Sociocultural Perspective

The zone of proximal development
Scaffolding
The participation metaphor
Collaborative dialogue
Sociocultural theory – key concepts
ZPD (Vygotsky – 1930s Russia)
Scaffolding (Bruner, 1970s USA)

Participation (vs. Acqu...
ZPD
Vygotsky defined the ZPD as:
“the distance between the actual developmental level as
determined by independent problem...
(Gallimore & Tharp, 1990)
http://www.foridahoteachers.org/Images/zpd.gif
Using language fluently (without conscious effort)
Using language reasonably fluently (with conscious effort)
(self-regula...
Scaffolding
The six features of scaffolding:
1. Recruiting interest in the task
2. Simplifying the task
3. Maintaining pur...
Participation
“learners are not wholly under the control of the teacher, [and] that
they have some freedom concerning the ...
Student’s written output
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher:
Eric:
Teacher...
Collaborative Dialogue
Morten:

my mom --

Tim:

W-O-R-Y <L1 we write L1>@

Tim:

didn't

Morten:

so worry

(2)

Tim:

I ...
References – Sociocultural theory
Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge, Cambridge
Universit...
The Nassaji and Swain Paper
For Next Week
Read the Sue Palmer article
Read the EBL handout
Diary – identify some key entries / points
Reflect on what ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sociocultural Theory

1,243 views
976 views

Published on

At the end of these materials you should know something about the following
topics.

• The zone of proximal development
• Scaffolding
• The participation metaphor
• Collaborative dialogue

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,243
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
425
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
37
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • {}
  • Sociocultural Theory

    1. 1. Sociocultural Perspective The zone of proximal development Scaffolding The participation metaphor Collaborative dialogue
    2. 2. Sociocultural theory – key concepts ZPD (Vygotsky – 1930s Russia) Scaffolding (Bruner, 1970s USA) Participation (vs. Acquisition) (Sfard) Collaborative dialogue (Wells, Mercer, Swain, Others)
    3. 3. ZPD Vygotsky defined the ZPD as: “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (1978: 86).
    4. 4. (Gallimore & Tharp, 1990)
    5. 5. http://www.foridahoteachers.org/Images/zpd.gif
    6. 6. Using language fluently (without conscious effort) Using language reasonably fluently (with conscious effort) (self-regulated learner) ZPD Using language with assistance from teacher or peer (other-regulated learner) Language too difficult for learner ZPD forms in situations; it is NOT in someone’s head
    7. 7. Scaffolding The six features of scaffolding: 1. Recruiting interest in the task 2. Simplifying the task 3. Maintaining pursuit of the goal 4. Marking critical features and discrepancies between what has been produced and the ideal solution 5. Controlling frustration during problem solving 6. Demonstrating idealized version
    8. 8. Participation “learners are not wholly under the control of the teacher, [and] that they have some freedom concerning the nature and extent of their participation in class” (Allwright, 1980, p. 166). Participation arises from:  Teacher, context, peers, task, previous knowledge etc  Learner contributions / interpretations / improvisations  Individual cognitive and social dynamics  Temporal / knock-on effects task-as-plan vs. task-in-action
    9. 9. Student’s written output Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Eric: Teacher: Wy are you late to school Eric. Ehmmh… im… went to the wrong school Yeh! thats right Eric!!! How did you manage to go to the wrong school. Eh… wel Answer me!!!!!! I lent map and my compas to a friend on that school But you said that you did go to the wrong school I did go to the wrong school befor I went to the other school to pick up my map I GIV UP Well… let my take a look on your homework I dident do my home work WYE Well… eh… becouse i… eh… my mom diddent come home last night and I was to wory to do my homework Oh, I GIVE UP! Well... class, the lesson is over Take a brake
    10. 10. Collaborative Dialogue Morten: my mom -- Tim: W-O-R-Y <L1 we write L1>@ Tim: didn't Morten: so worry (2) Tim: I was too worry Morten: come (1) home (...) last night Tim: <L1 du you want to include this? L1> Morten: <L1 let’s only do one more L1> well ehm -- Tim: <L1 yes, like this L1> Morten: (12 second pause) and and I -- (1) last night (2) and I ehm -- and I was worry and I -- last (.) NIGHT (..) forget -- (2) forgot to do my homework Morten: and (.) I was worry? (2) Tim: I was -- Tim: Morten: (...) too worry to do my home work Morten: (.) too worry to do my homework? ja (1.5) <L1 how do you write L1> worry? too worry Tim: do (..) my (.) homework
    11. 11. References – Sociocultural theory Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. Vygotskian approaches to second language research. J. P. Lantolf and G. Appel. Norwood, NJ, Ablex: 33-56. Gallimore, R. & Tharp, R. (1990). Teaching mind in society (pp. 175-205). In L. Moll (Ed.). Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and social applications of sociohistorical psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. Mercer, N. (1995) The Guided Construction of Knowledge: talk amongst teachers and learners. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Sfard, A. (1998). On Two Metaphors for Learning and the Dangers of Choosing Just One. Educational Researcher 27: 4-13. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
    12. 12. The Nassaji and Swain Paper
    13. 13. For Next Week Read the Sue Palmer article Read the EBL handout Diary – identify some key entries / points Reflect on what you might want to look into during the EBL phase

    ×