does not attempt to investigate any spec i fi c been employed to follow up samples of reports from theU A P i n c i dents i n depth. T h i s d i sappoi nting outcome i s a arc hi ve, or even to gain a perspective on their rel ia b i l ity, th i sd i rect result of the dec i si on to reduce the "terms of refer­ m ight have i mproved its credibi l ity a s a source. H owever, i nence" fro m the origi nal 1 993 proposal , which as we have a statistical analysis i nvolving thousands o freports, w ithoutseen did i n c l ude "a deta i led review of spec i fied i n c i dents" such qua l i tative samp l i ng, fa lse representations w i l l emergew i th i n its rem i t . and these logically w i l l lead to fal se conclusions. The value of any statistical concl us i on or scient i fi c examination restsTH E UAP DATABASE i n i t i a l ly upon how carefu l l y the data were acq u i red, their quali ty , and who i s doing the research. To be fai r to theM r. X s i ng le-handedl y i nput basic data from various time author, he does at least mention the l i m i tations of statisticalperiods covering approximatel y 25 years i nto a M icrosoft analysis i n V o lume I , C hapter 3 , page 3 . Based on theAccess computer database. One of these periods spanned l 0 i n adequacies oft he raw data used in the Condign study, pooryears fro m 1 9 87 to 1 997. This span, along w ith two c lusters data in means poor data out, hence equa l l y poor science.from 1 988 and 1 996, were then statist i ca l l y analyzed, al o n g Volume I , Chapter I , page 2 states: "Only UAP i n thew i th the subsequent writing of the substan t i a l 465-page UK Air Defence Region is used in database analysis, a l - IUR + 30:4 I I
  • though the support of authoritative scientific reference 1 5 . A irships and hot-air balloonssources world-wide has been made to come to a considered 1 6 . S unspot, aurora, and seismic correlationsdec i s i o n as to the most I ikely causes ofthe phenomenon." I n 1 7. Visual observation of sate l l itest h e preface appears t h e fol lowing: " . . . a rational scientific 1 8 . Projected shapes/shadows, fl uorescence, and lu-examination of the phenomena-based only on the raw m m e sc e ncemateriai-UK A D R i n cident reports." 1 9 . Charged dust aerosols In the words of Isaac Koi , a commentator on Condign, 20. Optical m irages"If an analysis i s to be performed then it should be per­ 2 1 . I onospheric p lasmaformed competently." Therefore, the question might not 22. Artifactsonly be whether the raw material is sufficien t for the task, but 2 3 . L i n ked vortex ringswas M r. X qualified to undertake deta i l ed analysis of this 24. Sprites, e l ves, and b l ue jetstype? I n his i n troduction to Vol ume 1 ofthe study, the author 2 5 . Overview of magnetic-field effects on humanssays, "every effort has been made to take a wide systemsapproach, to avoid over-focusing on s i ngle events." And he M ost of the alleged scientifi c sources mentioned formadds, "There has been neither i n tention of debunking the the basis of the work i ng papers in Volume 2, and it i sextraterrestrial lobby or of taking the opposite view­ prec isely these that represent l i kely causes for U A Ps andexcept based on hard scientific evidence." related phenomena. None ofthese phenomena are unknown N evertheless, a mere 1 5 pages later, the extraterrestrial to science. In fact, probably a n umber of readers m ighthypothesis is dismissed after data emerged that correlated confidently agree that all ofthe above might be responsibleU A Ps with natural phenomena. As a result, the study con­ for proportions of i n itially reported U FO sighti ngs that havec l u des that an ET origin for the residue of unidentified been explained as m isperceptions of man-made and naturalreport is "very u n l ikely," and the author adds: "Defence phenomena. The question remai ns: Do the working papersi n te l l igence interests w i l l not [be] furthered by conti nued cover all possi b i l ities and could their attendant phenomenai n vestigations which focus on potential extra-terrestrial and circumstance be responsible for all U A Ps or U FOs andsources." related phenomena? The simple answer i s no. We bel ieve One of the most serious flaws i n the report is that in there is room for other poss i b i l ities. Essenti a l ly Condignsome places the basis on which M r. X accepts some and doesn t consider or mention all possible causes of U A P orrej ects other evidence is not apparent from the content U FO sightings. W e l l l eave the reader to fi l l in any b l an k s .presented. We have i dentified numerous assertions made M ore extraord i nari ly, i n order t o reach conclusions, aswithout reference to evidence or any form of logic. To list far as we know this "scientific" examination was completedthose here would be beyond the scope of this article, but i t without undertaking any consul tation with scienti sts i n theis sufficient t o note that there appears to b e a large amount relevant fields connected with the working papers. Nor doof specu lation presented i n the report as fact. we have reason to suppose this report was externally sent out Vol ume 2 of the report is a hefty document entitled for scientifi c scrutiny. The secrecy factor is very perti nent" I n formation on Associated N atural and Man-Made Phe­ here and demonstrates how and why most of this exerc isenomena." It contains 25 working papers touching upon a was i neffective.variety of i mportant infl uences upon the U A P data. Thecategories i n c lude: BLACK PROJ ECTS I . UAP effects on h umans, electrical/electronic equip­ One important category of i n fl uence l i sted i n V o l ume 2 of ments and objects Condign is black ai rcraft programs. Work i ng Paper 9, 2. B a l l and bead l ightning c lassified as "N ATO Restricted," opens with the state­ 3. Potential reasons for higher densities of U A P ment, " I t is acknowledged that some U A P reports can be sighti ngs attrib u ted to covert aircraft programmes-i n w h i c h un­ 4. A fterimages as a result of flashes of l ight usual air vehicles may be seen, either at the experimental 5. Detection of U A Ps by radar stage or i n serv i c e . " The paper proceeds to describe a 6. Exotic techno logies n umber of b lack project shapes that it says are "frequently 7 . S ightli ne rules of flying objects and meteorites reported as UAPs." Those i l l ustrated i n c lude both UA V s 8. Rarity of U A P sound reports and three manned U . S . proj ects: the 2 ,000-mph S R- 7 1 9. B lack and other aircraft programs as U A P events I 0. Ley lines, earth l ights, and UK fau l t l i nes I I . Collected imagery and classification ofUAP shapes 1 2 . Eart h s magnetic field in the U KA D R 1 3 . V i s ual meteorol ogical a n d other natural phenom­ Le to right: SR­ ft ena ------ 71, F- 1 1 7, and B-2 1 4. Meteorological balloons Stealth bomber. IUR + 30:4
  • B l ac kb ird, the F- 1 1 7 , and 8-2 Stealth bomber. A 1 4- l i n e such as those described by Persinger have ever been de­description of Program 2 a n d a 1 0- l i ne description o f tected or measured i n the environment, nor do we know ofProgram 3 h a v e both b e e n w i t h h e l d under Section 2 7 oft h e any stimuli present in the environment capabl e of producingF O I A o n t h e grounds that i t w a s supp l i ed i n confi dence by a l l such reported effects."another nation." This exemption i s j ustified on the grounds There is a l i mited but growi n g body of research i ntothat "release . . . is l i k e l y to prej ud i c e the future exchange various a lleged environmental E M and other p o llution ef­of such i n formation and m ay also damage the U K s rela­ fects on humans, animals, and p l ants covering a number oftionship with that nati o n . " manmade and other natural emi ssion sources. H owever, I n addition, the names of both b l ac k programs have these require i nvestigation in long-term studies i n order thatbeen w i thheld along with two photographs that accompany data can be estab l i shed and some real scientific consensus tothe text. H owever, in Working Paper 6 ( "Exotic Technolo­ develop. U n t i l then, th is field w i l l remain curious andgies") appears the l i ne, "The projected ( USAF) priority plan controversial, replete with boastfu l and b iased commentaryi s to produce unp i l oted air-breat h i ng aircraft with a M ac h 8- from its extremes.1 2 capab i l ity and transatmospheric vehicles . . . as well as A l i mited Google search on the influence of m icrowaveh i g h l y supersonic veh i c l es at M ac h 4 to 6." mob i le phone, relay, and transmitter poll ution effects o n This i n trig u i ng reference has led a n umber of British humans reveals t h e polarized nature of di scourse o n themedia outlets, i n c l u d i n g BBC Newsnight and the London controversy. On one side are companies who promote theGuardian, to spec u l ate that one of the withheld photo­ emission or transmission technology. They claim i t is per­graphs might be a picture of the i n famous Aurora. There fectly safe and there is no evidence that any h umans havehas been much speculation about the exi stence and capa­ been harmed by exposure. On the other extreme are peopleb i l ities of t h i s supposed hyperso n i c black proj ect since the who claim they or their c h i l dren have developed everythingearly 1 990s. W h i l e the U . S . authorities have denied such from e lectrohypersensitivity to leukemia as a result ofan ai rcraft e x i sts, sightings of unusual aircraft shapes have prox i m i ty to ground waves from microwave relay masts ( i nadded to rumors that a secret airc raft exists that i s capab l e rare cases, either individua l l y o r in consortium, l it i gation i sof fly i n g at u p to M ac h 8 . I n summary, M r. X notes that i nvolved).from "certa in viewing aspects . . . these veh i c les may be Unfortunately, scientific groundwork that is indepen­descri bed as saucer l i k e -hence they are not i gnored by dent and unbiased is rare or difficult to locate. Often it isobservers-as more conventional and fam i l iar a i rcraft impossible to establ i sh the objective facts when so muchshapes would be." material is lost in an electronic fog. The best we can say is yes, radiation affects people, but no one rea l l y knows yet exactly to what extent, or who may be more or less sensitive.PLASMAS, PLASMOI DS, AND EM EFFECTS Besides noct i l ucent c louds and auroral d i s p l ays thatThe study found that w h i l e it could rule out aliens and hosti le may explain some U FOs, there are other d usty p lasmas i nforeign aircraft, i t could not fu l l y account for some of the the Earth environment that may cause rare types of visualstranger UAP events. These reports, many of which are l uminescent phenomena that can be reported as U FO s .made by credible witnesses, "are almost certainly attribut­ H owever, until proper scient i fi c detection and measure­able to physical , electrical and magnetic phenomena in the m e n t o c c u r t h e s e e x p l an a t i o n s m u s t rem a i n o n l yatmosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere" created by "more hypothetical. A s mentioned i n the report, b a l l l ightningthan one set of weather and electrically charged condi tions." produced i n a l aboratory is j ust one example of one such Mr. X goes even further by drawing upon the controver­ u nproven possi b i li t y .sial research and conclusions of research carried out at S i nce the report w a s rel eased we h a v e approachedLaurentian Uni versity by M i chael Persinger. He fi nds merit more than 40 scientists from d i fferent natio n a l i ties andi n the theory that pl asmas or earth l ights may explain a range across a range of d i s c i p l ines to obtain expert comment andof c lose-encounter and even "al ien abduction" experiences. opi nion on the findings of the Condign study. Appro x i ­The report says that on rare occasions plasmas can cause m a t e l y two-thirds were p l asma p h y s i c i s t s . M any areresponses in the temporal-lobe area of the human brain, u n w i l l i n g to be publ i c l y associated w i th the topi c in anyl eading observers to suffer extended memory retention and s hape or form . Here we have a perfect exampl e of therepeat experiences. This, the report s author believes, may shyness often ascribed to scientists in the past when theybe "a key factor in influencing the more extreme reports are asked to contribute a critique of a so-c a l l ed scientifi c. . . [that] are c l early believed by the victims." assessment of U FOs. H owever, on a positive note, and We should stress that we do not accept these specula­ despite requests for anonymity we have been providedtions as being scientifically valid explanations of the w i th comments, usefu l referen c es, and suggestions. Thec lose-encounter experience. Though EM and other cortex process i s ongoing and we i ntend to pers i st i n our efforts tostimulation effects on humans may provide c l ues towards involve pertinently qua l i fi e d scienti sts in a comp rehensivethe origin of some aspects of a l l eged abduction phenomena review of all the Condign documents.e lements, we are not aware that any p l asmas or "transients" (continued on page 2 9) IUR + 30:4 13
