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Education in singapore

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  • 1. Education in Singapore1965s to 1975s Meeting the needs of a young nation To build a harmonious and collective society o Lack of Education  More schools were built, from 222 in 1963 to 267 in 1967  More teachers were trained o Building National Loyalty  In 1965, parents were more comfortable with sending their children to school that taught in their own mother tongue. In building national loyalty and social cohesion, the people had to be able to see themselves as fellow countrymen and as one united nation. Hence, the on-going practice was obviously contradictory to this objective.  As a result, common practices were carried out to inculcate loyalty and national pride, such as participating in daily flag-raising and pledge taking ceremony together and activities involving different language streams to bring pupils together. o Fostering Social Cohesion  Introducing intergraded school(1960) Two classed might be having the same subject, but each in a different language → pupils and teachers of two or more language streams would be in the same school → encourage interaction an promote racial harmony  Bilingualism made compulsory for Secondary 1 pupils(1966) English Language functioned a s link language among the different races → improved communication among races → break down racial barriers and build a more harmonious society  Government emphasized of UG Provided pupils with opportunities for interaction and healthy competition and also instilled loyalty to the country and developed ruggedness in pupils → helped to bring pupils of different races together o Preparing for Economic for Economic Development  Serious unemployment Entrepot trade was declining Singapore could not provide enough jobs for the many school leavers each year Government saw the need to move away from entrepot trade to manufacturing  Preparing pupils for workforce Young had to be equipped with relevant skills Technical education introduced in 1969
  • 2. o Boys and 50% of girls in sec 1 & 2 had to take technical subjects such as wood work and metalwork Technical schools and vocational institutes set up to provide training in areas such as electricity, electronics and metalwork o Singapore Poly and Ngee Ann Technical College expanded o New courses such as Electrical and Electronic Engineering introduced o Meet needs of changing economy More parents send pupils to English-medium Schools 1970s o Importance of English language o Key to better jobs o Allowed access to western knowledgeImproving the quality of educationHigh education wastage o High % of dropouts and most unemployable o Literacy level lowTo create a “good and useful citizen through developing of individual pupil” o Streaming  Initial effectiveness of the bilingual policy  Limited focus on learner’s needs Based on English, Mother Tongue and Math  Streaming in Primary School Normal Bilingual/Extended Bilingual/Monolingual PSLE o Proceed to secondary schools PSPE o Vocational institutes to acquire technical skills  Streaming in Secondary School Normal Technical o Gives less academically-inclined pupils an opportunity to learn at a slower pace and still achieve as much as they can o Technicallu0oriented curriculum o Sits for ‘N’ level after 4 years o Sit for GCE ‘O’ level after 5 year if can Normal Academic ITE o Teaching Moral Values  To inculcate social responsibility and loyalty to country  Moral Education Programme/Religious Knowledge Help reinforce values taught in moral education Non-compulsory elective subject from 1990 onwards Replaced by Civics and Moral Education (Singapore Shared Values) in 1992 Develop Singaporean identity through various cultures and attitudes
  • 3. o Encouraging Creativity  Global Recession (1985) and the need to diversify economy through innovation and creativity  Need to have creativity and innovation to adapt and initiate changes  Educational schools given more autonomy Allowed to work out own priorities and implement programmes to cater to specific needs Principals given flexibility to propose changes for good of schools Single-session schools were converted from double-session schools o Provide more time for new programme and enrichment activities Teachers encouraged to bring out best in themselves and pupils  Independent schools Flexibility to set their own school fees and admit students according to criteria determined by schools themselves Recruit own teachers Offer variety of subjects and personal development courses to pupils By 1992, 8 Independent schools  In 1992, government announced setting up of Autonomous schools Government aided schools o Given additional funds o More freedom to introduce own programmes, like Independent Schools o Pay less fees than Independent SchoolsCurrent 21st century Promoting critical and creative thinking o Saw need to stretch pupil’s ability  Encouraged to think creatively and critically  Acquire information, analyse problems and find solutions independently  Project work Learn skills of team working to achieve common goals Using Information Technology o Knowledge of Information Technology (IT) vital in workplace o Use of IT in learning and teaching has become commonplace in school o Enable students and teachers to make class presentations more interesting and varied Introducing National Education o Social cohesion remain one of the main objectives of education o Ranging from discussion during lessons to events  Racial Harmony  Total Defence
  • 4. o Help pupils understand how Singapore survived difficult times and become a string and progressive nation o Feel more emotionally attached to Singapore o CIP (Community Involvement Programme)  Need to nurture pupils into good citizens  Conscious of responsibility to family, society and countryDeveloping Talents o Each child has different abilities o Elective Programmes to nurture and maximise his talents  Art, Music, Theatre Studies and Drama o Encourage development of various talents and interest in pupils o Sporting and other talents developed through CCACompulsory Education o From 2003, primary education is compulsory o Emphasis on life-long learning o Have at least common core knowledge and skills for further education and training o Prepare for employment o Achieve national Identity and greater social cohesion