Ict distance education

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Ict distance education

  1. 1. ICT AND DISTANCE EDUCATION. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKDimitrios Gkotzos, PhD Candidate, University of Crete, GreeceEirini Vemmou, M.Sc. ICT in Education, National andKapodistrian University of Athens, GreeceAikaterini Vigkou, M.Sc. ICT in Education, National andKapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
  2. 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION MAIN THEORETICAL APPROACHES OF DISTANCE EDUCATIONΑPPLICATION OF THEORIES IN THE DESIGNI OF A DISTANCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT USING ICT. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  3. 3. ICT and distance education
  4. 4. MAIN THEORETICAL APPROACHES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
  5. 5. Classification of Theories (Keegan,1986, Simonson, M et al. , 1999)1) Independence 2) Theory of 3) Interaction and and autonomy industrialization of communication theories teaching theories
  6. 6. Theories of independence and autonomy. American Theory of Independent Study - Theory of Independent Studies of C. Wedemeyer (1981).Features of the independent study systems: 1. Teacher and student are in different places. 2. Teaching and learning processes are carried out in writing or through some other medium. 3. Teaching is individualized. 4. Learning occurs through student’s activity. 5. Learning becomes convenient for the student, when it takes places in the student’s own environment. 6. The learner takes responsibility for the pace of learning, with freedom to start and stop at any time .
  7. 7. European Theory of Independent Study: M. Moore’s Theory of Independent Study. ( Moore,1970) Provision for two-way communication (dialog) distance The extent to which a program is responsive to the needs of the individual learner In goal setting autonomy In study methods In evaluation
  8. 8. The theory of the industrialization of teaching (Οtto Peters, 1971, Keegan 1994, Naik, 2004 , Sclosser & Simonson 2006, Simonson et al, 1999 ) Change of Scientific function Mass control Planningproduction methods StandardizationPreparatory Assembly line Rationalization Organization work Formalization Division of Objectification Mechanization labor
  9. 9. The theory of the industrialization of teaching (Οtto Peters 1971, Simonson et al 1999) Emphasis is given to: Standardization of Differentiating Stage Planning and the course and the role of distance Low financial cost Division of laborof development organizing courses expectations educators of learners
  10. 10. The theory of interaction and communication (Garcia Aretio 1986, Fernandez Brenes Espinoza, Holmberg) enhances help achieve a personal trainer- students the objectivestrainee relationship motivation of learning Messages in the form of are easier to dialogue understand Friendly demanding, difficult Personal relationship conversation course
  11. 11. The theory of interaction and communication (Garcia Aretio 1986, Fernandez Brenes Espinoza, Holmberg) messages of a guided didactic conversation the real of designers in the issue of the learners feel that learning they contribute personally to the structure greater interest in participation personal relationship with the designers / personal participation in the matter of the course greater motivation/ efficient learning
  12. 12. The equivalency theoryDistance Face – to – facelearning teaching
  13. 13. Application of theories in designing a distance learning environment using ICT
  14. 14. Behaviorism(Ally, 2008; Mishra & Jain, 2002; Bigus, 2004) Take place with a view to promote learning self-assessment of learners
  15. 15. Cognitive Theory (Ally, 2008; Lara, 2001; Bigus, 2004) Using learning strategies that promote transfer of information /stimuli in working memory• The geometric proper placement of information on the screen• Difficulty level of material: student knowledge level• Focus on the essential stimuli• Focus on "critical" information Evaluation of students and providing feedback
  16. 16. Cognitive Theory (Ally, 2008; Lara, 2001; Bigus, 2004)
  17. 17. Cognitive Theory (Ally, 2008; Lara, 2001; Bigus, 2004) Learning strategies promote the use of metacognitive skillsProviding learning incentives for students Promote the application of knowledge to real-life situations
  18. 18. Constructivism Αlly (2008) Active Role of learners Acquisition of knowledge: process of personal interpretation & processing of sensory information Transformative Cognitive learningConstuctivism Theories theory of Mezirow Communication Student Self- Learning Conceptual Commit process Conditions Image Situation
  19. 19. Pedagogical objectives that should met in a constructive learning environment (Αlly 2008, Duffy & Kirkley, 2004,) Involvement of the learners into the research Provide support Facilitate interaction and cooperation Emphasis on the presentationTransfer of knowledge into other contexts Encourage cooperative, collaborative learning Knowledge construction of the learners Control allocation of the learning process Learning which makes sense for the learners
  20. 20. Theory of Conversation Pask (1975), Borrás (1997) , Luis Rodolfo Lara (2001), Vygotsky (1981) Theory of zone of proximal Conversation developmentconversations learning
  21. 21. Theory of ConversationPask (1975), Borrás (1997) , Luis Rodolfo Lara (2001), Vygotsky (1981) Community Social Negotiation Critical Reflection Cooperative Work Self evaluation Scripting Microcosm
  22. 22. Theory of Hyperpersonal Communication (J. Walther,1996) J. Walther Online Face to face communication communication Theory of Online Face to faceHyperpersonal communication communicationCommunication Great strong intimacy relations stronginvolvement
  23. 23. Theory of Hyperpersonal Communication J. Walther Strategies:Asychronous Text based means A) highlight the group learning of communication B) support the expectation of future interactions
  24. 24. Sociocultural Theory Cólas Bravo (2006), Pablos, Rebollo and Lebres (1999), Vygotsky (1981), Wersch (1993) internalisation privilege selection and use of appropriate toolsappropriation possession“Make something use of tools in teaching aids appropriate.” different sectors social creative transformation cultural are various tools translated to situations
  25. 25. -Lack of a single theory.-Theoretical approaches from various fields.-Effect on design / implementation of distance education using ICT. THESIS: flexible combination of theories
  26. 26. Find it in Slideshare

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