  • THE CORE PHENOMENON AND THE SECONDARY PHENOMENON BY JEROME C LARKI fUFO sightings exi sted in a vacuum-i n other words, The first great modern anomal ist, Charles Fort ( 1 874- without competing, comparably pecul iar claims l it­ 1 932), was also the first writer to propose a comprehensive tered profusely throughout the long hi story of human theory of interplanetary vis itation. Fort forged that theory testimony-the hypothesis that extraterrestrial visi­ out of more than reports of aerial oddities, though ( as we a l ltors have found their way to earth in the past century or two know) h e was the pioneer, creating ufology nearly threewould be far easier to advance. Actual ly, once contrary decades before culture embraced the concept of al ien flyingdebunking counterexplanations had been disposed of, it objects. H is own restless reading of yel lowed newspaperswould be a l l but unavoidable. and scientific j ournals had informed him that strange shapes Things, of course, are nowhere that simple. The world in the atmosphere and beyond were not the sole weirdnesshas always burst at its seams with weird stuff which appears infesting the world.to cha l lenge official ly sanctioned know ledge. U fol ogy (not Rather than present his fi ndi ngs as samples of randomto mention C U FOS) came to be because after World War I I odditi es, he incorporated them-his often tongue-in-cheekflying saucers sounded l i ke a signal-maybe a very distinct prose masking gen uine conviction-into a vision of extra­signal-newly beamed from the constant background static terrestrial wayfarers engaged in all kinds of ba ffl ing acti vi­of extraordinary claims. To most of those who took the ties: dropping organ ic and inorganic substances out of thereports seriously, that "distinct signa l" was thought to herald blue, seeding the earth with mysterious archaeo logical arti­the sudden presence of intruders from i nterplanetary or facts, causing persons and vessels to vanish, and-notinterstel lar space. incidental ly-a l l the wh ile being mistaken for ghosts, de­ To those who didn t take the reports seriously, the mons, gods, fairies, and ocean-going saurians.saucers were i rksomely fam i l iar, j ust the As press accounts from earl y J u lyusual tiresome nonsense in fresh, i n·itat­ 1 94 7 record, Forteans-aware that flyingingly invi gorated i teration. The particu­ saucers were not qu ite the novel phenom­lar form that ridicule adapted spoke to an enon na"ive journalists, witnesses, and theissue that would bedev i l ufologi sts to this publ ic generally thought them to be­day. The first accounts ofsaucer sightings immediately connected the objects withhad barely rol led off the presses before the otherworldly visitors Fort had writtenscoffers were l i nking saucers to mon­ about. By temperament Forteans tendedsters, fai ries, ghosts, and other fri nge phe­ to be mystery-mongers and heterodoxnomena that all serious persons knew to thinkers. U n l ike, say, Project Sign per­be too fantastic and absurd to consider. sonnel, they did not judge the extraterres­Readi l y identifiable as the hoary practice trial poss i b i l ity to owe j ust to U FOknown as gui l t by association-and later sightings, nor did they think that suchinstitutionalized by professional anomaly sightings were the only odd things hap­bashers such as Martin Gardner, author of pen i ng on the planet.the hugely i nfluential Fads andFallacies Charles Fort The first magazine to feature saucerin the Name ofScience ( New York: Do­ material in v i rtua l l y every issue, Fatever, 1 95 7 ) , which p l aces U FOs in the company of various ( whose initial i ssue saw print less than a year after Arnoldsoutlandish heresies and swindles-the derision was predict­ encounter), also covered Fortean and psych i c occurrencesable, in some ways empty, but not entirely meaningless. and engaged in freewhee l i ng occult-tinged specu lation. I t covered N . M eade Layne and h i s San Diego-based Border­Jerome Clark, an editor o UR, is author o f! fthe multivolume line Sciences Research Associates, which propounded theU FO Encyclopedia (1 990- 1 9 98), U nnatural Phenomena esoteric doctrine of etheric realms to which a l l manner of(2005), and other books. anomalous appearances, including "ether ships" ( U FOs), I U R + 30:4 14
  • coul d be traced. M ost readers probably readFate s contents may be wise to think ofa "core phenomenon" and a "second­indiscriminately, in the implicit assumption that one "true ary phenomenon." The former is the "traditional" U FOmystery" is as good as another. phenomenon, which i s to say the th ing, commencing with Not a l l early ufologists agreed. I f they had, there would the C E2/radar-visual and a l l such i mply, that runs in anhave been no entity named "ufo logy." Many u fo logists ostensibly straight l i ne from the Arnold era to the present,devoted their entire (or at least pub l ished) attention to the phenomenon that-as far as we can j udge from theU FOs, looking back at Fort for h istorical perspective on limited evidence available to us ( i n good part because ofaerial-phenomena reports. V i rtuall y alone of his 1 950s science s neglect of eminently investigable data)-com­contemporaries, on the other hand, M . K. Jessup addressed prises structured craft with extraordinary performance char­Fortean anomalies directly and, li ke Fort, i ncorporated them acteristics and humanl i ke and humanoid crews. ( Whetheri nto an eccentric-less charitab ly: crank-theory of U FO the latter are abducting human beings in the many thousandsvisitation. 1 Jessup insipidly conceived of sky fal l s as the is another matter, one we shall not take up here. )consequence of spi l l s or drops from saucer hydroponics The core phenomenon i s a n event phenomenon, thetanks, and his ruminations about the relationship ofarchaeo­ secondary phenomenon an experience one. In other words,logical artifacts and mysterious disappearances to U FOs the former is something that can be, or potenti a l l y can be,were no more richly i nspired. shown to have happened in consensus reality . ( "Potentia lly" l n the 1 960s, a l l-encompassing paranormal specula­ in this context means, for i nstance, al leged landing tracestions chal l enged the ET H . There were two strains: John which await proper scrutiny in the laboratory. ) I n the l atterKee l s (and subsequently Gordon Creighton s ) crude de­ category, encounters and observations are experientiallymonology and J acques Vallees more elegant etTort to real-in other words, have the resonance of the genuinelyincorporate U FO experiences into broader, o l der traditions perceived and l ived-but are otherwise unprovable.of supernatural belief and experience. Whatever their other Experience anomalies are open-ended. A lmost any­differences, both approaches implicitly assumed that U FOs thing can be "seen ," though cultural traditions play a large,are not a discrete phenomenon,j ust one aspect of a multifac­ in some ways determining, role in shaping their particulareted generating mechan ism. A disciple ofLayne and Trevor content. I n experience, individuals perceive supernatural orJames Constable, Keel identified that mechanism as the at least unlikely entities l ike fai ries, merbeings, angels,etheric real m ( which he renamed the "superspectrum"), gods, and monsters. Credibil ity of these "observations"populated by fierce and treacherous forces. Vallee cal led depends on witness sincerity ( and sanity, obviousl y ) and onthe mechan ism the "control system" and left it more or less the specific c ircumstances of the incident. I t goes withoutat that. In later years theorists such as Janet and Colin Bord, say i ng that something unusual perceived up c lose in broadPatrick H arpur, Kenneth Ring, Peter Roj cewicz, and Michael dayl ight is more l i kely to be genuinely anomalous thanGrosso put forth their own variations on these themes. something g l impsed ambiguously in the distance at n ight. In due c ourse more conservat ive, E T H -oriented Let us be c lear here: These are not halluci nations by anyufologi sts pushed back, arguing that paranormal theories conventional definition . These encounters are truly, pro­amounted to l ittle more than magical thinking which could foundly mysterious, and their cause or stimulus is unknownonly relegate ufology even further to the fri nges. M oreover, (thus the only conventional ist option is to ascribe them a l l tosuch theories fai led to address such hard-core evidence as misperception, l ies, and mental disorders sometimes in­instrumented observations, radar/visuals, and landing traces. vented on the spot for the purpose). Yet, to all avai lableThese critics insisted that only concentrated scientific atten­ appearances, sincere witnesses and good viewing condi­tion to incidents of this kind could resolve the UFO question, tions that enhance confidence in the anomalousness of thec iting, for example, the Trans-en-Provence case with i ts observation do not translate into anything that transcendsi mpressively documented anomalous effects apparently tied testimony and memory. 2 We barely have a vocabulary withto an unknown, advanced technology. The debate fostered which to discuss such matters, though perhaps "visionary"a strange a l l iance as debunkers and paranormalists joined comes closest, even if it is merely descriptive and not, asforces to decree that the ETH is a priori impossible, the some presume, explanatory.p l aything of fools and credophi l es. Though this was and is Experience anomalies, protean in nature, are variable,an argument ofdubious merit, i t does underscore the curious changing over time and geography. In transitional h istoricalemotional ity of some anti-ETH polemicists. and cultural periods, they may fuse motifs in curious ways. One dramatic episode from the early 20th century melds atEVENTS AND T H E l R EXPERIENTIAL least three elements.CORRELATE S The incident allegedly took place-contemporary press accounts are vague about the date-sometime in June 1 907 _l f a comprehensive E T H , one that embraces everything "Near the D i keman springs," somewhere i n Tennessee (thefrom radar-tracked daylight discs and l aboratory-documented story was first pub l i shed i n the Nashville Tennessean) , onephysical traces on one side to hairy b ipeds and even more W alter Stephenson was resting on a l og after a n exhaustingesoteric entities on the other, seems a tall order, perhaps it hunt with h i s hounds. H i s eye fel l upon a speck-a k i te, he I U R + 30:4 I5
  • j udged-toward the eastern horizon. H e looked away but strangeness experiences (with U FOs, abductions, men i n soon heard a whirring sound which caused h i m to see that the b lack, and beyond; with Sasquatch, paranormal bipeds i n obj ect, now almost directly overhead, was no kite but a Pennsylvan i a, South Dakota, M i ssouri , and j ust about ev­ "huge balloon . . . of a pattern he had never in h i s l ife before erywhere else)? seen." As it c ircled overhead a few t imes, eeril y lovely The answer is, obviously, that we don t know. Sti l l , the music could be heard emanating from it. Soon the airship separati on of some c lasses of anomalies into two superfi­ landed, and "strange people" stepped out of the car, "which cially a l i ke but in fact unrelated ontological categories may was closely curtained with a substance that fai rl y glistened prove i nescapable. in the sunshine that burst through the obscuring clouds." The ship s occupants-the pub l i shed account i mplies that their FooTNOTES faces were covered without stating so directly-walked to the spring and knelt there as i f i n prayer for a m inute or so. 1 . Jessup was an early proponent of what would be Stephenson watched them from a short distance. When cal led "ancient astronauts" as Erich V on Dani ken rose to their apparent worship ritual was over, he asked the strang­ prominence nearly two decades later. I n Jessup s unique ers who they were and why they were here. One ofthe crew reading, however, the ancient astronauts were earthborn l i fted a vei l , revealing the "ben ign face ofa lady," who asked pygmies who developed a supertechnology, promi nently him-in German-if he had prayed. " Instantly," the press i nc l uding levitation, and traveled into space. Currently, they account reports, "all were aboard, the airsh ip rose, circ led reside in a giant space station in the "gravity neutral" zone about for a minute or more, and was gone in a westerly between the earth and the moon, though they also maintain direction. Mr. Stephenson states that the incident l eft an lunar bases on the latter. As far as I can determine, Jessup i mpress ion upon him that he can never forget, and whi le he persuaded precisely nobody that any of this i s true. knows that it was some human invention, it looked and the 2. That is true even when-in exceedingly rare circum­ music sounded more l i ke that of angels than of mortals." stances-fully funded scientific resources are brought to If experience anomalies adapt themselves to a culture s bear on h igh-strangeness phenomena, as Colm A . Kel leher idea o f supernatural o r extraordinary encounters, this one and George Knapp report in their very i n teresting Hunt.f or conjures up divine entities (angels and even, by one reading, the Skin walker (2005). A remote ranch in northeastern Utah the B l essed V i rgin M ary), secret airshi p pi lots, and-look­ was reportedly the site of appearances by U FOs, weird i ng forward-U FOs in the modern sense. 