The Solar System and Beyond

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  • 1. By: Brianne DiephuisEd.205 Winter 2008
  • 2. End Show•Planets•Stars•Constellations•About the author
  • 3. End Show•Mercury•Venus•Earth•Mars•Jupiter Click Here•Saturn to Watch a Video•Uranus about the Planets.•Neptune
  • 4. End Show•Fastest and shortest orbit out ofall the planets. Takes 88 days toorbit the sun•Mercury has the widesttemperature range •Temperature: 90-700K•Diameter: 4,880 km•Closest planet to the sun•Oldest surface- three majorsurfaces •Smooth plains •Intercrater plains •Rugged highlands•Mercury has the densest core•Mercury is the hottest planet thatalso has ice caps•Has a double sunrise•Mercury is very similar to theEarth Moon•Mercury is a terrestrial planet•Mercury has a weak atmospherecontaining hydrogen, oxygen,calcium, and potassium.
  • 5. End Show•Second planet from the Sun•Venus’s orbit around the sun isclosest to a perfect circle•Only planet that the rotationalperiod is longer than therevolutionary period (a day onVenus is longer than a year!)•Venus had more volcanoesthan any other planet•Only planet that does not havea magnetic field•Hottest surface temperatureout of any of the planets •Roughly 900 degrees•Venus reflects the most lightof any other planet•Venus is the only planet thatrotates slowly on its axisclockwise (opposite of all otherplanets)•Diameter: 12,103.6 km
  • 6. End Show•Third planet from the Sun•Earth is the only planet thatcontains life•Has the greatest surfacepercentage of water- wettestplanet•Has the most diverse weatherpatterns•Earth had the youngestsurface out of all the planets•Densest planet•Has the most active platetectonics•Earth is the only planet thathas the existence of the watercycle•Has only one moon•Diameter: 12,756.3 km•Earth is divided into severallayers
  • 7. mars End Show•Mars is the fourth planet fromthe sun•Mars is the reddest planet•Mars is the rustiest planet•It had the largest known floodsin the solar system•Mars is the only planet thatsnows carbon dioxide•Hellan Planitia is the largestimpact crater, no other planethas a crater as large•Mars has the largest volcano-Olympus Mons•Olympus Mons is the onlygeological feature thatprotrudes from any planetsatmosphere•Mars has sandstorms thatencompass the entire planet•Diameter 6,794 km
  • 8. End Show•Jupiter is the fifth planet fromthe Sun•Jupiter is the largest planet inthe whole solar system•Diameter: 142,984 km•Jupiter has the strongestgravitational pull and magneticfield•Jupiter has the quickestrotation axis•Jupiter has a great red spot,which is actually a storm. Thestorm is large enough to holdthree Earths!•Jupiter has the most moons•Some of the moons are: •Ganymede is the largest •Europa is the smoothest •Io is the most volcanically active
  • 9. saturn End Show•Saturn is the sixth planet fromthe Sun•Saturn has the most complexring system•Second largest jovian (gas)planet composed of 75%hydrogen and 25% helium•Lowest density of any planet•Saturn’s moon Titian has thethickest atmosphere of anymoon•Saturn’s moons have thelargest variety of sizes•Saturn’s rings are the onlyrings that contain spokes•The rings are made up ofmostly water and ice, butcontain some dust and rocks•Diameter: 120,536 km
  • 10. End ShowUranus…•Is the seventh planet from theSun•Has the most unusual seasons•Is the only planet that can havedirect sunlight on both poles•Is only planet that rotates onits side•Also has rings, they are themost well defined•Has the strongest magneticfields•Has only one moon, Mirandawhich was destroyed and thenreconstructed•Diameter: 51,118 km
  • 11. End ShowNeptune…•Is the eighth planet from the Sun•Has the fastest winds reaching700-1500 mph•Is the smallest of the 4 gas planets•Is the bluest planet, and gets itscolor from methane•Has rings but they are notcomplete, they are only faint arcsthat are made from dust•Has a storm system called“Scooter” and it is the fastestmoving system in the whole solarsystem•Is the densest of the gas planets•Has clouds that protrude from itsatmosphere•Has a moon Triton that orbitsopposite Neptune’s rotation•Diameter: 49,532•Since Neptune was discovered isit yet to make a full revolutionaround the sun.•Neptune is the farthest planetfrom the sun
  • 12. End Show•Andromeda (the princess) and Orion (the hunter)•Sagittarius (the archer) and Cassiopeia (the queen)•Cancer (the crab) and Taurus (the bull)•Aquarius (the water beaver) and Gemini (the twins•Scorpius (the scorpion) and Leo (the lion)
  • 13. End ShowAndromeda:Constellation in the northernsky and is best known forholding the galaxy Andromeda.The brightest star in it isAlpheratz.Orion:One of the largest and wellknown constellations. It isfound on the celestial equator.Its three prominent stars are inthe belt. The two brighteststars are Rigel and Betelgeuse.
