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01 20100305 beijing solid waste

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  • 1. C40 Cities Waste Workshop, London, 22-24 March 2010 Municipal Solid Waste Management in Beijing in Perspective of World City WANG Hongzhong Vice-Chairman, Beijing Municipal Commission of City Administration and Environment As a mega city, Beijing set the new target to be a world city recently. A green,low-carbon solid waste management system is very important to build a world city.Beijing put great importance on waste treatment, adheres to the principles of wastequantity Reduce, recycling/reuse and decontamination, takes the low-carbon wastetreatment technology, hopes to communicate experience with C40 city and learnadvanced experience from other cities. Now I give a report on strategic objectives forwaste management in Beijing briefly. I Basic situations and main problems for municipal solid wastemanagement in Beijing City Beijing covers an area of 16,411 square kilometers, 1,368 square kilometers ofwhich are urban area (built area 1,254.2 square kilometers). In 2009, residentpopulation in Beijing City is 17.55 million, and the Waste generation in Beijing City is6.69 million tons (18.3 thousand tons/day). At present, there are 25 stations formunicipal solid waste management facilities, with totally daily designed treatmentcapacity of 12.7 thousand tons (ratios of sanitary landfill, biochemical treatment andincineration 80:10:10), with actual treatment quantity 17.5 thousand tons/day andmunicipal solid waste treatment rate is 96%. Besides, recycled materials in BeijingCity in 2009 are about 4 million tons, and recycling rate of waste reaches 37%. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City is similar to the developmentin many cities home and abroad. With industrialization and urbanization, afterundergoing uncontrolled dumping and decontamination treatment, it is at the stage 1
  • 2. from decontamination treatment to comprehensive treatment and recycling/reuse.The problems are given below: (1) Continuously increased generation of waste: with increased population andimproved living standard in Beijing City, waste generation is increased at a rate ofabout 8% each year. If increased at such a rate, it is forecast that the wastegeneration in the city in 2012 will reach 9.14 million tons (25 thousand tons/day) andin 2015 will reach 11.52 million tons (about 30 thousand tons/day). (2) Insufficient waste treatment capacity: at present, daily waste generation inBeijing City is 18.3 thousand tons, totally daily designed treatment capacity is 12.7thousand tons and actual treated waste is 17.5 thousand tons. The facilities operateunder overloaded conditions, with average overloading rate 30%, so service life ofthe waste landfill site is shorted, with residual service life about 4 years and pollutioncontrol is very difficult. In addition, for historically shaped more than 1000 informallandfill fields, there are underground water, atmosphere pollution and hidden safetytroubles, which need further treatment. (3) Unreasonable waste treatment structure: biodegradable organiccomposition in the urban waste reaches more than 60%, waste of paper and otherhigh caloric value about 30%; organic composition in the rural waste is around 35%,ash over 40%; however, the waste treatment in Beijing City is landfill as a dominantmeans over 90%, and a land area of about 30ha is occupied each year. It is hard forsingle waste treatment technology to realize categorized waste treatment, which hasinfluences on effects of waste separate collection and city residents’ activity in wasteseparate collection. Due to lagged incineration and comprehensive treatmentfacilities construction, caloric value and organic resources in waste are not fullyutilized. Landfill of blended waste increases the difficulty of pollution control. II Working objectives of the next stage To solve outstanding problems for municipal solid waste managementsystematically and roundly, Beijing City carries on and expands achievementsobtained for the Olympic Games, follows the principles of reduction, recycling/reuseand decontamination and determines “3 objectives” for municipal solid wastemanagement: 1. Increasing treatment capacity: daily municipal solid waste treatment capacity 2
  • 3. in 2012 will reach 17 thousand tons, almost realizing restaurant and kitchen wasteseparate collection and recycling treatment; daily municipal solid waste managementcapacity in 2015 will reach near 30 thousand tons, which meet the municipal solidwaste management capacity in the city. Select the site in advance, perform the wastetreatment facilities construction project and meet the sustainable developmentdemands in the future. 2. Adjusting treatment structure: actively carry on waste incineration, which isplanned and constructed in accordance with the waste composition, generationquantity and facilities construction and planning. Waste incineration, biochemicaltreatment and landfill ratio in 2012 will be 2:3:5, which realizes zero landfill of crudewaste in urban area; the ratio will be 4:3:3 in 2015, which meets the demand forcategorized waste and realizes zero landfill of crude waste in the city. 3. Promoting waste reduction: establishing waste separate collection andtransportation system associated with the household waste incineration andcomprehensive treatment technology and control increasing of waste generation witheconomic, legal, administrative and technical means. Annual increasing rate ofhousehold waste generation will be reduced by 1% to 2% and reduced to 5% in 2015,and conformity rate of waste separate collection reaches about 50%; annualincreasing rate of household waste generation will be 0, and conformity rate of wasteseparate collection reaches about 65%. III Measures for realizing strategic objectives for waste treatment in Beijing 1. Establish household waste separate system Kitchen waste and restaurant waste in urban waste in Beijing City is over 60%,waste of paper and other high caloric waste about 30%, ash and etc. about 10%;kitchen waste and restaurant waste in rural waste is more than 40%, waste of paperand other high caloric waste around 20% and ash and etc. about 40%. Therefore,urban household waste is classified into recyclable waste, kitchen/restaurant wasteand other waste; rural household waste is classified into recyclable waste,Kitchen/restaurant waste, ash and other waste. There are 474 communities launching waste separate collection in the city in2009, covering a population of 1.13 million. There are 400 (30%) government officesand schools realizing conformed waste categorization and 600 residing quarters 3