3 Notions of ex­ structures, enigmatic l i ghts, bizarre animals, invisible enti­ traordinary encounters in some i nstances may also, of ties, and more. Sc ientists and researchers witnessed some of course, have as their i nspiration the sorts of rea l , thi s-world these things themselves, but attempts to document the ap­ encounters whose contents are suffi ciently exotic and enig­ pearances instrumentally proved fruitless. The project ended, matic as to border on the fantastical . as it began, with strange anecdotes. Though poorly understood, ball l ightning is a no longer 3. For other examples of early U FOs-i n-the-making,disputed physical occurrence, but it has its correlates in the see my "Enigma Variations: Proto-U FOs and Other Strange­ l i minal zone of anomalous experience. The sociologist ness," fUR 2 8 : 2 ( 2003).J ames McClenon has noted that an "effect that occurred 4. Deviant Science: The Case of Parap.sychologyduring an electrical storm would be termed ball l ightn i n g . ( Phi ladelphia: Un iversity of Pennsy lvania Press, I 98 4 ) : . . . Other cases with t h e exact same appearance b u t occur­ 60-6 3 . • ring in other c i rcumstances would be cal led U FOs, psychicl i ghts, or w i l l - o -the-wisps." In such contexts balls o f light SCHU ESSLER RETI RES AS M U FON H EADmay act purposefu l ly, as i f endowed with intel l igence and After serving two three-year terms as international direc­ able to perform fantastic feats such as ( i n the testimony ofone i ndividual McClenon interviewed) the openi ng of and tor of the Mutual UFO Network, John Schuessler w i l l retire effective November 1 . H e announced his retirementpassing through locked windows. 4 at the annual M UFON business board meeting in July. B a l l l i ghtning was once as outre, and for some of thesame reasons, as UFOs and cryptozoological entities such Schuessler s statement appears on the M UFON website:as Sasquatch . The "core phenomenon" of ball l ightning is "Finally, after thorough del i beration, the board con­ cl uded that my successor should be James Carrion ofknown even as i t spins offsecondary, profoundly anomalousexperiential phenomena. Could one day U FOs-the prod­ Bel lvue, Colorado. This deci si on was made by examiningucts of an advanced technology created (one presumes) i n the needs of M U FON, where our strategic plan wasother solar systems-and Sasquatch-a race of(biological) aiming to take the organization in the future and how wellhomi n i ds, the product of evolutionary processes, cousins to Jamess background matched the M U FON needs." Kristenhumankind, and inte l l i gent enough to conceal themselves i n Kennington w i l l take over the office operations. As ofthe vast wilderness o f the Pacific Northwest-be docu­ November I , the address w i l l be: M utual U FO Network,mented and accepted as this-world phenomena, spinning off P . O. B o x 279, B e l l vue, CO 805 1 2-0279; (970) 22 1 - 1 836; fax (970) 22 1 - 1 209.their own secondary correlates i n the form o f bizaiTe h igh- J U R + 30:4 1 6
  • ToM ToWERS : THE OTHER AL CHOP BY RoBERT BARROWT om Towers (died approx. 1 99 1 ), once a popul ar Towers through their roles in writing and pub l i c relations, Los Angeles newspaper writer who also starred respectively, and Chop recommended Towers for the role. in one major motion picture and eventual l y be­ After a few meetings with the producers and his editors at the came an executive assistant at what is now LAX Examiner, a three-week leave was a l l owed so Towers couldA irport, served as an Army Air Force intell igence officer make the movie.d uring WW I I . Towers eventually left the newspaper in 1 95 9 on a A few years after the war, the former AAF Captain year s leave of absence to establish the Los Angeles SoundTowers landed a reporters j ob at the old Los A ngeles Abatement Coordinating Committee at Los Angeles I nter­Examiner, a position he held from 1 94 7 to 1 959. [n addition national A i rport. The commi ttee convened to deal withto general report i ng, Towers also wrote frequently about community protests caused by jet-engine noise, a rapidlyaviation as a senior member of the Aviation Writers Asso­ growing problem as the jet age began to flourish commer­c iation, and perhaps his i nterest in flying related to his s i ngle cially. H is leave was extended every six months unti l Janu­shot at an acting career. ary 1 962 when the Examiner ceased publ ication. Towers The United Artists movie Unidenti ied Flying Objects, f soon gained employment with the Los Angeles Departmentalso known simply as UFO, appeared in theaters throughout of A irports that J u l y and remained there i nto at least the l atethe United States, England, and other countries in M ay 1 956 1 970s (and perhaps the 1 980s), becoming executive assi s­( see fUR 30:2). This C l arence G reene-Russel l Rouse pro­ tant.duction, a documentary, accurately recreated the early days His newspaper career, far beyond his acting stint,ofthe official U . S . government U FO investigation in the l ate seemed fascinating i n itself. Towers recalled i n the 1 970s: 1 940s and early 1 950s. H owever, as plans were underway "At the start of my newspaper career with the Examiner Ifor fi l m i ng in 1 95 5 , a lead actor was needed to play the key worked as a general assignment reporter. 1 covered manyrol e of A lbert M. Chop, once chief of the Air Forces press major crime stories, some of which were identified with thesection, who gradual l y changed from ardent skeptic to rise and fal l of local Mafia-type gangsters.believi ng that U FOs were real , with inte l l i gence behind "At the start of the Korean War, I was assigned to writetheir contro l . a weekl y aviation column entitled A viation News. I was F o r G reene a n d Rouse, their choice of Towers t o play given this task because of my World War l l background inthe role of A I Chop may have been predictable. Earl ier, a the Air Force . . . and l ater as a group public i n formationpubl ic i ty agent for a smal l H o llywood fi l m company, Popk i n officer," he related. Towers s title became aviation editorProductions, h a d noti ced Towers i n the Examiner city room and he kept the position when the newspaper s regu l arand thought h i m an excellent choice for the producers fi l m aviation editor was dispatched to Korea to cover trainingThe Well, in w h i c h h e c o u l d p l a y t h e important role of a and war operations. After Korea, the editor returned, butdeputy sheriff. U n fortunately for Towers, h i s rel uctant c i ty Towers kept the Sunday column assignment, writing airlineeditor didn t feel he could approve a leave of absence and general avi ation stories, p l us aerospace p ieces aboutrequiring several weeks, and the conflict of vacation sched­ missiles.ules at the newspaper would further scuttle a chance at "When the jet age started in January 1 959, I wroteacting. several critical aviation columns about j et noise, and I M onths l ater, however, opportunity came knocking suspect this is why I was hired away fro m the Examiner andwhen plans for UFO emerged. A I Chop already knew asked to set up the Sound Abatement Coordin at i ng Commit­ tee at International Airport," he explained.Robert Barrow began researching UFOs as a teenager in Towers no l onger wrote for any publications ("No1 963. His articles and book reviews appearedin The A . P .R.O. time"), but hoped to devel op story i deas about the airport.B u lletin, Pursuit, Argosy UFO, True F ly ing Saucers & He recalled the newspaper business fondly: "I broke i nto theU FOs, Official UFO, and newspapers and magazines. newspaper b usiness after World War I l as editor/reporter IUR + 3 0 : 4 I7
  • for a weekl y newspaper i n Big Bear Lake, Californ i a, where newsman, 1 was interested in the sightings, as reported byI gained some notoriety by writing a story that broke up the reputabl e observers."revi va l of the K u K l ux K l an i n southern Califomia." "B ut," he cautioned, "l had no time or patience for When this i nterview was conducted i n the late 1 970s, those who attempted to capitalize on the phenomenon, suchTowers was acting as executive assistant to the general as the crowd that gathered at G iant Rock in San Bernardinomanager of the Los Angeles Department of A irports ( then County, Californ i a, and tried to sell the media and public onknown as # I World Way), and also served as legislative U FO gimmickry and quackery." Reflecting upon eventsl i aison to the c i ty coun c i l , where he appeared before various portrayed in UFO, Towers fel t them legit imate and reportedcommittees on matters pertaining to the department s over­ by trustworthy observers: "And I sti l l feel that q ua l i fiedsight of three airports-International Airport, Van N uys UFO observers, such as FAA traffic contro l lers and airl i neAirport, and the Ontario International Airport. He a l so pilots, must be bel ieved. lf one cannot believe a qua l i fied airmon i tored aviation/airport l egislation coming before the traffic contro ller or a qual ified airline pi l ot," he asks, "whostate legislature at Sacramento, remaining current on b i l l s can you bel ieve?"a n d offering testimony on t h e departments behal f. By the 1 970s, Towers confessed reading about U FO I n the early 1 950s, Towers never suspected that the sightings with interest but had no invo l vement with themajor movie role in UFO was headed his way, a perfor­ subject, a lthough he observed that when UFO stories ap­mance destined to be seen a l l over the world. The documen­ peared on the news, his movie seemed to show up withtary p l ayed in European movie houses with subtitles, Tow­ increased frequency on TV outl ets. N u merous avi at i oners recal led, "and a friend with U n i ted Airlines saw the fi lm contacts kept him informed of movie airings on TV: "Re­while visiting in some l i ttle town in G reece ." cently, Channel I I in L.A. showed UFO at 6:00 p.m.-not "At the outset," he continued, " I had no particular views bad for a fi lm that, nowadays, seems to fi nd existence onlyon U FOs, but I was elated and pl eased to be selected to p lay in the late evening hours ." Around the same time, anthe l ead role." Production costs were low budget a l l the way, American Airli nes pi lot friend informed him that Channel Sunder $200,000, he bel ieved, and he furnished almost his in New York City also presented the movie. "When the fi l mentire wardrobe. H e provided his own auto for hi ghway was active in theaters I was often stopped o n t h e street byscenes, with fi lming accompli shed under strict security to strangers and asked to comment. Today, friends and ac­prevent competing studios from steal ing ideas and rushing quaintances bring up the subject as a matter of l ight conver­their own U FO movies into theaters. Towers humorously sation . . . always in a l ight vein." As a writer, Towers hadrecal led that he had his own dressing room-a men s room. numerous conversations with people who maintained an He held no opinion about U FOs at that ti me, "but as a avid U FO interest. Fol lowing the rel ease of UFO, no further motion pi cture offers pursued Towers, though he believes that if the fi lm had achieved the success it m issed he might have attempted a fi lm and TV career. In fact, UFO producer C l arence Greene told him he should have stayed i n the business because TV needed actors for police shows and the l ike. Despite the documentary status of the movie, there were many H o l l ywood touches involved throughout production. Towers thoughtfu l l y related an anecdote fam il iar to the industry: "At the former Hollywood Citizen News, we shot a remote scene in the papers c i ty room or thereabouts. l had suggested to one of the minor players that he do the scene this way or that . . . of course, this is the directors job, not m ine. But I felt that as an active newsman, I 8till J{(; . .J2 llo l :I I T h i ... ..(Ttlt. fr·out " l uidt· n t i f i t·tl Fl� i n � Ob it·t•l .. ( l FO ) . a n•nt•aliou of t iUt im·id,·ut. purlnl .. knew a bit about how reporters move and p,.·uta�un p,.. . .... :"ilw,· i a l i .. ·· a 1 Cht)p (Tum rn,u · r· . ) " i t h 1 . :-. i rfurn· l nt(•lli�t·nt·t· Olli(·t·r :atdr hlp ...t•t·r·t·l photn .. uf fl . i n :.:- -.aut•t·r· .. i u thi-. l n i l t•d r·tj .. , .. n·lt>:! ..( t•urn i n;.:: ltl tlw . . .. .. ht· t a act inside a newspaper city room. I h(•:Ji rc• CHI "The director ( Wi nston Jones) said Publicity photoFom the original 1 956 United A rtists press book, with Tom nothing at that t ime, but later told me this Towers s name spelled correctly. Towers is atf le ar ft. story: Famed director John Ford was I U R + 30:4 1 8
