Tracking user behaviour


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  • Gino – User experience designer at LBiTalk about techniques that can help you to learn how our customers are using our software and websites and use this information to improve UX and conversion.Talk especially about EYE TRACKING
  • WHY:Itis not easy to make the right decisions to design the best UX for our customers. Check if: Right features and functionality People understand the interface You do not know what the effect is on emotion, persuasion, trust in a way it increases engagement and conversionHoweverA lot of design guidelines available + experts don’t alsways have the right answerSmall things can have a big influenceWhat we think would work, does not always work RESEARCH, reality check of our design to solve dsicussion pointsAnalyticsA/B en MVT testingUser testing -> can be done in a design phase
  • User testing -> Can be done during design Provides feedback about the WHYIt’s all about direct observationTest early and often
  • More and more making use of eye-tracking to add additional dimensions to our observationsEye tracking allows us to register where people are looking, focusing and better interpret and explain user behaviour.Visual reporting: Heatmaps and gazeplots
  • Heatmaps are generalisableEasy to generate and draw wrong conclusionsDepending on taskDepending on type of userWithout knowing the task that was given, a heatmap is meaningless!ET is is visually abstract and easy to misunderstandfixations can be interpreted in different ways depending on the context and task of the study. SO be carefull with the quantitative research (bigger data sets) -> we focus on qualititiave
  • Heatmap: First 5 seconds view of the landing page
  • Gazeplot: First 5 seconds view of the landing page by a new, experienced user
  • Gazeplot: First 5 seconds view of the landing page by a new, unexperienceduserConclusion: Finetune conclusions per type of user in this caseJacob Nielsen: ”Test 39 users if you want stable heatmaps” Make use of gazeplots for qualitative analysis and analysis of smaller number of test usersHeatmaps for quantitatvie / statistical correct analysis
  • When I look into your eyes … I will still notice what is happening to the left and right without focussing.If there’s nofixation, users didn’t see itJust because there’s no ‘heat’, doesn’t mean people didn’t see it. Users can pick up information through peripheral vision!1-2°: Foveal area (sharp) -> Registered by the eye tracker2-5°: Para-foveal area (blurry)6-220°: Peripheral area (Blurry)
  • Example: Banner blindness
  • Eye tracking allows you to see what people are thinkingEye tracking gives you evidence of what people look at. This data alone does not tell you whether they like it, understand it or want it!fixations do not necessarily translate into a conscious cognitive process.For this reason, ET is usually combinewith other observational dataWhat users sayWhat users do
  • Eye-tracking allows us to get the best out our design and research efforts.The way we traditionally conduct user testing also has an influence on the results.Problem of infleunce of reasercher, context and research techniques on the ourcome and results.Additionally, by using gaze plots or gaze videos as cues, participants provided more feedback than when only using a screen video as cue; TResearch by Tobii !!
  • Typical F-form reading patternThink Aloud : The established wayThink aloud A is widely used in usability research. During a task, the user is verbalising their actions and thoughts out loud whilst navigating the site. The moderators role is then to probe feedback during the test This technique gives immediate feedback during a task and means the participant is not relying on memory to provide feedback on things they experienced. Most users aren’t that confident articulating the websites failings Increased cognitive load Pressure from being observed Not familiar with introspection May cause the user to behave differently
  • Retrospective Think Aloud: RTA or PEEPWith eyetracking hardware and software participants are asked to complete a task silently and on their own. Once the task is complete, the moderator plays back the dynamic eye tracking video while asking the user about their underlying motivation. This allows the participant to get on with their task without being distracted during the task. The feedback is often more thought through when replaying the eye tracking video.A new way Post Experience Eye tracked Protocol (PEEP)What is PEEP? User is given tasks Moderator leaves the room (goes to viewing room to watch live eye tracking) User (tries) to complete tasks Moderator returns and uses the gaze replay video to post evaluate experience with userPEEP identified significantly more usability problems than Think Aloud both quantitative and qualitativeSignificantly fewer participants completed the task while thinking aloud, indicating reactivity effects Using Eye-movement Data to Cue Retrospective Protocols in Online Usability Testing By Nicola L. Eger
  • A number of studies have shown that the evaluation method RTA supported by eye tracking data as a memory cue will, in fact, uncover significantly more usability problems than using other known usability methods + less influence on the research resultsTobii Studio features RTA with gaze data replay in one tool.
