Problem Solving through Design
    Thinking rooted in System
            Thinking
    451FN3 Cooler ESP Fan Bearings tempe...
The Story of the Cooler ESP Fan
                                    Fan Outlet
                          Chimney   Duct fo...
Problem: High temperature of Fan Bearings that would lead
to stoppage of the entire plant

                    Observation...
Problem: High temperature of Fan Bearings

                   Observations
i)   Unbalance of Fan. No!! (no increase in vel...
Why-Why?????

       Temperature of bearing does not comes down
       appreciably by water & Fan cooling. Why?????
Ans:  ...
Why-Why?????


     Temperature rising frequently in day & goes
     down in night. Why?????

Note: 66.67 % of heat (energ...
Why-Why?????

Grease melting, Zn based additive (reacts with metal surface
 ) used over EP2.

 Effects: Zn based grease re...
Effect of Gas temperature on gas density &
   load. HOW??


Ans. Fan Designed parameters:
1)  Capacity 625200 m3/ hr & Sta...
What the extra energy is doing?


1)   Increase in the angular momentum.
2)   Increase in the Kinetic Energy by more than
...
Ball spin frequency in spectrum indicating the
                               slipping of rolling elements
               ...
Why-Why?????
                                Virtual absence of fundamental Peak & 2 N is dominant in spectrum – due to po...
KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN
                                                       451FN3 -F1H FAN DE HORIZONTAL

              ...
No Unbalance of Fan.
                                              KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN
                                 ...
Motor side vibration appears to be low, but higher
                                    energy in higher frequency zone
   ...
Dumped vibration frequencies in
                                                      spectrum
                           ...
DATE :8/9/10 TO 10/9/10 TIME:11AM TO 7PM
Process parameters & measurements
DATE : 10/9/10 TO 11/9/10 TO 10/9/10 TIME :10PM TO 12 PM
            Process parameters & measurements
Current fluctuation(100 Amp.) & speed
      fluctuation (30 RPM) – Self organizing
         DATE             8/9/10 TO 10/...
What is to be done now?
Monitor fan bearings
Monitor Motor bearings
Don’t cool the gas: higher the temp
better it is! Prom...
Is 405 TPH possible from designed level of
200 TPH?
Yes - It is possible…(without investments)!!!
 We recognize and unders...
Thanks & Acknowledgement
I gratefully thank and acknowledge the active
collaborative participation of Mr. Avinash, Mr.
Lad...
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Creating, Operating & Maintaining Systems -- The Nature\'s Way

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Shows how Nature creates, operates and maintain systems when they are pushed away from the equilibrium conditions.

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Creating, Operating & Maintaining Systems -- The Nature\'s Way