  • once making a movie and some actor told another actor how agencies ofthe Government, and they are ofthe opinion thatto play a scene. Ford said nothi ng, but after the l uncheon it is not wise to publicize this matter at this t i me."break he did not come back to the set. A l l hands were Maybe he didn t get the story he desired, but Towersstanding around, waiting to get direction. Money was being retaliated by rai sing further questions about U FOs andwasted at a great pace. government secrecy, accompl ished simply by printing Sen. "The producers went i nto a rage and someone fin a l ly Russell s letter.found Ford in some remote part of the set. When asked why Nor did Towers remain dormant throughout the steadyproduction had not started after the luncheon break, Ford procession of UFO lectures and meetings pervading Lostold the producers that he fel t he wasnt needed anymore Angeles in the 1 950s. At a meeting held at Baces H a l l onsince actor had taken over his work as a director. A ugust 8, 1 957, he personal l y introduced famous broad­Of course, this problem was corrected forthwith and Ford caster Frank Edwards to an audience of 500, and there waswent back to work as the fi l m s director. at least one gathering hosted by U FO writer Max B. M i l ler "Needless to say," Towers continued, "I got the point attended by Towers, perhaps in conj unction with the movie.and from that moment I ceased to offer any advice to anyone Unti l the mid- 1 970s, Towers was hounded by oneas to how to play a scene." annoyi ng regret: H ardly any publications spel led his name Shooting time for Towers s scenes took about three correctly, l i sting him perpetua l l y as Tom Powers. Com p l i ­weeks, Monday through Friday, except Greene and Rouse cating matters, there was already a Hol lywood actor nameddid send the lead actor on a weekend trip to Washington, Tom Powers. TV Guide and the Los A ngeles Times wereD.C., for some exterior shots at the Pentagon. among the gui lty parties, but were hardly alone in the error. In his portrayal of AI Chop, Towers viewed the famous As this writer was contacting TV Guide to plea for aMontana and Utah U FO fi lms, and the obj ects reminded him correction (successfu l ly), Towers was writing U n i ted Art­of bouncing tennis bal ls. "However," he added, " I had no ists for an explanation. Apparently, replied they, the originalreason to doubt the veracity or the rel iab i l i ty of those who U A press book for UFO misspel led Towers as "Powers" ontook the fi lms. l think the fact that they did not remind one page, and for years a publicity paper circulated by theanyone of flying saucers might have been somewhat of an studio l i sted his name with a P.upsetting factor for some U FO buffs." Tom Towers never saw a U FO ("No sightings that would A highl ight of his partici pat ion i n the motion picture qualify as U FOs"), but that isn t to suggest the U FO subjectwas Towers s opportun ity to meet former Project B l ue didn t cross his mind in later years: "When a missile i s firedBook chief Edward J . Ruppelt. " Ed Ruppelt impressed me at Vandenberg Air Force Base on the Ca l i fornia coast, and theas a very kind man and one who was totally objective and contrails spread out over the western sky, I often think abouttruthfu l in his U FO work," remembered Towers. "I did not U FOs," he admitted. "But that s as far as it goes."know him very wel l , but on the few occasions we did talk, he Editor s note: M uch of the information in this articleimpressed me as a rel iable person. A l l my meetings with was provided to writer Robert Barrow via personal commu­Ruppelt were in conj unction with the making of U FO . I did nication with Towers in the 1 970s. +not meet him prior to this." Two decades after the movies production, Towers s THE STO RY The 1 956interests incl uded his ai rport position and fitness activities ( ot /or JJttf)liration ) UA presssuch as golf, tennis, and bowli ng, his only contact with ht•u A l lwr·l Chop ( Tnr u Pt)H•r..,) fi r·:-.1 rt · book spellsU FOs being what he read in newspapers or watched on TV. portt•d l u <.H·k on t lw P u hl i <� l n fnnn a l i o n Towers sOccasionally, he noted, technical publ ications crossing his ufll (·t· dt·�k o f A i r lalc..-ial Com m a u d . h e "a-, " t h i :") Uyi11� SHllC.:(;l hu.o;inf:ss�· ... k c p t i ( : a l a l w u l name wrongdesk menti oned U FOs. But back i n the 1 950s, Towers was dt·� p i t t• t l u· n•purb of !> i g l 1 t i ng-s a n d t l w d<t� t h in the plot u f Cap t a i n !H a n t � l l . i n 1 94U� w h i lt: dta � i u � ui nvolved with UFOs in other ways after C larence Greenes 0 . i n :,e- � : I U CCI". summa1y.documentary film saw release. La t <t·. a fftT C h o p hud Ju:t·n t r H n �ff·n·C"d t o th e· Pn ·"� �•·f·thm i n t h r Pt"n tag-on. he lt ·on·nf•d A copy of the Examiner dated January 20, 1 957, fea­ from Ma.iot· Dc._ wt. Fo tH"H f l of Air· Fo1(•f" I n · • tures his A viation News column and carries a story head­ rtlli,!! f IH( t h a t tilt� hatl a c t u al Jnotion pi« ·­ uu·e!l o f l lF()..,. Tlw..,t-· pic· t u t·t·�, lu�t·tller· withl i ned, "About Saucers and Sen. Russe l l s Letter." The letter t h o�•· l;t.kcn Parlif•f h� a hn�iu(��� 1nan tltlwas dated J anuary 1 7, 1 956, and was sent to Towers by da��i lit Hl!l N ot balloon�. n n t a (a l i o n t> rt• •d a i n·raft ancl n o t h i nl:--lHII • n ktH)�n�.Georgia Senator R i chard B. Russe l l J r. ( 1 897- 1 97 1 ), chair­ lu•11. i n l 9 5 2 t h e Lnkno"n� JHovcd iuman of the Committee on Armed Services. Towers had o·«·r ta � h i n ;:: t o n . D.C . . a n d Chop togct htr w i t h radat· t XJlc�r·t.s :-aw 1lwm o n the raciHrrequested i n formation concerni ng a U FO sighting R usse l l :-<· t·t�t n , �nul i u h•ttt.J · HOI j t · t .-, n1adc· hual c·ou­ tart. h i :- �kcpti<"i�m disapJHrtrcd. He wa �reportedly made i n Europe ( see f UR 2 5 : 1 ). After learn ing of f u rt hc:r im rn·t•s::-c�l " H H G(n(•t·al Sam fortlthe inci dent from a rel iable Pentagon source, Towers wanted � l a kd t h a t t h f" rt wc�n· ··Cr·cdihlt· • Obscrvt•t·,.. of Rt: I H t i ve l � l tH" INi i b lf Tll i n:;!s .�·perm ission to break the story in h i s column. The senator s Fnuu tht·u on t ht.· u n l.· q u t • ;-,. l i o n :- jnrepl y dashed Towers s hopes t o print the s ighting, a s evi­ t : hop:- mind Hl:- X h a l ale t h f ·r a1HI h ,·r·c: . X do l h e � t"UJJH• fnHH .!denced in a portion of Russe l l s response: "I received yourletter but I have d iscussed this matter with the affected R u n n i n g T i m e : 92 m i n u tes l U R + 30:4 19
  • STRANGE DAYS BY MrcHAEL D . S woRDSI n this article, I explore some s uspic ious activities that masterm i nded by very eart h l y led to George Hunt W i l l iamson ( G H W ) meeting with forces . George Adamski for the famous .Desert Center en­ One caution : When Bob Girard counter with Orthon the Venusian. My intent is to sold me the fi les, he had separately suggest that some outside meddling may have been involved sold off a valuable part of them­with a l l this, although that can t be proven. the file folders specifically labeled Some years ago, U FO "George Adamski ." This, as muchb o ok s e l l e r ex traord i n a i re as I honor Bob and what he has B o b G i rard acqu i red t h e done for the field, is probably tragic.W i l l i amson papers . M ark I t al most certainly has created a Orthon the Venusian Rodegh ier, J erome C l ark, hole of terrible significance for theand I fe l t that a l t h o u g h understanding of the two Georges. Because the buyer of the W i l l iamson was a contactee, files demands anonymi ty, this cannot be remedied by the he w a s s e c o n d o n l y t o simple sol ution of photocopying the documents. I f, by anyAdamski in his impact on the chance, the buyer/col lector is reading this, you woul d be field, and was perhaps more doing a great service to scholars of Adamski and contacteesi nteresting (and certainly far i f you d be w i l l ing to have the material duplicated for themore creative). Therefore, his G H W collection. B ut, that said, fragments ofthese materi alspapers were worth preserv- are scattered about i n other fi les that did make it toi ng and making available, per George Hunt Williamson Kalamazoo, and I will attempt to put the pieces together forC U FOS policy. Accordingly, I paid G i rard s asking price, you here.and I now maintain the G H W files. Any responsible re­searcher is welcome to study them. B E FORE 0RTHON The files reveal W i l liamson as an extremely unusualand nearly i ndescribable character. I d start by saying he The Orthon event occurred on N ovember 20, 1 95 2 . Wewas a high-energy dreamer, and go on with n ai"ve, fun­ need to drop i nto the l i fe of W i l liamson about one yearloving, adventuresome, risk-taking, hyperactive, and a three­ earl ier to begin our story. In the winter of 1 95 I , G H W wasimpossible-things-before-breakfast kind of guy, permeated just getting i nto flying saucers. He hadn t yet become overlywith a very thin borderl i ne between fantasy and real ity. But interested in them. H i s mind was swirl ing with anthropo­he was also inte l l igent and creative, with the memory of a logical and spiri tual concepts, often immersed in what hesupercomputer, and living in a model of rea lity that was way really loved-American I ndian lore and c ulture. I t was intoo l arge for his, or my, sanity. So to say G H W is "interest­ pursuit of the latter, and aided by his convictions thati ng" is the least of it. involved in all this was the intrusion of the profoundly W i l l iamson became famous because he was the most spiritual, that he left the U niversity of Arizona ( probabl yc ited w itness to Adamski s blockbuster Orthon claim-the flunking out after a couple o f years, p l us some time a t twofootprints in the desert sand with extraterrestria l symbol s on other schools), and bolted for Chippewa country in M i nne­them, and a l l of that. He then went on to pour l i terature sota. In doing so, he left his wife Betty ( who did graduate so( i ncluding six books) and lectures i nto the U F O stewpot for far as I can tel l ) doing more formal field work in Arizonathe remainder of the 1 950s. How W i l l i amson ended up (with the Hopi or Navaho, or both) .meeting Adamski for the big U F O encounter is what I w i l l George began hearing tales from the Chippewa thattry t o unravel. T o m e , i t reeks o f a setup o f some type, sounded to him a bit l i ke U FO stories, but involv i ng spiritual agents from beyond. He considered himself a channeli ngMichael D. Swords is prof essor emeritus of the Environ­ medi um, so spirits from beyond were fine with h im . Then,mentallnstitute, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo. synchronistically, he read, of all things, Donald Keyhoes I U R + 30:4 20