  • 14. End ShowSagittarius:Also called the teapot, themilky way looks like the steamrising from the spout. Liesbetween Ophiuchus to thewest and Capricornus to theeast. Has 12 main stars. Bestseen during the summer.Cassiopeia:Located in the northern sky.Has five main stars and they areall bright. It is in the shape if a“W”.
  • 15. End ShowCancer:One of the 12 zodiacconstellations. It is small anddim . Located between Geminiand Leo. It has zero brightstarsTaurus:It sits large and prominent inthe Northern Hemispherewinter sky, between Aries tothe west and Gemini to theeast; to the north lie Perseusand Auriga, to the southeastOrion, and to the southwestEridanus and Cetus. It has 7main stars and 3 bright stars.
  • 16. End ShowAquarius:Situated between Capricornusand PiscesAquarius is one of the oldestrecognized constellations alongthe zodiac . It has 2 bright starsand 10, 22 main starsGemini:Known as "the twins". It is partof the winter sky, lyingbetween Taurus to the westand the dim Cancer to the east,with Auriga and the near-invisible Lynx to the north andMonoceros and Canis Minor tothe south. It has 4 bright starsand 8-17 main stars
  • 17. End ShowScorpius:It lies between Libra to thewest and Sagittarius to theeast. It is a large constellationlocated in the southernhemisphere near the center ofthe Milky Way. It has 15 mainstars and 13 bright stars.Leo:Leo lies between dim Cancer tothe west and Virgo to the east.This constellation containsmany bright stars , it has 3. Ithas 9, 15 main stars.
  • 18. End Show•Types of Stars•HR Diagram•The Sun•Pictures
  • 19. End Show•Black Dwarf- the remains of a dead white dwarf star after its heat isradiated into space.•Main-Sequence Star- It is an ordinary star, one of about 90% of the starsthat can be seen from Earth. It is much smaller than a giant star. It burnshydrogen into helium through nuclear fusion within itself. An example isour Sun.•Red Giant- It is a large, bright star, many times larger than the Sun, butwith a cool surface. It is believed to be in the end stage of its life cycle.•Supergiant- It is the largest and most luminous type of star, being a dyingstar. It has used up its hydrogen fuel and has begun to expand and cool.•White Dwarf- It is a very dense, small, hot star in the last stage of its life. Itoccurs when a red giant sheds its outer layers as a planetary nebula. Theelectrons and protons have been packed as closely as possible by gravity.
  • 20. End ShowThe Hertzsprung-RussellDiagram (HR Diagram)shows stellar evolution.This diagram shows thedifferent stages stars gothrough. Stars arecategorized by theircolor, luminosity,absolute magnitude, andspectral class.
  • 21. End Show Solar internal structure The Sun is composed of manyThis Sun is a main sequence layers. The first is the core, this isstar at the very center of ouruniverse. The Sun is made up the suns main source for energy.of hydrogen (74%), helium The core has the hottest(25%), and very few other temperature, about 15 millionelements. The Sun is about degrees Kelvin. The next layer is4.57 billion years old, and is said the Radiation Zone. Hereto be about half way through energy/heat is transferred to andits main sequence evolution. from the core. Convection Zone isThe Sun will spend about 10billion years as a main the next layer, here energy issequence star. After the Sun is transferred outward. Next is thethrough being a main sequence Photosphere, this is the visiblestar it will become a red giant. surface of the Sun. Above this laterThe sun is not a solid, gas, or the light is free to escape intoliquid. It is substance called space. The Chromosphere isPlasma. The temperature ofthe sun is close to 13,600,000 second to last. This is a thin layerKelvin. above the visible surface. Last is the Corona. This is larger in volume that the Sun itself.
  • 22. End ShowBlack Main Sequence RedDwarf Stars Giant WhiteLight Emerging Dwarffrom a Supergiant
  • 23. End ShowMy name is Brianne Diephuis. I am currently sophomore a student at Grand Valley StateUniversity working toward a major in Psychology and Special Education with a minor inElementary Education. I love the summer and being able to do any thing outside. In my freetime I enjoy reading, being with my family and friends, and dancing. I love working with littlekids and I can not wait to be a teacher some day. Send Me an Email
  • 24. End Showhttp://www.nineplanets.org/Stars:http://www.innvista.com/science/astronomy/types.htmhttp://www.spacestationinfo.com/layers-sun.htm