Ok,This graph shows Gasoline still dominating the market
In this graph, we can see Volkswagen has a high ranking in terms of perception and attitude, due to the percepetion of german engine and high quality.Moreover, according to a research released in 2011, for past ten years, SUV has a dramatically larger increasing trends than normal cars.
Porter’s five forces model Entrants Industry Suppliers Buyers Rivalry Substitutes Porter, 1979 Limitation Overstressed macro analysis Oversimplified industry value chains Fails to link possible management actions Cooperation between rivals Source: Grundy, 2006
Competitive climate model Economic factors Political Social factors GROWTH factors FIVE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE FORCES Legal DRIVERS Technological factors factors Environment factors Grundy, 2006
PESTEL factors analysis Economic factors Political Social factors factors INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE Legal Technological factors factors Environment factors Grundy, 2006
PESTEL factors analysisPolitical factors: Economic factors: Social factors:Discount policy encourages Implementation of a wide- Statistics shows older peoplemotorists to buy hybrid and ranging policy program is in Europe tend to take actionelectric cars. underway, aiding the post- to protect environment more crisis repair of the economy. and the population in the UK is aging.Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts Souce: Eurobarometer, Attitudes of European citizens towards the environment, 2008Technological factors: Environmental factors: Legal factors:The technology of hybrid and The CO2 emissions generated legislation committingelectric vehicles is growing by cars in 2009 accounted for vehicle manufacturers tosignificantly due to the huge 14% of all the CO2 emissions specific CO2 emission targetsinvestments. in the UK. for new car registrations was passed.Souce: Commission of the European Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Factscommunities, 2009
PESTEL factors analysisPolitical factors:Discount policy encouragesmotorists to buy hybrid andelectric cars. “ On 1 January 2011, the UK government announced that motorists will be entitled to 25% (up to £5,000) off the list price of an electric, plug-in hybrid or hydrogen fuel cell car, providing it emits less than 75g/km of CO2 and meets safety, reliability, performance and warranty standards set by the Office for Low Emissions Vehicles (OLEV) in consultation with industry.” Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts
PESTEL factors analysis Economic factors: Implementation of a wide- ranging policy program is underway, aiding the post- crisis repair of the economy. Source: Mintel 2011, Alternative Fuel Vehicles
PESTEL factors analysis Social factors: Statistics shows older people in Europe tend to take action to protect environment more. Souce: Eurobarometer, Attitudes of European citizens towards the environment, 2008
PESTEL factors analysis Social factors: The left graph from UK parliament indicates that the population in the UK is aging. Source: The ageing population, Parliament
PESTEL factors analysis European automotive industry is investing €24 billion in R&D, which represents around 30% of whole European industrial R&D. Significant amount is invested in battery-powered hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and hydrogen. Source: Commission of the European communities, 2009Technological factors:The technology of hybrid andelectric vehicles is growingsignificantly due to the hugeinvestments.
PESTEL factors analysis Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts Environmental factors: The CO2 emissions generated by cars in 2009 accounted for 14% of all the CO2 emissions in the UK.
PESTEL factors analysis Subject to their individual targets, vehicle manufacturers will have to comply with new car average CO2 emission targets of 130g/km CO2 by 2015 and 95g/km CO2 by 2020. The legislation sets out an exacting programme for car manufacturers with 65% of new cars averaging the 130g/ km target by 2012, 75% by 2013, 85% by 2014 and 100% by 2015. Source: SMMT Motor Industry 2011 Facts Legal factors: legislation committing vehicle manufacturers to specific CO2 emission targets for new car registrations was passed in 2008.
Growth drivers analysis GROWTH INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE DRIVERS Grundy, 2006
Growth drivers analysis Battery costs at mass production InexpensiveToday’s new infrastructurelifestyle A fundamental Growth system change drivers Electricity cost Growth brakes Source: Matthies et al 2010; Crane et al, 2008
Five forces analysis FIVE INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE FORCES Grundy, 2006
Five forces analysis Threats of New Entrants High costs of R&D and other technological advances Require high capital Strong customer network Unequal access to distribution channels Plug-In Car Grant Verdict – overall threats of new entrants is very high. Source: Pasternack, 2009, Department of Transport, 2011; Datamonitor, 2011.
Five forces analysis The Power of Suppliers Low differentiation of raw materials Little to distinguish between suppliers Increasing power of suppliers when demand for better quality Short-term supply disruptions Verdict – overall suppliers have high power Source: Department of Energy, 2010; Datamonitor, 2011.