  1. 1. Problem Solving through Design Thinking rooted in System Thinking 451FN3 Cooler ESP Fan Bearings temperature high “Systems” try hard to come back to its equilibrium position by dissipating energy when pushed away from its equilibrium position.
  2. 2. The Story of the Cooler ESP Fan Fan Outlet Chimney Duct for slag mill Fan Inlet Fan NDE Duct Fan Outlet Bearing Duct
  3. 3. Problem: High temperature of Fan Bearings that would lead to stoppage of the entire plant Observations a) High temperature of both DE & NDE Bearing (Max 104 C). b) Temperature of bearing does not comes down appreciably by water spray & Fan cooling. Why????? c) Temperature rising frequently in day & goes down in night. Why????? d) Grease melting, Zn based additive used in grease. e) Displacement value of bearing high up to 100 microns. f) Virtual absence of fundamental Peak. Why?? g) 2 N is dominant in spectrum. Why??????? h) Acceleration value of Fan NDE Bearing increased around 400%.
  4. 4. Problem: High temperature of Fan Bearings Observations i) Unbalance of Fan. No!! (no increase in velocity component of 1N in the signature) j) Motor side vibration appears to be low, but higher energy in higher frequency zone. k) Dumped vibration frequencies in spectrum due to turbulence in air flow causing positive damping. l) Current fluctuation(100 Amp.) & speed fluctuation (30 RPM). m) Designed temperature of Fan gas operation 280 C & Present gas operating temperature 250 C – 260 C (gas being cooled by water spray).
  5. 5. Why-Why????? Temperature of bearing does not comes down appreciably by water & Fan cooling. Why????? Ans: Presently bearing temperature is 104 C to 95 C (self destruction property) while normal operating temperature is around 50 C. Rise in temperature is 45 C to 54 C Water & Fan cooling only decrease temperature up to 80 C. So the dissipation of heat by conduction & convection = 15/45*100 = 33.33% Hence, dissipation of heat in form of radiation = 67.67%. Clue: The system is unstable (away from equilibrium) since the system has moved from conduction convection currents breakdown of boundary layers radiation. It is trying to come to equilibrium.
  6. 6. Why-Why????? Temperature rising frequently in day & goes down in night. Why????? Note: 66.67 % of heat (energy) is dissipated in form of radiation, which follows “ Stefan Boltzman’s Law ” Stefan Boltzman’s Law Q=εσA(T4 – TC4 ) where Q=heat dissipated T=Temperature of the bearing Tc=Ambient temperature. ε, σ are constant. Clue: A system tries to come back to equilibrium by dissipating energy. So, what happens if we increase the air turbulence during day to dissipate more energy? The system must become stable!
  7. 7. Why-Why????? Grease melting, Zn based additive (reacts with metal surface ) used over EP2. Effects: Zn based grease reacts (at higher temperature) with surface & reduces coefficient of friction of surface that’s why ball spin frequency appeared in the above spectrum & also the fundamental peak has very low amplitude in spectrum (slip – stick phenomenon of bearing and positive damping due to air turbulence on the system tries to resist the motion).
  8. 8. Effect of Gas temperature on gas density & load. HOW?? Ans. Fan Designed parameters: 1) Capacity 625200 m3/ hr & Static pressure 150mm WC 2) Designed temperature of Fan gas operation280.C & density 0.6 Kg/m3. After calculation at Present gas temperature 250 C – 260 c the calculated gas density is 0.67 Kg/m3, which ultimately increases the mass of gas.
  9. 9. What the extra energy is doing? 1) Increase in the angular momentum. 2) Increase in the Kinetic Energy by more than 1000 times (KE = ½ Iω2) – a non linear relationship. RPM - relationship is therefore important. 3) ∆ KE=0.5xI(4002 - 3502) = 18750I ( 30% extra load on Fan) 1) The extra energy is also damped/dissipated through flow turbulence, if allowed. And that is a key to the solution of the problem
  10. 10. Ball spin frequency in spectrum indicating the slipping of rolling elements KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -F1A FAN DE AXIAL 1.2 Analyze Spectrum D D D D D D D D D D D D 10-Sep-10 09:03:48 PK = 1.23 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 400. (6.66 Hz) 0.9 >SKF 23138 CCK/W3 D=BSF -IO P K Ve l ocity in m m /S e c 0.6 0.3 0 Freq: 399.82 0 6000 12000 18000 24000 Ordr: 1.000 Frequency in CPM Spec: .151
