1) AnthracnoseCausal organism:- Colletotrichum lagenariumSymptoms:-The disease attacks all above-ground parts ofcucumber, melon, and watermelonFirst symptoms usually appear on older leaves as smallyellowish circular spotsIn warm, wet weather all the leaves may be rapidlyattacked, giving the planting a "burned-out" appearanceStems and petioles are also attacked, and light brown toblack streaks develop.Circular, sunken, water-soaked spots develop on thefruit. These spots turn dark green to brown.
Anthracnose Affected leaves
Life Cycle of Anthracnose
Management Preventive measures are important, including use of good quality seed and crop rotation. Chemical methods:- Anthracnose control is difficult once the disease is serious The fungicides benomyl and chlorothalonil (Ortho Multi-Purpose Fungicide Daconil 2787) help to control the disease, but must be applied at the first sign of disease or as a preventive.
Anthracnose fruting bodys Anthracnose facts Seed born Above Ground part infection Spore splashes cause secondary Spred. Resistant variety – Good method Fungicides on sensitive varieties.
2) Bacterial Wilt Causal Organism:- Erwinia tracheiphila Symptoms The bacteria invade the vascular (water conducting) tissues of cucumber and melon plants, causing a rapid wilt of the plant. Progressive wilting occurs, beginning with a single leaf but soon including the entire plant The bacterial wilt organism produces a sticky substance in the vascular tissues that plugs them, preventing the transport of water The bacterial wilt organism produces a sticky substance in the vascular tissues that plugs them, preventing the transport of water
These droplets, after drying for several minutes, will adhere to the skin if a finger is placed on the stems cut end and slowly removed Fig:- Bacterial Wilt
Management :- Mechanical Methods Use resistance varieties. Promptly pull up and destroy diseased plants Begin control early, as cucumber beetles may attack as soon as plants emerge from the soil. Select less susceptible varieties. Apply Admire at planting. Foliar insecticides may be needed if beetle counts are above 1 beetle/plant, wilt is developing, and the variety is highly susceptible.
3)Powdery Mildew Causal Organism:- Erysiphe cichoracearum Symptoms:- It is common on cucumber, melon, squash, pumpkin and watermelon. Powdery white spots develop on the upper surfaces of older leaves, usually beginning at mid-season or later During hot, dry weather the disease can progress rapidly, and the upper surfaces of leaves may develop a white powdery appearance Severe powdery mildew causes the leaves to turn yellow and wither. Fruits are not infected, except for watermelon which is occasionally infected, but fruits may be distorted or sun-
Powdery mildew on Cucumber leaf.
Favourable Condition Less than 60% hot humidity is favourable. Management:- Chemical Treatment Powdery mildew may be controlled with benomyl, chlorothalonil (Ortho Multi-Purpose Fungicide Daconil 2787), or dinocap (Karathane) fungicide sprays. Apply the first spray as soon as the disease appears Latest chemicals:-Topase @1ml/1lit. Of water spray.
4) Mosaic Causal Organism:- Cucumber mosaic virus and squash mosaic virus Symptoms:- Leaves are small and puckered, and plants become severely stunted. Cucumber mosaic is very common In addition to the mosaic pattern the edges of the leaves turn down, and the knobs on the fruits are light yellow
The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted from plant to plant by several different kinds of aphids. Cucumber mosaic is readily transmitted mechanically on the hands of workers in the cucurbit patch and by aphids.
Management :- Cultural Control Mosaic diseases are managed by using good quality seed and by controlling aphids and cucumber beetles throughout the season. Use Mosaic disease resistance variety seed for sowing. Remove alternate host of aphids. Do not plant cucurbits near woods, brushy areas, or other areas that are weedy. Control all weeds, especially perennial weeds
Chemical Control Diazinon can be used for aphid and beetle control. Carbaryl (Sevin) and methoxychlor will also provide beetle control Use care in applying insecticides to tender young cucurbit plants, as they are easily injured Also use of Immedachloprid-17.8%SL.@ 7 ml./10 lit.water. Regent @ 7 ml./10 lit.water.
5) Root knot Nematode Casual Organism:-Meloidogyne spp. Symptoms :- The root knot nematodes cause sever galling on cucumber roots.
Root knot nematode infected root.
Management methods Physical Methods:- The most important nematode pest controlled by greenhouse steaming are root -knot nematodes attacking cucumbers. Chemical Methods :-Drill application of carbofuran at 1.5 kg a.i./ha below the seed level reduce the incidence of Meloidogyne incognita in cucumbitaceous. Integrated Methods :- Combine inoculation of AMFand Pseudomonas fluorescenshad had possitiveeffect on root-knot nematode control on cucumber(Jakobsen,1999).