Icao sms m 04 – hazards (r013) 09 (e)
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Icao sms m 04 – hazards (r013) 09 (e) Icao sms m 04 – hazards (r013) 09 (e) Presentation Transcript

  • Module N° 4 – Hazards Revision N° 13 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 06/05/09
  • Course structure Safety Management System Module 8 Module 10 Phased approach to SSP and SMS Implementation SMS planning Module 5 Module 5 Risks Risks Module 1 SMS course introduction Module N° 4 Module 9 SMS operation Module 6 SMS regulation Module 2 Basic safety concepts Module 7 Introduction to SMS Module 3 Module 3 Introduction Introduction to safety to safety management management ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course Module 4 Module 4 Hazards Hazards 2
  • Objective  At the end of this module, participants will be able to apply the fundamentals of hazard identification and analysis through a case study Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 3
  • Outline  Two definitions  First fundamental – Understanding hazards  Second fundamental – Hazard identification  Third fundamental – Hazard analysis  Fourth fundamental – Documentation of hazards  Questions and answers  Points to remember  Exercise 04/01 – International airport construction project (See Handout N° 3) Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 4
  • Two definitions  Hazard – Condition or object with the potential of causing injuries to personnel, damage to equipment or structures, loss of material, or reduction of ability to perform a prescribed function  Consequence – Potential outcome(s) of the hazard A wind of 15 knots blowing directly across the runway is a hazard A pilot may not be able to control the aircraft during takeoff or landing is one of the consequences of the hazard Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 5
  • First fundamental – Understanding hazards  There is a natural tendency to describe hazards as their consequence(s) “Unclear aerodrome signage” vs. “runway incursion”  Stating a hazard as consequence(s) : disguises the nature of the hazard interferes with identifying other important consequences.  Well-named hazards : allow to infer the sources or mechanisms of the hazard allow to evaluate the loss outcome(s) Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 6
  • First fundamental – Understanding hazards  Types of hazards Natural Technical Economic Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 7
  • Examples of natural hazards  Severe weather or climatic events: E.g.: hurricanes, major winter storms, drought, tornadoes, thunderstorms lightning, and wind shear  Adverse weather conditions: E.g.: Icing, freezing precipitation, heavy rain, snow, winds, and restrictions to visibility Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 8
  • Examples of natural hazards  Geophysical events: E.g.: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, floods and landslides  Geographical conditions: E.g.: adverse terrain or large bodies of water  Environmental events: E.g.: wildfires, wildlife activity, and insect or pest infestation.  Public health events: E.g.: epidemics of influenza or other diseases Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 9
  • Examples of technical hazards  Deficiencies regarding: E.g.: aircraft and aircraft components, systems, subsystems and related equipment E.g.: an organization’s facilities, tools, and related equipment E.g.: facilities, systems, sub-systems and related equipment that are external to the organization Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 10
  • Examples of economics hazards  Major trends related to:  Growth  Recession  Cost of material or equipment  Etc. Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 11
  • Second fundamental – Hazard identification  In order to identify hazards, consider: Design factors, including equipment and task design Procedures and operating practices, including documentation and checklists Communications, including means, terminology and language … Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 12
  • Second fundamental – Hazard identification  … consider: Organizational factors, such as company policies for recruitment, training, remuneration and allocation of resources Work environment factors, such as ambient noise and vibration, temperature, lighting and protective equipment and clothing ... Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 13
  • Second fundamental – Hazard identification  … consider: Regulatory factors, including the applicability and enforceability of regulations; certification of equipment, personnel and procedures; and the adequacy of oversight Defences including detection and warning systems, and the extent to which the equipment is resilient against errors and failures Human performance, including medical conditions and physical limitations Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 14
  • Sources of hazard identification  Internal Flight Data Analysis Company voluntary reporting system Audits and surveys  External Accident reports State mandatory occurrence system  As a reminder Predictive Proactive Reactive Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 15
  • Hazard identification  By whom? By anybody By designated personnel  How? Through formal processes Depends on the organization  When? Anytime Under specific conditions Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 16
  • Hazard identification  Specific conditions Unexplained increase in safety-related events or infractions Major operational changes are foreseen Periods of significant organizational change Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 17
  • Third fundamental – Hazard analysis ABC of hazard analysis State the generic hazard Identify specific (Hazard statement) components of Naturally leading the hazard  Airport construction Construction to specific consequence(s) equipment  Closed taxiways … Module N° 4 Aircraft colliding with construction equipment  Aircraft taking wrong taxiway  … ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 18
  • Third fundamental – Hazard analysis  Efficient and safe operations or provision of service require a constant balance between production goals... maintaining regular aerodrome operations during a runway construction project  ...and safety goals maintaining existing margins of safety in aerodrome operations during runway construction project.  Aviation workplaces may contain hazards which may not be cost-effective to address even when operations must continue (Cost-benefit analysis further discussed in Module 5) Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 19