  • 4. issuing waste categorization collection containers and waste bags free of charge.Waste separate collection was developed in around 92 towns in Beijing in 2009 andwill be increased to 183 towns in the city in 2010. RFID labels are attached to waste collection containers in Chaoyang District andare marked with waste category, container owner, waste trace and other information,and the waste management pilot supported by internet of things technology has beenshaped. In combination with situations in Fangshan District, the “government leading- professional management - society mobilization - resident participation” mode hasbeen established, and the waste categorization supervisor team is established toserve residents participating in waste separate collection and realize links amongwaste separate collection, transportation and treatment. 2. Reinforce waste recycling and reuse system There are 350 recyclable waste collecting stations and 13 recyclable wastesorting centers in the 8 urban districts in 2009. There will be 300 recyclable wastecollecting stations and 3 recyclable waste sorting centers to be constructed in 2010.One recyclable waste collecting station will be established for each 1000-1500households in 2012. Online reservation for recyclable waste collection will bedeveloped, with telephone and recyclables publicized. The last Saturday in eachmonth is fixed as the recycling date in the city to develop related activities. Relatedmunicipal authorities have organized professional recycling teams to mobilize theroot layers’ activity and develop dedicated recycling for regenerated resources sinceAugust, 2009. 3. Develop “zero waste” trial “Zero Waste” Trial Management for Household Waste in Beijing City andManagement Standard for “Zero Waste” Trial Unit for Household Waste in Beijing Citywere formulated in 2009, and “zero waste” management trial for household wastehas been developed in government offices, schools, parks, shopping malls, 5-starhotels, holiday villages, fruit and vegetable wholesales market, residing quarters and100 units in total, including using regenerated paper and no purchasing excessivelywrapped commodity; maximizing recycling paper, plastic and metal; local treatment ofKitchen/restaurant waste. There are 2 green waste treatment stations have beenestablished at Caoqiao and Xinfadi in Fengtai District, with treatment capacity 300 4
  • 5. tons/day for local green waste. Beijing Xiaotangshan Special Vegetable Base andBeijing Yulong Fine Produce Plantation Company are fixed as the trial units for trimvegetable launched into market. Experts are organized to train enterprises and guidethe trial units to develop standard production of trim vegetable, and cooperationrelation has been establish with large supermarkets, organs and groups and etc. todevelop trim vegetable launched into market. 4. Restore contaminated dumping site and reduce greenhouse gas The 1st waste treatment facilities Asuwei Waste Sanitary Landfill was built in1994. Before this, waste in the city was dumped under natural pit or left by takingsand or making bricks, without any pollution controlled measure and waste dump sitewas shaped. Through survey and research, there are 1011 waste dump site, coveringan area about 1300 hectares, storing about 80 million cubic meters waste, occupyinga large number of land resources, lacking pollution control measures, pollutingunderground water, aboveground water and atmosphere, with fire and other safetytroubles. To obtain restore experience, there are 27 sites which have been restoredsince 2006. Environment Risk Evaluation of waste dumping site has been finished in2009, and waste dump site restore plan is under research. In accordance with theprinciple of restoring waste dump site located at water source protection site, NorthCanal and other key areas at high priority, waste dump site will be resorted within 5-7years. 5. Accelerate waste treatment facilities construction Under the circumstances that the land for sanitary landfill in Beijing becomesdifficult. The fundamental for treating different waste with different technology, iswaste separate collection; namely, waste is categorized in accordance with the wastetreatment demands. Firstly, recyclable waste (refer to sellable waste) is picked up toreduce generation; secondly, Kitchen/restaurant waste are main sources of odor, andis collected separated. Well separated collected Kitchen/restaurant waste can beused for producing compost in most cases; lastly, the left waste is classified into otherwaste. Each kind of waste after categorization can be reasonably treated andsecondary pollution can be well controlled. In accordance with waste separated collection forwarding plan in Beijing City,65% of the population in urban area in Beijing City will practice waste separated 5
