hydro energy in Spain
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hydro energy in Spain

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(Warwick BS945 EnvProtection)
2009-2010

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hydro energy in Spain hydro energy in Spain Presentation Transcript

  • Renewable hydro energy: Spain case-study DIAZ BAISEITOV, MSc BBBM 2009/2010DIAZ BAISEITOV, MSc BBBM 2009/2010
  • 1. Hydro power overview1. Hydro power overview 2. Focus on Spain2. Focus on Spain 3. Conclusion3. Conclusion
  • Hydro: the oldest power in the worldHydro: the oldest power in the world One of the oldest natural, sun-driven energy sources known to the mankind:One of the oldest natural, sun-driven energy sources known to the mankind: Was used and abused extensively in any form of the early industry: mills, mining, irrigation, pumping, sawing, sewing, crushing, smashing, moving, etc.Was used and abused extensively in any form of the early industry: mills, mining, irrigation, pumping, sawing, sewing, crushing, smashing, moving, etc.
  • Hydropower today: the leading sourceHydropower today: the leading source The most used renewable source of electricity worldwide:The most used renewable source of electricity worldwide: Source: Energy Information Administration • Hydropower represents 85% of total renewableHydropower represents 85% of total renewable and 20% of non-renewable world electricityand 20% of non-renewable world electricity production (2010).production (2010). • China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity,China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity, followed by Canada, Brazil, and U.S.followed by Canada, Brazil, and U.S. • 2/3 of the economically feasible potential remains2/3 of the economically feasible potential remains to be developed. Untapped hydro resources areto be developed. Untapped hydro resources are still abundant in Latin America, Central Africa,still abundant in Latin America, Central Africa, India and China.India and China.
  • Hydropower today: the principleHydropower today: the principle The underlying principle is transformation of water flow into electric power:The underlying principle is transformation of water flow into electric power: Turbine Generator Transformer Water Consumers
  • Hydropower today: the technologyHydropower today: the technology Modern power stations operate on turbine generators instead of waterwheels:Modern power stations operate on turbine generators instead of waterwheels:
  • Hydropower today: the economicsHydropower today: the economics P.S.: study cost - $50,000 per 30m of a stream; licensing cost - $150,000 to $1 million. The profit is made through sale of energy and renewable energy credits!
  • Hydropower today: the pros & consHydropower today: the pros & cons As most of the energy generation methods, hydropower has its own limitations:As most of the energy generation methods, hydropower has its own limitations: AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantages NoNo pollutions/emissionspollutions/emissions FailureFailure hhazardazard Up to 60% efficiencyUp to 60% efficiency EnvironmentalEnvironmental impactimpact Pond storage capacityPond storage capacity Seasonal flow variationSeasonal flow variation Fuel independentFuel independent Population relocationPopulation relocation 5050 -- 100 years100 years lifespanlifespan River slit accumulationRiver slit accumulation Low labor/service costLow labor/service cost High construction costHigh construction cost Despite all this, it is the most efficient of the renewable energy sources so far!Despite all this, it is the most efficient of the renewable energy sources so far!
  • 1. Hydro power overview1. Hydro power overview 2. Focus on Spain2. Focus on Spain 3. Conclusion3. Conclusion
  • Spain’s hydro resourcesSpain’s hydro resources There are some 1,800 rivers in SpainThere are some 1,800 rivers in Spain with 172,888 km of watercourses, thewith 172,888 km of watercourses, the largest being river Tajo (1007 km)largest being river Tajo (1007 km) The mild climate exposed to humid winds from the Mediterranean and Atlantic, togetherThe mild climate exposed to humid winds from the Mediterranean and Atlantic, together with Alpine glaciers capacity, ensure the overall stable precipitation of 650mm per year.with Alpine glaciers capacity, ensure the overall stable precipitation of 650mm per year.