  • The Flying Saucers are Real ( Fawcett, 1 950). Wel l , that did believe that Bailey was hungry. ) Williamson, with h i s un­ it. G H W was now w i l d for U FOs. And, to him, U FOs were l i m i ted capacity for self-deception, takes this last message obviously tied i n somehow to Indian lore, Spiritualism , and in stride as a demonstration of how wonderfu l l y human and the wisdom to guide humanity. h umorous the i ntel ligences are. In the spring of 1 95 2 , he returned to Prescott, Arizona, When they return from the food break, G H W i s ready near his parent s home and the Yavapai I ndian Reservation. for another Ouija session. This is h i s medium, after a l l ; Betty joined him, also fi red up about I ndian lore, spirits, and Bai ley h a s had o n l y the first lesson about the "game." B u t U FOs, and they read all they could grab on the subject and right off t h e b a t something very un-George comes through: made local contacts with similarly i nterested persons. Some­ the suggestion that this Ouij a board thing isn t very efficient how they heard about a W inslow, Arizona, resident named and that they should try to make their contacts via radio. "We A l fred C. Bailey, who was said to have the same suite of can reach you i n this manner," say the intelligences. This interests, though with more of an emphasis on the anthropo­ (radio) is definitely not George s game. The evenings logical and ufological, and less on the spi ri tual . They tried messages go on in a GHW manner, but at the end he has no to correspond with Bailey in J une 1 952, but he didn t way to pursue the suggestion. Unsurprisingly ( to me), Bailey respond right away. Two months later he did get i n touch, says he l l look i nto it, and after the Baileys returned to and A l fred and his wife agreed to meet at G W H s home in Winslow, he does. Prescott ( a not insign i fi cant drive). The meeting was a pretty There are a few further Ouija sessions ( G H W admits in odd first encounter. the fi les that not a l l the Ouija nor the radio transcripts were The W i l l iamsons were in their mid- to early twenties, put in the book), and these consist largely of astronomical and the Baileys much o l der ( probably in their forties or baloney. George also used methods of automatic writing thereabouts). AI Bailey introduced himself as a conductor and what we now wou ld cal l "channeling" i n these contacts, for the Santa Fe rai l road with an i nterest in chiropractic, alternating between one method and another. He also did ancient wisdom, and other strange matters. Betty Bailey was Ouija sessions hi mself, rapidly moving around a l arge board the reticent member of the foursome and actually uncom­ from letter to letter. This explains how many ofthe messages fortable at some points in the get-together. could be so lengthy. A fter much talk o f U FOs and ancient civil izations, and Meanwhi le, Bai ley reports that someone "high up" in a good dinner, our boy George suggested some after-d inner the Santa Fe Rai lroad Company has told him that he knows party games with a homemade Ouija board. Betty seems not of a case where a ham radio operator has received messages to have taken very wel l to that, but AI j um ped in with from space intel l i gences. This person also said that he could George. It appears to have been a two-man game with a recommend a local ham, Lyman Streeter, to try to do the recorder ( probably Betty W i l l iamson ). The men would same for them. Whether Bailey had this talk with the l ightly p lace their fingers on a clear, upturned water glass, unnamed person is your guess; whether this fel low worked and i t would sl ide around the board, stopping at letters or for Santa Fe is also your guess. In any case, our boy George numbers and del i vering its message from beyond. A lthough is sitting at home in Prescott fiddl i ng with upturned water George describes this as a party game, everyone should glasses, while Bai ley is getting a radioman. real i ze that he never thought of any such "communication" The last Ouija session prior to radio tak i ng over (Au­ unseriously. It was all big stuff to him. gust 1 7 ) was more vintage W i l l iamson: rather childish George reports on this August 2 Ouija communication elements of ridiculously named space entities from P luto at some length in his and Bailey s book, The Saucers Speak! and Uranus, sal ted with esoteric historical references and (New Age, 1 954). I n order for the glass to move around the warnings about the H -bomb. They are told to boil water to board, either W i l l iamson or B ai ley help the reception, but this doesn t work . They turn on thehad to push it-1 l l leave it to you to radio, but that doesnt work either. A t the very end of thedecide whether they do it by their session, the name of the radio operator arranged by Baileyown devices or whether some outer­ plus the "send" and "receive" frequencies for Streeters test space inte l l igences are doing it for run are transmitted ( receive at 400 k ilocycles, transmit at 40them ( my views on this should meters). Hmmm . . . 1 wonder who was pushing the glassshortly be clear). They have a long, then?probably wearying session, whichsounds suspiciously l i ke rock n RAmo DAYSrol l G H W-all manner o f esotericj azz, anthropological ancient-culture references, stoppages So, the radio sessions begin-without W i l l i amson. H e sto define what G H W already knows, and al lusions to bel l ­ sti l l in Prescott whi l e Bailey and Streeter fire up i n W i ns low.shaped saucers. ( G eorge Adamski had al ready written about B etty B ai l ey wasn t i nvolved, e ither. You can read some ofthese i n "] Photographed Space Ships," Fate, July 1 95 1 , pp. the transcripts of these radio sessions in the book. They64-74 . ) Near the end of the messages, "someone" breaks i n contain a W i ll i amson ian frame to them but certain other keyand suggests they stop for a while and get some food. ( I things come through. The two men report that early in the IUR + 30:4 2I
  • game they received G H W s main guy, "Zo," but right only sporadi cally from then on. The next session was afterwards " A ffa" took over as the big boy on the outer space September 1 1 , and it i nc luded this: "I hope we might have b lock. G H W was mystified. Hed never heard of Affa. a landing soon . . . . If we can arrange a landing do not fear George can t wait to get to Winslow, and when he does, i mpostors. You can be sure it w i l l be us." Later in the Streeter begins receiving outer-space messages nearly ev­ even i ng another contact: "We must make landing contact ery evening from late August to early September, and then soon . . . . you may go your own way i f you wish, but you more sparsely across the remainder ofSeptember, ending on know what we have told you. If you bel ieve us, you w i l l act October 5. In the first session W i l l iamson attended, on accordingly." Other, almost threatening-sounding i mpreca­ August 2 3 , the messages were sculpted largely in h is mode, tions to be strong and "undertake what lies just ahead of but with a bit more technical tilt to them, as wel l as one new you" fil l this transcript. message: "We want to land and you can be ofhelp to us. W i l l W i l l iamson had gotten the message, l i teral ly. He writes, you?" This was fol l owed the next day with the message, "Since our space friends talked of landing so often, we "We want to be sure of everything before we land. Look for decided to have a picnic in the mountains and perhaps they others to help our landing." would land for us" ( about September 28). The radio said I t is i mportant to emphasize that Streeter was p ick ing up "good idea" to this. Much weird commentary spewed oversome type of message, i n a variant of M orse code no less. the radio on the 27th, and W i l l iamson was wild w i th del ight. There were several witnesses to this beyond the Wi II iamsons However, the great event was not to be. For some reason, and Baileys. That these messages came from al iens I do not Streeter was the only one who knew exactly where "they" find bel ievab le, but someone was sending messages for were supposed to land ( for utterly unbel ievable reasons-a W i l l i amson and the others. That is the real mystery here. sort of psychic paranoia). A l so, a fool ish driving error At 9 : 3 0 p.m. on August 2 5 , Streeter suddenly told ruined their chances ( " We had missed the chance of a everyone to look for a dark spot i n the sky. After searching l i fetime ! " ) So they went back to Streeters home and ate in the dark sky for a while, GHW was convinced that he and their lunch. The radio then began sending sini ster-sounding everyone else had seen a dark obj ect near the horizon. "The messages about the radio being dangerous, a man coming, dark spot in the sky was Affa," the radio said. Then, G H W and Streeter having a deep secret. said that they saw a blue l ight somewhere else, a s requested, W i l l iamson was confused by a l l of that, but shortly which was presumably his contact, Zo. As G H W noted, decided that the man coming was going to be an outer-space "Now we knew for sure that we were in contact with men man. The deep secret may well have been that Streeter had from outer space " ( There is no doubt in my mind that it is previously been interested in U FOs and had attempted G H W who writes the maj ority of the copy in The Saucers contact in 1 950. One day shortly after that, he had gone intoSpeak! He is the master of the exclamation point. ) a type of trance and wouldn t or couldn t speak for eight Near the end of August, Streeter told everyone that he days. He had amnesia about those eight days when he had j ust done someth ing tricky with the freq uencies that no recovered; but strangely, after the contacts by radio started,earthbound ham radio hoaxer could have coped wi th­ Streeter sudden ly remembered what had occurred. He hadswitching from 40 meters to 1 60 meters in his transmissions "left his earthly body" and gone elsewhere where he was toldwith no warn ing. Yet the senders (the intelligences) handled to rapidly "complete his task upon the Earth planet." Hmmm the trick immediate ly. This proved, said Streeter, that this agam.was no hoax. But what this actually proves, unl ess we Essentially nothing came in via radio after this visit andbel ieve in space inte l l igences sending messages to G H W the mi ssed landing on September 28.a n d group, i s that Streeter had t o be in o n the whole thing andthat th is l ittle event was prearranged. ADAMSKI A N D G H W G H W, of course, was thri l led. During a l l this period,the Baileys and W i l l iamsons were constantly discussing However, W i l l iamson and the book left out several thingsU FOs and esoterica with, doubtless, George dominating the that occurred. The most intriguing ofthese ( to me) is how a l lairtime, as he usual ly did. He was a world-c lass spotl ight t h i s l e d them t o Adamski . In t h e fol lowing quote, " I S" i sseeker. Transmitting what G HW said in these many discus­ G H W s shorthand for t h e space intel l igences who ve con­sions to the framework of the received radio messages tacted him via channel ing, Ouija, and radio.wouldnt have been very difficult, and, rather than being "The iS did tell us that i t was very important that we gosuspi c ious, our boy woul d have l apped it up as validation of over to meet Adamsk i . Little more than that, for it was byhis otherwise-attained i nner knowledge. radiotelegraphy (all of that i s NOT i n TSS! ), and Board. I S ln another tel l ing incident, one evening an unexpected said nothing about this authenticity-but did stress the factvisitor of a skeptical nature showed up at Streeters radio we should see him, for it was part of a chain of events thatshac k . No extraterrestrial messages were able to get through was necessary! !"that eveni ng. Hmm . . . . So, as we slip into October 1 952, W i l l iamson and Much gobblety-gook spewed forth from late August Bailey have been chal lenged by the now-silent radio to gothrough early September, and the W i l li amsons returned and seek out Adamski . And one of them already had. IUR + 30:4 22
  • A I and Betty Bailey, during the didn t arrive until many years later from an outfit-Avonevents reported above, decided to travel U nivers ity-that was the academic sponsor of h i s Mayanto Cal i fornia to see the Professor of Pyramid thesis in the early 1 960s . . . not as bad as di stance­Palomar M ountain. H ere s Adamsk i s learning doctorates, but not a lot better. What G H W wasreport o f that encounter and a subse­ doing to give people the impress ion that he had a doctorate,quent one with both couples: I don t know. He signs his name on the Adamski affidavit with "Sc . D . ," which, because hes the b iggest bull-inflator I t was late i n August 1 95 2 that imaginabl e, probably means that he considers himself as M r. and M rs . A . C . Bai ley of having a science degree-which he a lmost got at Arizona, W i nslow, Arizona, first came to but b lew off the last requirements. Palomar Gardens and asked to George A damski The W i l liamsons and Bai leys went back to Arizona and talk with me privately. I had never wai ted. On November 1 8, Adamski called G H W . A contact heard of them prior to that t i me. During the conversa­ of some kind wou ld happen in the California desert. Could t i o n , they told me about Dr. and M rs . George H . they meet him in Blythe, Ca l i fornia, in two days? W i l l iamson W i l l iamson, o f Prescott, Arizona. These four peop le said yes. He contacted Bailey, who agreed, as wel l . The two were as i nterested i n the flying saucers as I. They had couples headed toward Bl ythe, and Adamsk i, with Al ice read everything available on the subject. They, too, had Wells and Lucy McGinnis, came from Palomar. They ren­ seen these strange objects flash through the sk ies, dezvoused at the town of Blythe for breakfast. someti mes low, sometimes high. And they, too, had W i l li amson had maps out trying to figure where they made trips to a number o f desert places in the hope or should go next. Adamski looked at the options and said he see ing one land. Then they heard about me and the wanted to go outside, alone, and think about it. He came Bai leys drove up to sec me and tell me some o f their back in and announced that he was heading back toward experiences. Desert Center, which he had passed on his seven-hour drive Later, the Bai leys and W i l l iamsons came up to­ from Palomar. The group got into their cars and drove west. gether. After spend ing several days at Palomar Gardens At Desert Center they turned on to the Parker H i ghwa y and as our guests, they asked m e to t e l ephone them before drove until Adamski stopped them. They m i l led around, my next attempt to est ablish a contact. During their stay Adamski reach i ng out for his intuitions. He and Bailey we had met a great dca I and had become better ac­ wal ked offfora while on their