  • 6. collection in 2015. So treatment of blended waste is considered. Comprehensivetreatment technology of waste separated collection or mechanical screening(pretreatment) + incineration+ composting+ residual landfill is applied. Throughscreening pretreatment, waste of high caloric and high organic content are separatedfor incineration and biochemical treatment, residues are landfilled, heat and organicof waste are utilized in maximum, and landfilled waste quantity and greenhouse gasemission, penetration leachate and etc. during landfill are reduced. Different waste is treated through waste separate collection and mechanicalscreening, which overcomes shortage of blended waste, e.g. low quality ofbiochemically treatment and low calorific value of incineration. Reasonable layout of waste treatment facilities is realized based on combinationof long-term planning and short-term construction and combination of trans-regionalcentralized treatment and disperse treatment in districts. Meanwhile, according togeneration quantity and composition features of household waste in Beijing City,technical route for waste treatment is fixed. Before 2015, there are more than 40waste treatment facilities to be constructed and reconstructed, with direct investment10 billion Yuan. Asuwei Waste Integrated Treatment Plant, Dongcun waste IntegratedTreatment Plant and Chaoyang Gaoandun Kitchen/restaurant waste Treatment Plantwere built in 2009. Spectrum sorting line with daily treating capacity of 150 tonsestablish at Xiaowuji Transfer Station and mechanical sorting line with daily treatmentcapacity of 100 tons established at Dadun were built in 2009. Based on sustainable development demands in the next 50 years, the municipalgovernment reserves land to set up 4 recycling economy eco-parks integrating wasteincineration and bio-treatment, environmental protection industry development,popularization of science and modern agriculture, which combines promoting localemployment and improving ecological environment and benefit surrounding residents.Site selection and a treatment facility will be finished and put into use in stages. Strictplanning control is applied to the future facilities and present facilities, and measuresare used to improve public environment around facilities. 6. Establish operation management supervision platform and reinforce wastetreatment facilities operation regulation GPS, electronic identification and other technical means are used to establish 6
  • 7. intelligent waste collection, transportation and logistics supervision system, carry outreal-time statistics of waste generation, transportation and treatment quantity andonline monitor and supervise the waste treatment facilities. At present, wastetreatment facilities online supervision and measurement system has beenestablished partly, will be realized in 2011. Strict flue gas purifying technology should be used for newly built wasteincineration plant in Beijing. For instance, double dioxin remove equipment will beused in incineration plant in order to meet the dioxin emission requirement of criterionin Beijing. At the same time, pollution control measures and pollution supervision dataare released to accept the public’s supervision. 7. Economic means promoting waste minimization and recycling Total generation quantity of waste is controlled. According to control objective ofincreasing rate of household waste, total annual generation quantity in districts andcounties are determined. Counties and districts with excessive generation quantitywill be punished. Based on the principles of encouraging districts and counties to screen andseparate collecting waste and encouraging incinerating and comprehensively treatinghousehold waste, Separated collected kitchen/restaurant waste entry into wastefacilities will enjoy preferential prices. Establish the economic compensation mechanism for waste treated in anotherdistrict; namely, the area generating waste pays economic compensation for wastetreatment to the area for waste treatment in another place based on the quantitytreated. The economic compensation is mainly used for compensating and solvingthe influences on surrounding environment by the waste treatment facilities andinsufficient environmental and waste treatment facilities. Gradually perfect the waste charging system. Based on the principles of “the onewho generates waste pays and the one who categorizes is benefited”, “chargingagainst quantity and category” will be realized. 8. Enhance publicity and training for a sustainable and expanded socialparticipation Firstly, media are utilized to establish a platform for interaction between thegovernment and the public to publicize models and mobilize the mass to join. At 7
  • 8. present, public interest promotion film on waste separated collection has beenreleased via Beijing TV Station, urban TV, public transportation and metro TV andother media for consecutive 3 months, public interest advertisement on wasteseparate collection has been released in carriages of 500 public transportationvehicles and lamp box advertisement on waste separate collection has beenreleased on platforms of Metro Lines 1, 5 and 10. Secondly, mobilize governmental authorities, environmental groups and othersocial resources to develop all-around education activity. Waste categorizationknowledge is populated in middle schools and primary schools. World Earth Day,World Environment Day and etc. are used to hold large publicity activities to developwaste separate collection promotion activity, waste separate collection communityactivity and conformed schools for waste separate collection. The 13th Session ofPupils “I Love Earth Mother” Speech Contest titled “Participating in Waste separatecollection and Constructing Green Beijing” will be held. Launch the activity called “Iam the first one for emission reduction”-campus activity for waste separate collection.Flag granting ceremony will be held for “EP Volunteer Team” will be held inBanbuqiao primary schools etc. “EP Volunteer Team” will be established. Organizeand develop “Hand-in-Hand” waste treatment facilities visiting. Thirdly, deeply develop community publicity for waste separate collection. Wastetreatment facilities with the publicity education base are opened to students andsocial units. Environmental protection bags, Environmental Protection SavingBrochure, Hand-in-Hand Waste Separate Collection Brochure and related materialsare released to several districts; prompt recyclable materials public interests donation,waste and used articles exchange, waste separate collection knowledge Q& Aactivities. 8