Five forces analysis The Power of the Buyer Contractual agreements with a particular manufacturer Relatively weak power of buyers Buyers are generally less price-sensitive Verdict – overall buyers have little power Source: Datamonitor, 2011; Matthies et al, 2010
Five forces analysis The Treat of Substitutes Main substitute: public transport/bicycle Customer has a certain predisposition of buying a hybrid car Verdict – overall little threats of substitutes Source: Datamonitor, 2011; Matthies et al, 2010
Five forces analysis Rivalry among existing competitors Market is showing signs of recovery Utilizing different brands and model Huge operating cost to cover Competitors: Lexus RX 450h and Mercedes ML 450 Hybrid (not yet released in the UK) Verdict – Overall rivalry is high Source: Datamonitor, 2011
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE INDUSTRY LIFE CYCLE Grundy, 2006
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Definition of RBV Explain‘ WHY some firms enjoy a competitive advantage over rivals’ (Barney, 1991) Resources those are heterogeneous and imperfectly mobile, dynamic capabilities are able to sustain SCA (Barney, 1991)
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Valuable Rare Four characteristi cs of RBV Non- Inimitable substituta ble Barney, 1991
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Limitations of Resource based view (RBV) Alternative elements of achieving Issues associated with sustainable competitive advantage the RBV model
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Alternative elements of achieving SCA Information technology (Mata, Fuerst, & Barney, 1995; Powell, 1997 cited in Hooley, 2012) Strategic planning (Michalisin et al., 1997; Powell,1992a cited in Hooley, 2012) Organizational alignment (Powell, 1992b cited in Hooley, 2012) Human resources management (Flood, Smith, &Derfus, 1996; Wright & Mc-Mahan, 1992 cited in Hooley, 2012) Organizational culture (Fiol, 1991;Oliver, 1997 cited in Hooley, 2012) Top-management skills (Castanias & Helfat, 1991 cited in Hooley, 2012) Administrative skills (Powell, 1993 cited in Hooley, 2012)
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Issues associated with the RBV model Barriers to apply imitation Isolating mechanisms ,include casual ambiguity (difficulty to identify how an advantage was created ) Complexity (arising from interplay of multiple resources) Tacitness (intangible skills and knowledge resulting from learning and doing ) Path dependency (need to pass through critical time dependencies to create advantage ) Economics (Cost of imitation) Legal barriers (Property rights and patents) Source: Hooley, 2012
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Issues associated with the RBV model Neglects the influence of market dynamism Source: Priem and Butler,2001;Wang and Ahmed,2007;Lippman and Rumelt,1982;Dierickx and Cool,1989;Reed and DeFillippi,1990;Hooley et la.,2008
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Insights from the resource-based view (RBV) Emphasis on dynamic capabilities, marketing assets and marketing capability Hooley, 2012
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Customer-based Reputational Assets Brand Volkswagen Lexus Brand Value 47th Not in Top 100 Best Global Green 6th Not in Top 50 Most considered buying 3rd Not in Top 29 by UK consumers Source: Interbrand 2011; GMI/Mintel
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Customer-based Reputational Assets Brand Volkswagen Toyota group(lexus) Brand Perception Reliable but high servicing A reliable but uninspiring brand costs Country of origin Germany Japan(Consumers rated the quality of Japanese cars to be the highest and Australian cars to be the lowest ) Superior products Product:8 gears, four wheel Product: continuous variable, front wheel and services drive, turbo charged; drive , automatic transmission Services :3 year warranty+3 2 years basic warranty +lots of restrictions year paint warranty towards the warranty Market 8.6% 0.31% Dominance Source: Elliott and Cameron, 1994; Mintel, 2009; Car Magazine, 2010
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Supply Chain Assets E.g. B2B Platform: www.vwgroupsupply.com Supplier Programme “Priority A” Volkswagen: Over 250 retailers in UK Lexus: 56 retails in UK
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Internal Marketing Support Assets Existing Customer Base: 2010 Volkswagen Lexus UK Sales 174,655 6202 Market Share 8.6% 0.31% Technological Skills: 2010 Volkswagen Group Toyota Group Investment in R&D € 6.9 B ¥ 725.3 B ≈ € 6.63 B Account for Revenue 6.1% 3.8% e.g. Eco-friendly Mobility helps significantly reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 15% in five years Source: Car Magazine, 2010
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Internal Marketing Support AssetsExpanding our product portfolio and improving thefunctionality, quality, safety and environmental compatibility of ourGroup products. Source: Factbook, 2011
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Internal Marketing Support Assets Partnerships Volkswagen Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, SEAT, Skoda, Scania and Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Toyota Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino Motors (the rest are not automotive Source: VW, 2012; Toyota, 2012
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Assets Alliance-based Marketing Assets a) Cooperation arrangements with Porsche AG, Daimler AG and the Chrysler Group on the development and production of vehicles. b) Joint Venture with VARTA Microbattery GmbH, Ellwangen for researching and developing battery cells for hybrid drivers. c) Cooperation with many universities e.g. the Institute of Physical Chemistry at the University of Münster (expertise in the field of electric traction) d) Alliance breaking up with Suzuki Motor Corporation, which mainly focus on the diesel motor Source: VW Annual Report, 2011