own. They returned and broke quai nted and they wanted to be with me i f th i ngs could out the packed lunch. Food and picture taking ensued, and be so arranged. then G H W thought he saw a U FO. Bai ley chi med in that he thought so, too. Then Lucy McGinnis agreed. Pictures ofthe The W i l l iamsons left Palomar Gardens feel i ng that U FO were somehow botched, but everyone was now thri l iedthey had l i ved up to their obl igations received from the and inspired.space people by radio. If Adamski came through, they Adamksi suddenly asked to be driven down the road,would assist the space people in their fi rst landing, as had but the rest were to stay. McGinnis drove, and Bai ley, of a l lbeen requested. people, jumped in, too. Adamski saw what he wanted to and During the visit to Adamski , G H W impressed him with told the others to go back and fetch everyone else, while hehis knowledge and fervor, and Adamski i mpressed G H W took off on foot-to the meeting with Orthon. He toldwith h i s "authority." He d i d this b y channeling. McGinnis to give him an hour before bringing the others back, and Adamski clai med that both McGinnis and Bai ley I o n l y w i t nessed chan n e l i ng by Adamski on a few saw a big U FO in the sky as they drove off. occasions, but I can t e l l you that I was very i mpressed. The rest i s hi story. Everybody attests to seeing foot­ H e changed completely, even physica l ly, as h e spoke. prints on the ground. Everybody allegedl y attests (this is not You knew a very i n t e l l igent being was communicat i ng. nearly so clear) to seeing the departing l i ght of Orthon s The Adamski chan n e l i ng session [several days] be­ spaceship. ( G H W goes t o h i s death assert i ng t h i s t o be true . ) fore the November 20 meet ing was one of the most Bai ley a n d h e suggest reporting t h i s to t h e Phoen ix newspa­ inspiring and beau t i fu l ! have ever heard ! N o t h i ng given per on the way home, and Adamski says yes, do it. And thus duri ng that session contradicts anyth ing Adamski ever the blockbuster story of the early days ofUFOs is cemented said. Whatever George A . was, he was most definitely into legend. NOT a l iar! As an aside, Adamski refers to G H W in Flying Saucers THE AFTERMATH A N D SOME SPE C U LATIONHave L anded ( B r i t i s h Book Centre, 1 95 3 ) a s " D r . "W i l l iamson, a n d an A i r Force veteran w i t h a l l sorts o f Adamski, of course, goes on to tremendous fame-theexperience a b o u t p l anes, b u t t h i s i s large l y b u n k . undeniable contactee in the desert. W i l liamson is hyper­W i l l iamson s A i r Force career was real b u t ridiculously k i neticall y w i l d for a l l of this now, the u l ti mate adventure ofbrief and confined largely to wri ting and news; his Ph.D. humanity. IUR + 30:4 23
  • Streeter had his own sighting of a large, cigar-shaped all people, in December 1 95 3 (about the Adamski encoun­object over Winslow, along with five other witnesses, on ter, not the radio messages) . But he doesn t stay active, andDecember 2 1 , 1 952. More ominously, Streeter had received his contacts with W i l l i amson soon diminish, despite hisa visit from a government agent of some kind (GHW was alleged intense interest in the subject.certain it must be the CIA), who said that the government had Williamson, late in life, finally takes a breath andhim dead to rights because he was in communication with scratches his head about this. What happened to A I , any­unlicensed operators (see sidebar). The agent explained that way? When they got back to Arizona, there was an exchangethe government was planning a vast educational program or two, and then: "the Baileys . . . not a word from them sinceabout flying saucers, and that Streeter could help himself by 1 95 3 , not even a rumor-Alice [Wells] confirms this asj oining the "other fifteen ham operators and cooperate with wel l-she s heard nothing."us." Otherwise, he would suffer consequences. George then spins off into a typical W i l l iamsonian Streeter then dies a premature death in the spring of interlude where he wonders why both the wives were named 1 95 5 ( I suggest nothing conspiratorial about that ! ) . Betty, and he, Adamski, and Van Tassel were named George. A n d Bail ey? W e l l , h e does write the book with "Coincidence? What does it mean, if anything?" It was aW i l li amson that is published in 1 954 ( i t was probably question that he might have better asked about AI Baileysalready written in 1 95 3 ) . And he is sti l l hanging around the involvement and disappearance, I d suggest. Or about scene long enough to be interviewed by James M oseley, of Streeter. SOME LINGERING HAM RADIO MYSTERIES by Mark Rodeghier There are many pecul iarities about the signals received by the messges from A ffa, et a ! . , were received on 405 or 450 Lyman Streeter for George H unt W i l l iamson and A l fred k i locycles. This is very odd. Standard ham radio equip­ Bailey, beyond the simple fact that signals were indeed ment of that era would not receive transmissions in that received from someone, somewhere. range. It would have been possible for Streeter to modify H am radio operators, then and now, j ust can t talk to his equipment to receive those freq uencies, but there is no any station you happen to hear on the air. Stations have to mention that he did by W i l l iamson. Further, that fre­ be l icensed by their respective governments and they are quency range was often used to transmit signals for radio required to identify themselves. Tf a station doesn t iden­ aids to navigation, so transmitting in that band would be a tify itself with a standard prefix, communications should definite no-no. cease. Furthermore, AM radios in those days used a super­ One could, of course, argue that the first extraterres­ heterodyne receiver, which i mproved the performance of trial contacts by h umanity should be exempt from this these devices. The receivers use an internal "intermediate regulation. However, A.D. M iddelton, who visited Streeter frequency" of 455 ki locycles, and strong transmissions after the events described in the artic l e, and who was a around 450 k i locycles would therefore have interfered highly respected ham, took this restri ction seriously. On with regular radio reception of those l iving near Streeter, Apri l 9, 1 95 5 , he wrote to the Federal Communications if not other more distant locales. Commission, A mateur Division, and requested guidance So why would someone planning this elaborate hoax for situations where amateurs were "transmitting within choose these particular frequencies for transmission? For our authorized bands but receiving on frequencies outside one, essentially no hams would be listening on these fre­ the bands . . . [in the context oftransmissions from U FOs] ." quencies, so the chance of others detecting your signals As explained below, this was exactly Streeters situation. would be very sma l l . Second, because of the superhetero­ For what i t s worth, the reply from the FCC, on April dyne issue, low power would be used, which would make it 27, stated in part, "Within the l im itations of Section even less l i kely that others would detect the transmissions. 1 2 . 1 0 1 [the rules governing amateur radio service] , ama­ With low power being used, the transmitting equipment teurs may communicate with stations which transmit on would have to be nearby, in l ine-of-sight to Streeter s frequencies outside the amateur frequency bands." This is antenna (which could still b e many miles, depending o n the a typical bureaucratic response, as it doesn t exactly an­ antenna being used, or very nearby, to really play it safe). swer M iddelton s question. I t essential l y states that you There are other loose ends, because even though can do whatever isn t forbidden by the regulations, which Streeter was transmitting on 40 or 80 meters, both of implies that the regulations stil l apply, even to extraterres­ which are within the normal ham range, he certainly trial communications (you can read more about this in wasn t using a normal call sign for the "station" he was W i l liamsons book UFOs Confidential, Essene Press, contacting. If other hams overheard his transmissions, 1 95 8 , written with John McCoy) . what woul d they have thought, or done? We j ust don t Continuing o n with the mystery o fthe signals, most of know, but there is n o evidence that anyone did. I U R + 30:4 24
  • Why have I l a i d out a l l this unprovabl e stuff about an anonymous), and came from New Mexico to W inslow toearly set of spectacular ( an d i nfluential) claims? B ecause a l l meet him. He said that he had heard of other outer-spacemy h istorical muddl ing about in the 1 949- 1 954 era gives me contacts, particularly one from Canada. M i ddelton wrotethe feel i n g that something stinks vis-a-vis contactees, Frank G H W then and said that he was convinced that the signalsScully and company, and the extremely effective damage were okay. He also wrote Keyhoe and said that he wasthey did to responsible study ofthe U F O phenomenon. Isnt convinced that the G H W -Streeter signals were a hoax, butit j ust a l ittle too convenient that the Scu l l y-Aztec crash story that he would be happy to offer the services of the hamshowed up as early as it did to fog over any i nvestigation of network to Keyhoe for anything the major wished. M iddeltoncrash c laims? Isnt it j ust handy that Adamski, Truman then joined G H W s Telonic Research Institute to try toBethurum, W i l l i amson, and G iant Rock rose up so spec­ resurrect the phenomenon of signals from space, and in atacularly to wall off UFO study from serious people i n year was making T. Townsend Brown a simil ar offer for theacademia and media? I sn t it a l ittle intriguing that almost a l l new N l CAP. M i ddelton was a Sandia engineer. M aybe th isof t h i s "serious i nfection" festers o u t of the same origin means something, maybe not.point? ( Case in point. One day fol lowing the Desert Center W hat a l l this stuff really amounts to, I don t know. M ycontact, G H W was back visiting Adamsk i . There was a intuitions say that a bunch o f this i s j ust too pat n o t t o haveparty in the H o llywood area at the house of a businessman. had some design. And I know my own devious mind. l f l hadW h i le the businessman held an outsized piece of paper the resources and the task of quieti ng the saucers, I d havesteady, G H W went hyperactive and drew Solex-Mal space not only welcomed a Scully, but I woul d have been out therelanguage a l l over it, in a trance. The businessman was Gene nurturing several other useful dupes ( useful i diots, LeninDorsey, friend of Adamski, Scully, Si las Newton, and who cal led them) in the expectation that, out of a dozen or two,knows who else?) I d l i kely get a couple of spectacular successes. G H W was And, if you were in the intel l igence commun ity and you an inte l l i gence agency s dream-an exciting, creative pub­had the job of shushing the saucers, what would you do? lic dynamo with almost no abil ity to distinguish fantasy fromWould Scully and Newton be useful to you? Karl Pflock real ity if you could just salt a l i ttle concrete experience intounearthed S i l as N ewton s old d iary, where he says that his visionary world. I think that this is probably whatagents told him to keep up the hoax. Would contactees happened. I think this because I don t beli eve that A ffa andmeeting spiritual l y advanced beings in the desert, spouting Zo were coming over Streeters radio with their ridiculous­a ridiculous astronomy and physics, be useful to you? The but-W i l l iamson-attuned astronomy. So, I deduce that some­G iant Rock convention annually destroyed any credit that one else was elaborately setting him up. And, as this led soKeyhoe or the Lorenzens might have built up through the smoothly to Adamski and the Big One, I further deduce that 1 950s. the setup was not by amateurs. And how would you operate? How would you encour­ Stil l , maybe I m wrong-1 have been many times.age na"ive, enthusiastic, useful dupes, or persons a bit li ght Perhaps amateurs played games with G H W and a lot of thein the ethics department, to promulgate incredible and even rest was j ust accident. Or, maybe Affa and Zo are betterlaughab le images of who s behind the saucers? One glance buddies with Orthon than I suspect. +at contactee Buck Nelson is, unfortunately, enough to sendthe academics home ( see his pamphlet f11J; Trip to Mars, the U FO OVER AUC KLA N DMoon, and Venus). Would you, in the i ntel ligence commu­nity, care about what sort ofmessages were able to be freely Mystery surrounds an apparent un identified flying objecttransmitted (on any subject) by ham radio operators? Would seen in the skies above Auckland, New Zealands V i aductyou, for security reasons in th is period, want to keep some Basin. The A uckland Sunday News has obtained footagecontrol over these independent hams? Would you have not of the object, spotted flyi ng at speed over the waterfrontonly your monitors, but also your agents, here and there, in in broad dayl ight.the ham network? M ight you have plans whereby you could Both the Civil Aviation Authority and the M in istry ofactively appl y their expertise? Defence have been unable to identify it. The photograph, Streeter and Bai ley came into W i l l iamson s l i fe from taken i n October 2005 by well - known photographer R i ­nowhere. B a iley said some mysterious higher-up had told chard Simpson, shows an object above t h e i ndustrial tankhim that signals from space beings had already been re­ farm in the mid-morning sun.ceived, and to go and employ Streeter for this purpose. Sue Hansen ofU FOCUS New Zealand and air trafficStreeter later said that a government agent had told him that control ler Graeme Opie both think i t i s not a b i rd. "I thi n ka l l this was being monitored and he must now stop. "Luck­ its definitely n o t a n aeroplane a n d it doesnt l o o k l i ke i t si ly," they had j ust gotten the message to seek out Adamski. been faked," she said. " I t does have sotTte characteristics In January 1 95 5 , after The Saucers Speak! was pub­ of a disc shape." Hansen said the shadowing around thel i shed, a h i gh l y p l aced ham, A . D . [Alois David] M i ddelton obj ect was of greatest interest. "The only thing that may(call letters W 5CA, a leader for the region including N ew explain it is i on ized air around the craft." A uckland -Mexico and Texas), located Streeter ( despite h i s being Sunday News, July 1 6. I U R + 30:4 25