  • Fourth fundamental – Documentation of hazards  Appropriate documentation management is important as: It is a formal procedure to translate operational safety data into hazardrelated information It becomes the “safety library” of an organization Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 20
  • Fourth fundamental – Documentation of hazards  Tracking and analysis of hazards is facilitated by standardizing: Definitions Understanding Validation Reporting Measurement Management Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 21
  • Fourth fundamental – Documentation of hazards Hazards Hazards Method Identification Management Reactive method •ASR •MOR •Incident reports •Accident reports Assess the consequences and prioritize the risks Assign responsibilitie s Proactive method •ASR •Surveys •Audits Develop control and mitigation strategies Predictive method •FDA •Direct observation systems Documentation Information Safety management information Trend analysis Implement strategies Inform person(s) responsible for implementing strategies Safety bulletins Report distribution Re-evaluate strategies and processes Seminars and workshops Feedback Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 22
  • The focus of hazard identification Accidents 1 – 5 Serious incidents 30 – 100  Hazard identification is a wasted effort if restricted to the aftermath of rare occurrences where there is “Practical drift” serious injury, or significant damage. Incidents 100 – 1000 Latent conditions SMS Module N° 4 1000 – 4000 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course “Practical drift” 23
  • Hazards Questions and answers Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 24
  • Questions and answers  Q: Define the concept of hazard.  A: Hazard – Condition or object with the potential of causing injuries to personnel, damage to equipment or structures, loss of material, or reduction of ability to perform a prescribed function. Slide number: 5 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 25
  • Questions and answers  Q: Provide three examples of areas/factors to consider when identifying hazards.  A: Design factors, including equipment and task design. Procedures and operating practices, including documentation and checklists. Communications, including means, terminology and language. Slide number: 12 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 26
  • Questions and answers  Q: Name three specific circumstances when hazard identification is essential.  A: Unexplained increase in safety-related events or infractions. Major operational changes are foreseen. Periods of significant organizational change Slide number: 17 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 27
  • Points to remember 1. Hazards have potential consequences 2. Sources of hazard identification 3. ABC of hazard analysis 4. Hazard documentation: the “safety library” of an organization Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 28
  • Hazards Exercise 04/01 – International airport construction project (Handout N° 3) Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 29
  • International airport construction project  Group activity: A facilitator will be appointed, who will coordinate the discussion A summary of the discussion will be written on flip charts, and a member of the group will brief on their findings in a plenary session  Scenario: Construction project to enlarge and repave one of the two crossing runways at an international airport (150,000 movements a year) Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 30
  • Aerodrome layout Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 31
  • Construction project – Phase 1 Phase 1 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 32
  • Scope of the work Phase 1 Increase the width of runway 17-35 from 45 to 60 meters from a point 200 m from the intersection with runway 1028 to the south and strengthen the runway (from asphalt to concrete) to increase its Pavement Classification Number (PCN) Estimated time to complete the work Seven (7) months Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 33
  • Construction project – Phase 2 Phase 2 Phase 1 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 34
  • Scope of the work Phase 2 Increase the width of runway 17-35 from 45 to 60 meters from a point 200 m from the intersection with runway 1028 to the north and strengthen the runway (from asphalt to concrete) to increase its PCN Estimated time to complete the work Seven (7) months Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 35
  • Construction project – Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 1 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 36
  • Scope of the work Phase 3  Complete the construction work of runway 17-35 for the central area of the last 400 m at the intersection of runway 17-35 and runway 10-28 (from asphalt to concrete), increasing its width from 45 to 60 meters and its PCN  Estimated time to complete the work Four(4) months Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 37
  • Scope of the work  Runway 10-28 utilization during the construction work Continuous utilization of runway 10-28 during the threephase of runway 17-35 construction project. [To maintain regular aerodrome operations (production) and existing margins of safety (protection) in the operations during the runway construction project] Length of runway 10-28 is currently 4.100 m and during Phase 3 its length will be reduced, leaving a distance of 2.600 m for aircraft operations measured between threshold 10 and the intersection of runway 10-28 with taxiway Golf Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 38
  • Identify hazards  Your task Identify the hazards using brainstorming techniques. Brainstorm a list of possible hazards, their components and their related consequences (use a flip chart) Complete the attached log (Table 04/01) as follows: List type of operation or activity State the generic hazard (hazard statement) Identify specific components of the hazard List hazard-related consequences It is recommended to conduct the hazard identification and analysis per each construction phase of runway 1735 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 39
  • Table 04/01 – Hazard identification N° Type of operation or activity Generic hazard (hazard statement) Specific components of the hazard Hazard-related consequences 1 2 3 4 5 Module N° 4 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 40
  • Module N° 4 – Hazards Revision N° 13 ICAO Safety Management Systems (SMS) Course 06/05/09