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Capabilities Product and PriceTouareg Hybrid. 3.0 litre V6 TSI 333 PS Lexus RX 450h 3.5 litre V6 TSI 333 PSPrice: £55985 (Official website of VW) Price £48,405 (Official website of Lexus)CO2 Combined (g/km) 193 CO2 Combined (g/km) 145Combined mpg (l/100km) 34.4 / 8.2 Combined mpg (l/100km) 44.8 (6.3)Acceleration 0-62 mph (s) 6.5 Acceleration 0-62 mph (s) 7.8Maximum Speed mph (km/h) 149 (200) Maximum Speed mph (km/h) 124 (200)Engine type :Six cylinder Engine type: six cylinderCubic capacity, ltrs/cc :3.0/2995 Displacement:3.5 liters(211 cubic inches)Max. output, PS (01)/kW at rpm :333/245 5500 Total system horsepower:295 hpMax. torque, lbs.ft/Nm at rpm :325/440 3000 EPA fuel economy ratings: 30/28/29 mgGearbox :8 speed auto triptronic Source: Volkswagen, 2012; Lexus 2012
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Marketing Capabilities Promotion Lexus reduced their expenditure eon promotion by 55% where as Volkswagen reduced by approximately 25% +100.0% +80.0% +60.0% +40.0% +20.0% +0.0% -20.0% -40.0% -60.0% Volvo Lexus Hyundai Car Peugeot Total Mazda Cars Volkswagen Toyota BMW Audi Ford Vauxhall Skoda Land Rover Fiat Mercedes Benz Renault Citroen Nissan Kia Citroen Honda % CHANGE IN ADVERTISING ON CARS, BY LEADING ADVERTISER, 2006-10 Source: Mintel, 2011
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Absorptive Capability Worldwide demand for light hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) is estimated to reach 5.2 million units by 2020. Volkswagen’s hybrid electric vehicles ‘Zero-emission Milan Taxi concept vehicle 2010’; ‘Audi A8 hybrid concept vehicle 2010’; ‘Audi A1 e-tron concept vehicle’ Source: Datamonitor, 2010
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Adaptive marketing capabilities Strong global presence key markets: Western Europe, China, Brazil, the US, Russia and Mexico. Volkswagens market share increased despite the automotive industry crisis in 2008-2010. Source: Datamonitor, 2011
Sustainable Competitive advantage analysis Potential Sustainable Competitive Advantage Volkswagen merger with Porsche to achieve greater market share ‘Think Blue. Factory’ plan to cut down 25% of costs by 2018 Investment of more than 8billion yours per annum to optimize engines and gear boxes Developing TSI technology on both natural gas and hybrid engines Microsoft deal with Volkswagen internal suppliers Source: Cremer and Matussek, 2011; Landler, 2007; Autocar Magazine, 2011; Microsoft News Center, 2011; VW Sustainability Report, 2010
Customer Intelligence ‘Ask not what your customer can do for you, but what can you do for your customer’ ----John F Kennedy “Customer intelligence (CI) is information derived from customer data that an organization collects from both internal and external sources. The purpose of CI is to understand customer motivations better in order to drive future growth.” Source: TechTarget, 2010 CI include: Customer profitability Awareness, Attitudes and Usage Customer Satisfaction Customer Loyalty
Customer Intelligence The role of CI in CRM Source: Information Management, 2001
Customer Intelligence The role of CI in CRM Source: Goldman, 2004
Customer Intelligence What should VW do? Build a particular customer intelligence center for Hybrid SUV!
Customer Intelligence Key dimensions marketers should focus on in CI centre Source: Frankland, 2009
Customer Intelligence The structure of CI center Decision-makers Counter Customers intelligence Collection cell Requiring customer team User liaison intelligence cell External sources Information Sources Collection FSI Support team IT support Functions group CI centre Internal management sources team Customer Intelligence Analysis Cell review board Current Early intelligence warning cell cell Source: Ackerman & Wickens, 2001
BCG Matrix Model A method to classify portfolio offering Source: ACCA Global, 2010
GE-McKinsey Matrix An advanced model based on BCG matrix Source: Coyne, 2008
GE Mckinsey matrix Weight criteria of market attractiveness and competitive strengthsWight criteria of market attractiveness Weight criteria for competitive strengthsMarket Size Company ImageMarket Growth Market ShareMarket Profitability Strength of Assets and Core CompetenciesPricing Trends Record of Technological or Other InnovationOpportunity to Differentiate Products and Services Distribution Strength and Production CapacityEntry Barriers Access to Financial and other Investment ResourcesCompetitive Intensity / Rivalry Product QualityDistribution Structure Requirements Relative Cost PositionNecessary Company Investments Delivery TimeOverall Risk of Returns in the Industry (PEST Factors) Sales Force Sauce: H. Siemann, 2009
GE Mckinsey matrix Recommended strategies Strong business units in attractive industries Grow Average business units in attractive industries Strong units in average industries Average business units in average industries Hold Strong units in weak industries Weak units in attractive industries Weak units in unattractive industries Harvest Average units in unattractive industries Weak units in average industries Source: H. Siemann, 2009
Other limitations of our studies Lack of primary research Difficult to access information specifically for Lexus Neglect indirect competitors such as normal petrol cars lack of sophisticated sources specifically for the UK market
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