  • WHERE ARE THE CLOSE ENCOUNTERS ? BY MARK RODEGHIERT hose of us who fol low the ebb and flow of raw of reports are c lose encounters over the 1 7-year period in UFO reports, whether to M UFON or CUFOS, or Canada-so there are larger relative swings from year to year. to wel l-known websites, i ncluding the National But close encounters generally do i ncrease, beginning in the UFO Reporting Center, have come to recognize CUtTent decade, although not to the higher levels ofthe 1 990s.the drop in c lose encounter cases. Whether it is physical oo +------�trace events or a good old fash ioned CE3 with the sightingof a humanoid, these cases seem much less frequent nowa­days. The latest report from Chris Rutkowski s CanadianUFO Survey ( s urvey.canadianuforeport.com) confirms thistrend. F i gure l shows the number of reports received eachyear across Canada. For whatever reason, reports in generalhave greatly i ncreased in this decade, although the total �dropped a bit in 2005 . There are far more UFOs reported .c Enow than in the 1 990s in Canada. The same is generally true � s +----�for the United States, a lthough perhaps with not as great anincrease since 2000. 1999 1 990 1 992 1 994- 1995 1 997 200 2005 900 Ye;:�.r BOO ( Figure 2. Number of close encounter reports. 700 I I B ut is this the whole story? [ d suggest not. I and colleagues have noticed that c lose encounters are not as I common, compared to other cases. To investigate this, we � .c 5 400 .� I need to look at the percentage of a l l sightings that are c lose z 300 I I encounters. Figure 3 shows the percentage of a l l reports that are 200 � ) �r v close encounters, by year. It is i mmedi atel y evident that our sense of the data has been correct. There has been a fairly 100 steady drop i n the percentage of c lose encounters s i nce the 1989 I 1 991 I 1993 I 1 996 I 1 998 I 2000 I 2002 I 04 I20 first year of the Canadian survey i n 1 989. C lose encounters 1990 1992 1 994-1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Year now compri se only about 2 percent of a l l reports. What does it all mean? Are U FOs reluctant to come near Figure 1. Number ofreports. to witnesses? Do they no longer land? Since witnesses gener­ W h at about c lose encounters? Have they fol lowed the ally cant seek out a U FO c lose encounter, it would seem thatsame trend? F i gure 2 provides the answer. influences beyond witness behavior would be underlying this The number of reports is much smaller-only about 4% trend. Stil l , ifwitnesses were now more l ikely to report distant events of l i ghts in the sky, but less l ikely to report closeMark Rodeghier is scientific director of the J. A llen Hynek encounters, we would see the same pattem. But I can t easilyCenterf UFO Studies. or imagine why that disparity woul d be true. I U R + 30:4 26
  • u +------1 This pattern i s further evidence that the characteristics of the UFO phenomenon are not fixed and i mmutable. The appearance and behavior of the phenomenon has changed q ui te a bit over time (e.g., from disks to triangles), and this change i s one of the l atest examples. It would certainly be interesting to see data for other countries to see i f this trend holds more broadly. + U FO RESEARCH Q U E E N SLA N D U F O Research Queensland i s a voluntary, nonprofit association establ ished i n 1 956 to receive, research, and record sightings. It is located in Brisbane, Queensland, 1 989 1 990 1 992 1 994- 1 995 1 997 999 2001 2005 Austral ia, and i s holding i ts 5 0th anniversary conference Year on September 30-0ctober 1 . Check out their website at Figure 3. Percentage ofclose encounters. www. uforq.asn.au. LETTERSC LOUDS AND SATELLITE OBJECTS interesting l ighting conditions, I think it would be very hardTo the editor: to critically investigate or draw conclusions about these I read H erbert Tay lors recent article ("Cloud Cigars : cl oud/UFO associations. l m not saying there could not beA Further Look," fUR 3 0 : 3 ) , and then went back and reread valid cloud/UFO connections in there somewhere, but Ih i s two earlier fUR articles ("Sate l l ite Objects and C loud don t see how you wou ld get at it among a l l the noise. NotCigars," 2 9 : 1 , and "Mystery C louds and the U FO Connec­ much hard information in these events. So l would have verytion," 29:4). First, let me say that my efforts in ufology have h igh criteria for including any of these.been through the lens of animal reactions (or not) during Turning attention to c loud cigars and sate l l i te objects­U FO events. Because animal reactions are assoc iated with this is much more interesting in that you are actually gettingUFO events that are estimated to be within 200 feet of some consistency i n behavior and appearance betweenwitnesses, and al most never more than 500 feet away, I sightings ( rare event in my opinion and to be valued). Thedon t have a lot of experience evaluating di stant UFO vertical/horizontal orientations and repositioning, the cloudsevents, which most of h i s sightings are. On the other hand, formed at ends, the sma l l obj ects being released, simi laritybecause I do Common N ighthawk ( Chordeiles minor) mi­ in their fal l from the larger obj ect, and then sma l l obj ectsgration studies with my husband ( involving hours of sky moving out to "survey" the area ( loosely speaki ng), and thewatching, i . e . , cloud watching, storm watch ing, ai rcraft long durations are all interesting c l ues. The multiple w i t­watching, and a few seconds ofnighthawk watching), I have nesses add strength, and I found the September 1 954 sight­some feel i ng for clouds and how they look and what they do. ing in France interesting in its complexity.That s my background, j ust so you can see where I m I think some weeks ago I saw a reference in an ema i l tocoming from . tornadoes as an explanation, which doesnt fit as tornadoes Fi rst, a few words about the second article o n mystery are associ ated with dynamic, fast-moving weather events.clouds/U FOs. This aspect ofhis studies strikes me as weak. Years ago, I once saw l ittle funnel clouds attempting toI have seen natural cloud events that bear great similarity to descend from a front roaring into D.C., and they werealmost a l l of the daytime cloud events. A l so, my experience constantly changing as the front ripped through and no onei ndicates when many witnesses see somethi ng they dec i de would ever think "carrot" or "cigar." They would thinki s strange, they w i l l l i nk anything else they observe to the funnel c loud trying to descend.strangeness in a very uncritical way. So I have l i ttle to suggest in terms of explanations. 1 Having watched c louds form from nothing and dissi­ would encourage Taylor to continue h i s cloud c igar/satel litepate to nothing; shadows within clouds giving very strange obj ect study. T think this kind of focused study is veryeffects only understood with h igh-power binoculars put on worthwhile. I think hard-nosed investigation of currentthe situation; balloons i n c louds (once hundreds of small s ighting events is an important area for ufo logy, but I seemb l ack balloons moving i nto clouds-no question, could see to be somewhat isolated in that opinion-hence my recentstri ngs w i th b inocul ars) ; aircraft leaving and departing two loss of enthusiasm.nearby airports, then flying i n and out of clouds with I know after my animal reaction study was publ ished, I IUR + 30:4 27
  • had this naive hope that I would get some current s ightings that there i s a coal-fired power p l ant between m y positionand direct contact with w itnesses or perhaps questions or and the airport. Ifa s l ug ofsteam had been released, the windfeedback from investigators. Some serious, cutTent i nvesti ­ would have moved i t downriver, where I saw it. The dry airgation w a s t h e next l ogical step needed t o move ahead. may dissipate it fast. The problem i s the thing looked s oOther than one i nteresting sighting referred by Peter Daven­ sol i d, heavy, and dense, and it di sappeared in an instant w i t hport [ from his N ational UFO Reporting Center], it has not no trace.happened. I suspect Taylor shares some ofthe same frustra­ Anyway, I can only encourage the continued study oftions. c igar/satel l i te objects. It i s probabl y one of the more worth­ Finally, as though this emai I is not long enough, after a l l while thi ngs happening in ufology. If I can be of help witht h e critical things I said about t h e cloud/UFO relationship, weather or the sky data, J d be happy to do so.I w i l l tell you about something that happened to me. I Joan Woodwardrecorded it in my field notebook when i t happened, but to Failjax, Virginiathis day I don t know what to make out of it. RJG HT PLACE, RIGHT T I M E August 9, 1 999, at 2 :20 p.m., was a spectacular day inWashington, D.C. I was on the Beltway on a wildlife rescue To the editor:run approaching the Woodrow W i l son Bridge, j ust south of In "We Know Where You Live" ( f UR 30 :2), M ichaelReagan National A i rport. Looking toward the Potomac Swords poses the q uesti on, "Why did I look j ust then?" I veRiver, I noticed in a clear blue, cloudless sky one single asked myself the same question many ti mes in regard to mywhite c loud, about 40 degrees above the ESE horizon. The July 6, 1 947, sighting at our ranch near Encampment,c loud seemed odd to me. I t looked l i ke a dense cigar with a Wyoming. See R i chard Hall, ed., The UFO Evidences light hump appearance on top. A passengerjet was turning, ( N ICAP, 1 964), p. 5 5 .banki ng, to l and at the airport, and I remember thinki ng, I d On that sunny afternoon, my brother a n d I a n d a fam i lyl i ke to be on that aircraft and take a look at that cloud. The friend were discussing the wave of"tlying saucer" sighti ngs,apparent l ength of the c loud and very low-flying aircraft headline news at the time-were they real or was it masswere the same, but the c l oud appeared to have twice the mass hysteria?-when my brother pointed to a hawk circling overof the aircraft and was located beyond it. the meadow. "Look, there s one now," he j oked. I saw the All ofth i s happened over several seconds. At that point, hawk, but for some reason I then looked straight up and sawI had to glance back to switch to the exit l ane of the Beltway a silver-gray oval, very much l i ke those i l l ustrated on pagefor Route I , and when I l ooked back a split second later the 1 2 of that i ssue of fUR. I excitedly pointed it out to the othercloud was gone. l kept l ooking for it on the exit ramp, and two, and they quickly spotted it, and we watched, awestruck,after l was on Route ! -nothi ng, not a c loud in the sky and as it dwindled to a mere speck, then vani shed in the distance.abso l utely noth ing that obstructed my view of the sky. It was on a northerly heading and did not appear to change The weather was a great fal l-type day that we get now course, speed or altitude during the 2 to 3 minutes it wasand then in August. From the nearby airport readi ngs 1 got visible.these weather conditions: 82°F, 3 1 % relative hum idity, dew Why d i d I look j ust then? I don t know. But i f I hadpoint 54 degrees, wind N N E 9- 1 1 mph, ceil ing unlimited not l ooked up at that prec ise moment, I never would haveand repottedly scattered c louds at 3 5 ,000 feet, though the seen i t .c loud described was the only one in my view of the sky. David Kenney I f l were to present a mundane explanation, it woul d be Palos Verdes Estates, Cali ornia f " "A L I EN A B DUCTION, RESC U E , PROPOSAL A FI RST FOR M U S E U MT o match h i s l ove, Ross Savedra s proposal h a d t o b e out of the way, everyone, she said yes," noted Julie Shuster, thethis world. After one of the s i lver-suited a lien extras in the museum s director, on the sound system.Roswell UFO M useum s a lien autopsy exhibit "abducted" Savedra, born and raised in Roswel l , picked the UFO23 -year-old Ariane Ash, Savedra, 32, made his way through M useum as the p lace where he would ask for Ash s handthe crowd, fought two figures in silver suits and rubber because of its "uniqueness," he said. Although the museummasks, and wrestled h i s girlfriend to safety. hosted a weddi ng three years ago, Savedra made h istory Savedra pul led Ash to the center of the crowded room, with his proposal .fumbled quickly i n his l eft pocket, and dropped to his knees. "Being from Roswe ll, he thought, what a perfect place,"H is voice choked with emotion, he told Ash she was h i s Shuster said earlier. Perfect-and original.passion and asked i f s h e would be h i s wife. T h e two em­ "Hes the first person i n the world who gets to proposebraced in a c loud of shiny, colored confetti thrown by here," Shuster said.on lookers. Tourists who had been tipped off, fami l y mem­ "She s always cal l i ng me her alien man," Savedra saidbers, and the rubber-masked, bulbous, p urple-eyed aliens­ of his fiancee, as they exchanged nervous glances andA sh s brother-i n- law and stepfather-al l appl auded. "By caresses. Ros well (N. Mex.) Daily Record, July 1 7. - IUR + 30:4
