Introduction to management   groups g - i - evolution of management - sep 3, 2008
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    Introduction to management   groups g - i - evolution of management - sep 3, 2008 Introduction to management groups g - i - evolution of management - sep 3, 2008 Presentation Transcript

    • MAN1006: Introduction to Management (Groups~BBA1G-I) Lecture 2 – The Evolution of Management Lecturer: Oswy Gayle Wednesday September 3, 2008 University of Technology, Jamaica School of Business Administration
    • Recap From Last Week [email_address] soba2010
    • The Changing Dynamics of Organizations
      • Pace continues to accelerate
      • Change is major source of business risk
      • Driving Forces
        • Telecommunications
        • Diversity of Workers
        • Public consciousness
        • Global marketplace
        • Community of stakeholders
    • The Changing Dynamics of Management
      • Google launched its own Web browser
      • 78% of Internet Users use Microsoft
      • Competition for Microsoft
      • Korean Government Bank to take over a US Bank (Testing the waters)
    • What is management?
      • The effective and efficient attainment of organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources.
      • The “process” through which the goals of the organization are achieved
    • So what are we saying? Successful organizations don’t just happen... … .they are managed to be that way!
      • Pace continues to accelerate
      • Change is major source of business risk
      • Four Functions of Management
      • Ten (10) Management Roles
      • Three (3) Skills - Human , Conceptual and Technical
      • Levels of Management – Line, middle and top management
    • Lecture 2 – The Evolution of Management - Wednesday September 3, 2008
      • Understand how historical forces influence the practice of management
      • Major developments in the history of management thought
      • Components of the classical and humanistic perspectives
      • Look at the management science perspective
      • A look at the systems theory, the contingency view and total quality management
      • The learning organization and the technology driven workplace
      L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
      • So, how did historical forces influenced the practice of management ?
    • Historical Perspective
      • Provides a context of environment (opportunities and Problems)
      • Develops an understanding of societal impact
      • Achieves strategic thinking
      • Improves conceptual skills
    • What influences management thought?
      • 1. Social – aspects of culture that guides our behaviour (Generation X and Y)
      • 2. Political –influence of politics and legal institutions
      • Economic – availability, production and distribution of resources (now about ideas, information and knowledge)
    • Management Perspectives Over Time – The Story 2010 1870 1930 Humanistic Perspective 1990 1890 Classical 1940 1950 2000 Systems Theory 2000 2010 The Technology-Driven Workplace 1990 2010 The Learning Organization 1970 Contingency Views 2000 1980 Total Quality Management 2000 1940 Management Science Perspective 1990
    • The Story before the Story
      • Garden of Eden
      • 3000 B.C.E – Sumerians and Egyptians - The first government organizations
    • Theories and Perspectives that contributed to the Field of Management
      • A. Classical Perspective
      • B. Humanistic Perspective
      • C. Management Science Perspective
    • The Development of Management Thought
      • Classical Theory – formal study of management began here
      • 1800s
      • Industrial revolution (Europe)– The railways led to economic change
      • Factory System (From Craftsmen to Machines)
      • Problems in the factory - tooling, training, structures,
      • Managers forced to find solutions
      • View Organization as a machine – efficiency –bureaucracy,
    • Why England/Europe?
      • First, up to 1800 most of the world was relatively even in terms of per capita income
      • 1820 – The biggest gap of economic growth
        • British society was relatively open
        • Political liberty
        • Became the leading centre for scientific revolution
        • Geographical advantage to the rest of Europe
    • Classical Theory - Three sub-fields
      • 1. Scientific Management - Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915)
      • - emphasized scientific changes in management to improve labor productivity (efficiency and effectiveness).
      • Develops standards for a job, selects workers with appropriate abilities, trains workers, supports workers and eliminates interruptions, and provides wage incentives. (more tons per day)
      • Because scientific management ignored the social context and workers’ needs, it led to increased conflict and clashes between management and employees.
    • 1. Scientific Management
      • Contributions
      • Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance.
      • Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs.
      • Demonstrated the importance of personnel and their training .
      • Criticisms
      • Did not appreciate social context of work and higher needs of workers.
      • Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.
      • Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas
    • 2. Bureaucratic Organizations
      • A systematic approach developed in Europe that looked at the organization as a whole
      • Max Weber (1864-1920) - introduced management on an impersonal, rational basis through defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and separation of management and ownership.
      • Weber’s organization was the bureaucracy: division of labor, hierarchy, rules and procedures, written decisions and promotion based on technical qualifications
    • 3. Administrative principles
      • Contributors - Henri Fayol, Mary Parker, and Chester I. Barnard
      • Henri Fayol (1841-1925) - Focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker, define the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding (Leading), coordinating, and controlling.
      • Mary Parker - Importance of common super-ordinate goals for reducing conflict in organizations and leadership
      • Chester I. Barnard - Informal Organization; employees were not machines and that informal relationships are powerful forces that can help the organization.
    • Management Perspectives Over Time – The Story 2010 1870 1930 Humanistic Perspective 1990 1890 Classical 1940 1950 2000 Systems Theory 2000 2010 The Technology-Driven Workplace 1990 2010 The Learning Organization 1970 Contingency Views 2000 1980 Total Quality Management 2000 1940 Management Science Perspective 1990
    • The Development of Management – B . Humanistic Theory
      • Emphasized understanding human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the workplace
      • 1. Human Relations Movement - Emphasized satisfaction of employees’ basic needs as the key to increased worker productivity
      • 2. Human Resources Perspective - Suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher-level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential (Abraham Maslow & Douglas McGregory)
      • 3. Behavioral Sciences Approach - Applies social science in an organizational context; Draws from economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and other disciplines;
    • Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Self-actualization Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Based on needs satisfaction 1908-1970 Chapter 16 – Maslow in more detail
      • Dislike work –will avoid it
      • Must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment
      • Prefer direction, avoid responsibility, little ambition, want security
      • Do not dislike work
      • Self direction and self control
      • Seek responsibility
      • Imagination, creativity widely distributed
      • Intellectual potential only partially utilized
      Douglas McGregor Theory X & Y Theory X Assumptions Theory Y Assumptions 1906-1964
    • Management Perspectives Over Time – The Story 2010 1870 1930 Humanistic Perspective 1990 1890 Classical 1940 1950 2000 Systems Theory 2000 2010 The Technology-Driven Workplace 1990 2010 The Learning Organization 1970 Contingency Views 2000 1980 Total Quality Management 2000 1940 Management Science Perspective 1990
    • 3. Management Science Perspective
      • Emerged after WW II
      • Applied mathematics, statistics, and other quantitative techniques to managerial problems
        • Operations Research – mathematical modeling
        • Operations Management – specializes in physical production of goods or services
        • Information Technology – reflected in management information systems
    • Recent Historical Trends
      • Systems Theory
      • Contingency View
      • Total Quality Management (TQM)
    • Systems View of Organizations Exhibit 2.5, p. 58
    • Contingency View of Management Exhibit 2.6, p. 59 Successful resolution of organizational problems is thought to depend on managers’ identification of key variations in the situation at hand
    • Elements of a Learning Organization Learning Organization Open Information Empowered Employees Team-Based Structure Exhibit 2.7, p. 61
    • Types of E-Commerce Business-to-Consumer B2C Selling Products and Services Online Business-to-Business B2B Transactions Between Organizations Consumer-to-Consumer C2C Electronic Markets Created by Web-Based Intermediaries Exhibit 2.8, p. 63