  11. 11. Why-Why????? Virtual absence of fundamental Peak & 2 N is dominant in spectrum – due to positive damping KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -F1H FAN DE HORIZONTAL 6 Analyze Spectrum 10-Sep-10 09:01:39 PK = 4.50 5 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 400. (6.67 Hz) Ball spin frequency 4 P K Ve locity in mm/S e c 3 2 1 0 Freq: 399.93 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Ordr: 1.000 Frequency in CPM Spec: .217
  12. 12. KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -F1H FAN DE HORIZONTAL 3.5 Max Amp 3.96 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 P K Ve l ocity in m m /S e c 0 19-Aug-10 16:05:11 28-Aug-10 10:55:29 04-Sep-10 15:12:29 10-Sep-10 09:00:25 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Frequency in CPM
  13. 13. No Unbalance of Fan. KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -F1H FAN DE HORIZONTAL 6 Analyze Spectrum 10-Sep-10 09:01:39 PK = 4.50 5 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 400. (6.67 Hz) 4 P K Velocity in mm/Sec 3 2 1 0 Freq: 399.93 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Ordr: 1.000 Frequency in CPM Spec: .217
  14. 14. Motor side vibration appears to be low, but higher energy in higher frequency zone KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -M2A MOTOR DE AXIAL 0.9 Route Spectrum 10-Sep-10 08:59:58 0.8 OVERALL= 1.80 V-DG PK = 1.80 0.7 LOAD = 100.0 RPM = 412. (6.87 Hz) 0.6 P K Ve locity in mm/Se c 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 20000 40000 60000 Frequency in CPM
  15. 15. Dumped vibration frequencies in spectrum KILN - 451FN3 ESP FAN 451FN3 -F2H FAN NDE HORIZONTAL 50 Analyze Spectrum 10-Sep-10 08:54:56 P-P = 50.45 LOAD = 100.0 40 799.96 RPM = 400. (6.67 Hz) P -P Displacement in Microns 30 20 Indicates problem related to air flow (turbulence); damping reduces the amplitude of 1N peak 10 399.98 1199.9 1599.9 2399.9 1999.9 3599.8 2799.9 3199.8 3999.8 4799.8 6399.7 7199.7 4399.8 5199.7 5599.7 5999.7 6799.7 7599.6 7999.6 0 Freq: 401.62 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Ordr: 1.004 Frequency in CPM Spec: 3.823
  16. 16. DATE :8/9/10 TO 10/9/10 TIME:11AM TO 7PM Process parameters & measurements
  17. 17. DATE : 10/9/10 TO 11/9/10 TO 10/9/10 TIME :10PM TO 12 PM Process parameters & measurements
  18. 18. Current fluctuation(100 Amp.) & speed fluctuation (30 RPM) – Self organizing DATE 8/9/10 TO 10/9/10 10/9/10 TO 11/9/10 TIME 11AM TO 7PM 10PM TO 12 PM CURRENT 431 340 RPM 411 352 DE TEMP. 84 (with external 72 C went down to 45 C cooling) NDE TEMP. 89.9 (with external 74 went down to 48 C cooling) GAS TEMP. 270 C 259 to 290 C PID OPERATION MODE MANUAL AUTO EXTERNAL COOLING ON YES NO BEARING SET POINT TO COOLER ESP 70% 60.3% FAN PANNEL CONCLUSION : RPM OF COOLER FAN & GAS TEMP PRODUCE DRAMATIC EFFECT ON BEARING TEMPERATURE
  19. 19. What is to be done now? Monitor fan bearings Monitor Motor bearings Don’t cool the gas: higher the temp better it is! Promote energy dissipation through turbulence. Keep the fan at low speed & in auto for the system to adjust & come back to equilibrium Monitor the Oxygen content of the Kiln
  20. 20. Is 405 TPH possible from designed level of 200 TPH? Yes - It is possible…(without investments)!!! We recognize and understand Patterns & Relationships! The “system as a whole” is more important than “individual components”. The emergent behavior of any system is dependent on the changes in the relationships – the essence. Allow the system to come back to its equilibrium position, which it is always desperately trying to do – The Secret.
  21. 21. Thanks & Acknowledgement I gratefully thank and acknowledge the active collaborative participation of Mr. Avinash, Mr. Ladha, Mr. Anil and the group of young plant engineers who participated in the 3 day fun- filled workshop in solving this important & curious problem, implemented the solutions immediately & helped prepare the slides. Any questions? Contact: Dibyendu De at dde337@gmail.com

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