  • there is stil l a significant proportion who cant, and it is theseCOND IGN-continuedfrom page 1 3 who occasionally fi l e U FO reports.METEORIC D U STY PLASMAS We can state this quite confidently, drawing compari­ sons with data from the B U FORA Astronomical ReferenceMeteoric dusty plasmas certai nly exist, but whether they can Point (A RP). The ARP continual ly received UFO reportsbe charged or otherwise visually i ncandesce beyond their from a l l over the U K in the period covered by Condign. Thei n itial entry into the atmosphere i s debatabl e . Certainly data demonstrates the fl uctuating fraction of yearly UFOd usty plasmas can interfere with radio and are made more reports that were actually produced by direct observationsturbulent by bombardment with high-frequency emissions of meteors, satisfactori ly determi ned by rechecking infor­( H F ). What i s not explained is how these could cause mation with witnesses.someone to undergo a "close encounter." After a l l , most Guess what? These too show a simi lar correlation toplasma phenomena described occur in the upper portions of meteor-shower peak dates.the Eart h s atmosphere. What about plasmas and U A Peffects i n t h e lower atmosphere? DuSTY PLASMASU A P-M ETEOR CORRE LATION M uch new scientific research is being conducted into the subject of dusty plasmas. For example, i n re lation to atmo­The Condign report c l aims to have established a correlation spheric plasmas, the European I ncoherent Scatter ( E I SCA T)between meteor-shower peak dates and UAP acti vity ( see Scientific Association in northern Scandinavia bombardsFigure 3, but note the dates for peak meteor-shower activity the atmosphere in the polar regions with H F and then studiesin the associated table are incorrect). This supposition is a the resultant plasma turbulence. The European C l uster l lstrong point in one of M r. X s arguments, a correlation spacecraft was also tasked to investigate plasma phenomenabetween possi ble meteoric dust-generated plasmas account­ and the Earth s magnetosphere. The more we observe Earthing for UAP reports. It is not di sputed that meteors produce with spaceborne remote-sensing and optical equi pment cov­plasma when they enter the atmosphere, and their micro­ ering the ful l range of the radiation spectrum, the morescopic debris contributes to atmospheric dusty plasmas. unusual, rare, and as yet undiscovered vi sual atmospheric H owever, since the MoD has not been careful in col­ phenomena yield to detection and study. One example is thelecting the eyew itness information, there is no way to fi lter observation of three types of transient optical phenomena atout possible direct observation of meteoric phenomena as high al titudes above thunderstorms. These are now ful l yprobable misperceptions. I n fact, there is a more logical integrated i nto the scienti fi c nomenc lature a s sprites, elves,assertion that can be made. Any such correlation may be due and blue jets ( see Working Paper 24 i n Volume 2 of theto d i rect misperception. ( Note previous comments concern­ Condign report).ing the i nformation recorded on the standard report formand the fact that M r. X was unab le to recheck facts. ) UAPs ON RADA R M r. X places too much trust in the public being able toreport meteoric phenomena accurate ly. Suffice it to say that Work ing Paper 5 in Volume 2 and Chapter I in Volume 3although many people can recognize meteoric phenomena deal with the technical capab i l i ties of U K air defense radar within the context ofUAPs. A number of specifi c incidents are a l l uded to 60 with insuffic ient information to al low IMl ZH R(H ourly detai led scrutiny. Mr. X implies there 50 arrival rate) have been very few tracki ngs ofU A Ps/ 40 U FOs on U K air defense radar within the period c overed by the study 30 ( 1 98 7- 1 997). He c ites one occasion Iilii UAP Rate when "a triangular (visual) forma­ 20 tion was tracked on radar with an 10 acceleration from I 00 to 980kts in 0 Meteor two seconds and a n a l ti tude c hange Showers from 7000 to 3000ft i n 1 second." 1 6 11 1 6 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 U n fortunately, this appears to refer to an incident during the Belgian wave S teps of 5 days of 1 990, so it fal l s outside the U K coverage of the study he himself setFig. 3. Correlation ofnumber ofmeteor-shower types and meteor entry rate with out i n his Terms of R e ference. UA P reports, 1 996. A key finding from Mr. X s sur- l U R + 30:4 29
  • vey of D I 5 5 s report archive i s that "there is a significant altitude reports (up to 20,000 feet) is lacking data becauseabsence of radar p lots/tracks on U APs" in the U KADGE of reluctance on the part of airline crews to make formalwhen contrasted with the numerous v isual reports made to UAP reports. H ere again the "bad press" which UFOsMoD. He consi ders a number of possible explanations, receive in the media and via the activities of ufologists i sthree ofwhich have been deleted forreasons of security, and b l amed, a s M r . X observes: "There i s evidence that [crews]conc ludes : "Clearly, some UAP response to radar i s vari­ are seeing far more than they are reporting for fear ofable, otherwise all radars would see a l l the objects which ridicule or the potential effect on company b usiness."entered their respective coverage zones a l l the time." The H e recommends that m i li tary and c i v i l i an aircrewsimplication i s that the radar wavefront of a U AP target is not should be advi sed that "no attempt shou l d be made to out­consistent with a solid craft but may be consistent with manoeuvre a UAP during interception" and ci v i li an aircrewsatmospheric phenomena, such as a dusty plasma. This leads "should be advised not to manoeuvre, other than to place thehim to specul ate that variabil i ty in radar detection "may be obj ect astern, if possible."due to aspect or orientation, material composition or both ." We made a fol low-up request i n M ay 2006 for evidenceHence, "ifUAPs are p lasmas, their intensity would probably of action taken as a direct result of these recommendations.be diminish ing as their physical l i fe decays," which might The MoD confirmed the findings had been sent to theexplain the variab i l i ty in radar detections both by air defense Directorate of Air Operations (DAO) who would have beenand civil air traffic radars. responsible for further dissemination to the C i v i l Aviation As we expected, the sections deal ing with radar have Authority and RAF. However, it said "no further correspon­had l arge sections deleted under exemption Section 26 of dence regarding the subsidiary recommendations havethe FOJA. According to the author, these sections "contain been found on the accessible fi les for the period in ques­performance values of the U K.AD R radars [and] radar tion."performance is directly relevant to whether UAPs can enterand leave UK airspace and whether they constitute a threat." U A P WORK IN OTH E R COUNTRIESAs a result, the M o D decided the release of this information"could be of significant va l ue to the planning of an attack on Vol ume 3 of the report refers t o research a n d studies carriedthe U K , incl uding from terrori sm." These exemptions are out in a number of foreign nations into UAPs, atmosphericc urrently the subject of appeal . plasmas, and their potential military applications. This short chapter incl udes sections on the former Soviet Union, China,H AZARDS TO A I RCRAFT Spain, the United States, and Canada. Despite claims of an international U FO coverup, the author notes "there is noA l though the Condign report concl udes there is no evidence intel l igence exchange or collaboration of any sort on thethat sol id craft exi st which are unidentified and could pose topic of U FOs" between the UK and foreign governments.a col l ision hazard, Chapter 2 of Volume 3 exam ines sevenunexplained fatal accidents involving RAF aircraft. It also CoNCL U SI ONSscrutin izes seven unexplained air-miss incidents reportedby civil i an aircrews "where the identity of one of the T o s u m up, w e have found t h e Condign report i s replete withconflicting obj ects is never explained." J ust one of these errors and reads l i ke an inte l l igence report rather than aincidents invol ved a simultaneous radar trace of a unidenti­ sci entific memorandum. Knee-j erk dismissals of the docu­fied target. A l l seven air-miss events were reported between ments as a "wh i tewash" and m ishandling by the media have 1 988 and 1 996 and were investigated by the Joint CAA and only slightly hampered our attempts to reveal the actualM o D A i rprox Section (JAS). The study states that, while meaning and context of these documents. The research wethere is no evidence for any fatal acc ident resulting from a have presented so far on our website and elsewhere refute a l lcolli sion with a U A P in the U K , fatal ities have occurred in ignorant and idle guesses, and leave n o doubt i n o u r mindsthe former Soviet Union and elsewhere. that Condign-whatever its flaws-is an important docu­ UAPs are deemed to pose l i ttle or no danger to aircraft ment in the h i story of ufology. This should be apparent to(a risk assessed as being lower than bird strikes), unless anyone who spends sufficient time delving i nto these mat­violent maneuvers are undertaken to either intercept or ters for themselves.avoi d them. It adds that "despite . . . h undreds of reports of If the report is a whitewash and the MoD rea l l y knowslow altitude UAP activity, there i s no firm evidence in the "the truth" about U FOs, thi s poses an interesting question.available reports that a R A F crew has ever encountered or Ifevidence ofan ET presence on Earth had been establ ished,evaded a low a ltitude UAP event" or that any RAF aircraft why would the M o D need to commission a three-yearbas been involved in an interception involving this type of study-carried out in secret-to tel l them what they a l readyphenomenon. knew? N everth eless, Mr. X makes a number of "subsidiary As this article has demonstrated, the internal docu­recommendations" resulting from the findings of this sec­ ments show the study was commissioned after a long battletion of the report. He feels the air-miss database for h i gher against i nternal prej udice i n the MoD over three decades, IUR + 30:4 30
  • many years before Britain had a Freedom of Information i nfluence from the media or the U F O i ndustry, u l t i matelyAct on its statute books. U nless a l l these i nternal documents Mr. X was u n ab l e to escape the pervasi v e influence ofare fakes or del iberate p l ants, claims by conspiracy theorists u fo l ogy on popular c u l ture. On our first reading of h i sthat the report was produced specificall y for public con­ report, w e were quite surprised t o find h i s concl u sions dosumption can be confidently dismissed as nonsense. indeed show such i nfluences drawn from h i s l i terature The contents of the report suggest the MoD actually search, part i c u l ar l y the works of P a u l D evereux andknows very l ittle about UFOs and even that some c i v i lian Jenny Randles. 4 These i nfluences make Mr. X s quote atu fo logists know far more. Its main recommendation (imple­ the beginning of V o l ume l ("prej udice w i l l take y o umented in December 2000) is that "it should no longer be a further from t h e truth t h a n ignorance") s o u n d ratherrequirement for D I 5 5 to moni tor U A P reports as they