  • FIRST ASSESSMET + IMPROVEMENTUser testing in collaboration with HumixThink aloud methodFirst usability problems identifiedFirst quick fix proposedIn-depth testing to understand “why ?”
  • FIRST ASSESSMET + IMPROVEMENTUser testing in collaboration with HumixThink aloud methodFirst usability problems identifiedFirst quick fix proposedIn-depth testing to understand “why ?”
  • Risk that in real life they give up. User testing is an artificial environment and task, where people won’t give up easily due to some presure of the test setup and presence of the observtor.
  • Overnight the copy above the input field was changed into a simple instruction. From «Find your store and reserve your unit » Into a simple «Start Here !» An arrow was added on the CTA buttonTwo respondents on day 2 used new homepage
  • Eye-tracking helped us to learn WHY it did not work and how we could solve the problem.It had less to do with the fact that they did not understand the bod. More to do that they where not attracted to the box intially.Minder tijd = less memory load: users can concentrate more on the initial task they came to do on the websiteUser does not have to think «  what would they mean with find your store and reserve your unit now »"Start Here!" instruction:users needed significantly less time to find and understand the entry point compared to"Find your store and reserve your unit".Less memory load. More time to concentrate on real task.Change the label into a short and clear instruction
  • Eye-tracking is only an extension on user testing which help you to Get the best out of your user research. Higher efficiency and draw right conclusions.- It’s only an additional fee to hire the test labYou don’t need to buy oneAlternatives: Eye tracking over webcamAccurancyOnly static images
  • Only additional test on top of user testing is the rent of the eye-tracking. You don’t need to buy an eye-tracker to conduct testing.All depends on - the number of participants: 5 Guerilla testing can lower recruitment costTest ready prototype or current website?Lean UX: Getting Out Of The Deliverables Business and back into the experience design businessstay lean: keep the deliverables light and editable
  • We can do user testing to learn the WHY of user behaviour and adapt interfaces accordingly.ADDED VALUE: We can make use of eye tracking, to get the best out of our research effort. (retrospective think aloud)So Limitations of eye trackingData easily influenced Looked, but did they really see it or understand it?Use of peripheral visionAlthough all its restrictions …AdvantagesClear additional insights into behavior Objective data and results on behavior Very visual results for better understanding and persuading others
  • Want to experience what I can do for you. Meet us at 17h for a live demo.
  • Tobii X1 lightUnobtrusive
  • Tracking user behaviour

    2. 2. This versionincreased clicks on the call-to-action by 68%
    3. 3. Eye tracking
    4. 4. Misconception 1 “Heatmaps can be generalised”
    5. 5. Misconceptions Misconception 2 “If there’s no ‘heat’, users didn’t see it”
    6. 6. Misconception 3 “You can see what someone is thinking”
    7. 7. Think Aloud
    8. 8. RETROSPECTIVE Think Aloud
    9. 9. Case  Active in Europe since 1995  Operating in 7 European countries from Brussels HQ  Renting out storage space to private users (70%) and business users (30%)  Active on the internet since 1999  Web is primary lead-generation channel since 2004
    10. 10. Key question: How easy do users find the entry point for making a reservation?
    11. 11. 3 out of 6 end usersdid not findthis entry point
    12. 12. First observations First 3 seconds of a respondent that found and understoodthe homepage immediately
    13. 13. First observations 2 / 5 respondents showed difficulties to get started. One was assistedafter 48 sec
    14. 14. First observations It took one respondent 28 secto find and understand the starting point and click to get started
    15. 15. Observations - alternative First 5 sec on the homepage: the respondent started typing after 5,8 seconds.
    16. 16. Observations - alternative First 5 sec on the homepage: the respondent started typing after 4,8 seconds
    17. 17. Results « Find your store and reserve your unit » « Start here » Noticed by 3/5 respondents Noticed and understood by all Label not wellunderstood Label isclear and actionable 20 – 30 seconds to entry point Within 7 sec
    18. 18. Misconception 4 “Eye-tracking is expensive”
    19. 19. User testing approach • 1st day: Preparing the tests • 2nd day: Conducting the tests • 3rd day: Analysing the tests
    20. 20. Conclusions Advantages • • • • • Clear additional insights into behavior Measurable behavior Objective data and results on behavior Very visual results for better understanding Persuasive results
    21. 21. DEMO
    22. 22. Mobile Test Lab
    23. 23. THANK YOU +32 (0) 479 296 504 @glardon
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