Chapter 8 water resources


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Chapter 8 water resources

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Water ResourcesReasons for water constraint Limited supply of fresh water o Uneven distribution of fresh water  While some countries have an abundant supply of fresh water, others suffer from a lack of it o Water pollution  Fresh water is increasingly being polluted by human activities.  Waste from factories and households are carelessly dumped into rivers which then pollutes the waters. Rising demand for water o Population growth  Over the past 80 years, the world’s population has tripled while the demand for water has increased more than six times. o Growth of agriculture  Increasing need to grow more food for the growing population. o Growth of industries  Waters plays and important role in daily operation of these industries. o Change in lifestyle  When a country becomes more developed, people adapt to modern lifestyle and can afford to buy items with more convenience and greater comfort P.L.I.FIncreasing the price of water People who do not want to pay more will be encouraged to use less water. However, only those who can afford to pay the higher prices will be able to use the amount of water they want o Poor will suffer and only the rich can affordIncreasing the supply of water Increasing Catchment areas o Increase in the amount of water collected o Help to keep the cost of water treatment down o When more land in a country is set aside to build water catchment areas, more forests are conserved in the forests  Wider range of recreational areas o However, less land available for other purposes. o E.g. In Singapore, the number of reservoirs increased from 3 in 1975 to 17 currently
  2. 2. International Agreements o Countries discuss and negotiate terms on the buying and sharing of water resources o Dependence on another country may not be the best solution o Countries cannot be certain that they will always have enough water to meet the needs o E.g. In Singapore, we have been buying water from Malaysia since the 1920s  Two agreements, on ended just only in this year while the other ending in 2061. Use of Technology o Used water can be recycled and converted into safe drinking water o E.g. In Singapore, NEWater has been introduced to increase the supply of fresh water Desalination o Process of removing salt from sea water o Using both osmosis and reverse osmosis o However, it requires a lot of energy to heat up the water o E.g. In Singapore, the desalination plant in Tuas supplies up to 10% of the nation’s demand for waterConserving Water Careful usage of water resources to ensure that wastage is kept to the minimum o Policies/Tax  Discourages people from using excess amount of water  Domestic Consumption in Singapore 1 – 40m3 – 30% >40m3 - 45% o Campaigns  “Save Water” campaigns carried out since 1970s to teach Singaporeans to view water as a scare resources, and to use it wisely Leaflets, water conservation talks ins schools and water rationing exercises have been carried out Spread awareness of the importance of conserving water  “10-Litre challenge” Introduction of the mascot Water Wally Includes brochures to educate the public on how to save 10 litre of water daily