  • Spain’s electricity demandSpain’s electricity demand • Spain has the 5Spain has the 5thth largest electricitylargest electricity market in the EU. The countrymarket in the EU. The country produced 247.3 billionproduced 247.3 billion kilowatthours in 2006, whilekilowatthours in 2006, while consuming 231.2 Bkwh.consuming 231.2 Bkwh. • The largest share of Spain'sThe largest share of Spain's electricity generation came fromelectricity generation came from conventional thermal plants,conventional thermal plants, followed by hydroelectricity.followed by hydroelectricity. • Both Spain's electricity generationBoth Spain's electricity generation and consumption is recentlyand consumption is recently growing with double the rategrowing with double the rate demonstrated by the Westerndemonstrated by the Western Europe as a whole.Europe as a whole. • The rising electricity consumptionThe rising electricity consumption and ecological awareness has ledand ecological awareness has led to increased use of hydro and windto increased use of hydro and wind power generating facilities.power generating facilities.
  • Online tracking example (09/03/10)Online tracking example (09/03/10) Source: National Grid de Espana (http://demanda.ree.es/demandaEng.html)
  • Spain’s hydro: Iberdrola facilitiesSpain’s hydro: Iberdrola facilities
  • Spain’s hydro: the perspectivesSpain’s hydro: the perspectives • 25 EU countries agreed to25 EU countries agreed to increase the overall share ofincrease the overall share of renewable sources of electricity torenewable sources of electricity to 21% by 2012. Spain’s specific21% by 2012. Spain’s specific target is to reach 29.4%.target is to reach 29.4%. • For that reason, the RenewableFor that reason, the Renewable Energies Plan for 2005-2010 wasEnergies Plan for 2005-2010 was adopted in Spain, together withadopted in Spain, together with Special Regime for tariffs:Special Regime for tariffs: Some regions in Spain plan to reach 100% renewable energy in few years (AERS). Castile,Some regions in Spain plan to reach 100% renewable energy in few years (AERS). Castile, León and Galicia already produce 70% of their total electricity from renewable sources.León and Galicia already produce 70% of their total electricity from renewable sources.
  • 1. Hydro power overview1. Hydro power overview 2. Focus on Spain2. Focus on Spain 3. Conclusion3. Conclusion
  • Combined application: hydro+windCombined application: hydro+wind Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have more predictableCompared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have more predictable load factor. With the help of the storage reservoir, water can be dispatched toload factor. With the help of the storage reservoir, water can be dispatched to follow variations in power demand. Since wind energy cannot be stored, itsfollow variations in power demand. Since wind energy cannot be stored, its excess can be used to pump some water back into the reservoir for future use:excess can be used to pump some water back into the reservoir for future use: • Spain’s Iberdrola plans to use pumpedSpain’s Iberdrola plans to use pumped storage to equalize its wind power systemstorage to equalize its wind power system highly variable output factor (2.5%–70%).highly variable output factor (2.5%–70%). The company is already building the 852The company is already building the 852 MW La Muela 2 plant for this purpose andMW La Muela 2 plant for this purpose and is investigating construction of threeis investigating construction of three additional pumped-storage plants with aadditional pumped-storage plants with a total capacity of 1640 MW.total capacity of 1640 MW. • When finished in 2012, it will be Europe’sWhen finished in 2012, it will be Europe’s largest hydro+wind site.largest hydro+wind site.
  • Combined application: hydro+H2 cellCombined application: hydro+H2 cell
  • Safety issuesSafety issues Dam failures have been some of the largest man-made disasters in history.Dam failures have been some of the largest man-made disasters in history. • Banqiao Dam failure inBanqiao Dam failure in Southern China in 1975 killedSouthern China in 1975 killed near 171,000 people and leftnear 171,000 people and left millions homelessmillions homeless • geologically inappropriategeologically inappropriate location may cause disasterslocation may cause disasters like Vajont Dam in Italy, withlike Vajont Dam in Italy, with 2000 people died in 19632000 people died in 1963 • small Kelly Barnes Dam failedsmall Kelly Barnes Dam failed in 1967, causing 39 deaths within 1967, causing 39 deaths with the Toccoa Flood, ten yearsthe Toccoa Flood, ten years after its power plant wasafter its power plant was decommissioneddecommissioned
  • ConclusionConclusion Cleanest, abundantCleanest, abundant and smart energy.and smart energy. So why searchSo why search for any other?for any other? THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION DIAZ BAISEITOV, MSc BBBM 2009/2010DIAZ BAISEITOV, MSc BBBM 2009/2010