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Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
Whist101 01  truewomanhood
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Whist101 01 truewomanhood

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Dr Walsh, …

Dr Walsh,

Our group has proofed and approved our final presentation. Wish we had more time to prepare for audio options but we gathered all of our content and think it is pretty darn good

Best Brooke, Diane, Michael, Ranjani,
WHistory 101 Section 01 MWF

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • American Women
    • Society’s Strength
    • 1752 - 1988
  • 3.
    • Betsy Ross Margaret Sanger
    • Graciela Ramona Adame Louise Nevelson   Life choices challenge the ideals of "True Womanhood”
    • for the benefit of equitable needs within society.
  • 4. “ True Womenhood ”
    • Foundation
    • PERIOD: Between 1820 and 1865
    • CONTEXT: Growth of Industries, Business and Professions
    • ROOTS: Pre – Industrial Society
    • PURPOSE: Establish a New Middle Class
    • “ Middle Class” HUSBANDS worked as
    • lawyers, office workers, factory managers,
    • merchants, teachers, physicians.
  • 5. “ MIDDLE CLASS”
    • NEW ECONOMICS - INDUSTRIALIZION
    • FAMILIES Did not have to make what it needed in order to survive.
    • ECONOMICS Production of Goods and Services.
    • NEW PERSPECTIVE
    • MEN STRONG, Could handle professional choices and work place politics.
    • WOMEN FRAIL, WEAK , DELICATE, VULNERABLE.
    • PUBLIC SPHERE ROUGH World, Temptations, Violence, Trouble.
    • PRIVATE SPHERE SAFE from world, TEMPERMENT suited to manage home.
    • NEW CULTURAL IDENTITY
    • Middle Class Family = Nuclear Family = BACKBONE OF SOCIETY
  • 6. “ True Womanhood” Four - Part Characteristics
    • The good and proper young woman should cultivate:
    • Piety
    • Purity
    • Submissiveness
    • Domesticity
  • 7. PIETY
    • Basis:
    • Women = Propensity for Religion
    • Responsibility:
        • Bring the world out of sin
        • Occupation acceptable in proper sphere – The Home
        • Calms the restless mind
        • Seminaries and Academies = Reputation renewed
    • Women Without Religion “The most revolting human characteristic."
  • 8. PURITY
    • Basis:
    • Women = Her Greatest Treasure ~ Virginity
    • Women = Her Best Weapon ~ Sexual Virtue
    • Responsibility:
        • Protect Wedding Night Gift
        • Guard Virginity = Pure and Chaste
        • Prevent a life of poverty, depravity or intemperance
        • Keep men in control of their sexual desires and needs
        • He governs by LAW ~ She governs by PURSUASION
    • Without Sexual Purity
    • “ Unworthy of the love of her sex and unfit for their company."
  • 9. SUBMISSIVENESS
    • Basis:
    • Women = Order of things:
    • Fate, Duty, To God, To Man
    • Responsibility:
        • Spirit of Obedience
        • Pliability of Temper
        • Humility of Mind
        • Limit Physical Mobility – Fashionable Restrictive Clothing
    • Successful Submissiveness
    • “ True feminine genius is ever timid, doubtful,
    • and clingingly dependent; a perpetual childhood.”
  • 10. DOMESTICITY
    • Basis:
    • Women = Family lost function as economic unit.
            • Community links lost as work leaves home
            • Devaluation of women’s work in market place
            • Privacy Emphasized
            • Morally Uplifting Tasks
            • Attract men away from the evils of the outer world
    • Responsibility:
        • Maintain values of stability, morality, and democracy
        • Housework
        • Needlework and Craft
        • Childcare
        • Create refuge from the world for husband
  • 11. SCIENTIFIC SEXISM
    • Basis: Biological, Intellectual and Sexual Inferiority
    • Biological & Intellectual
    • Female brain smaller and primitive based on Phrenology practice
    • Female less stamina
    • Menstruation: Monthly illness, insanity or incapacity
    • Reproductive System: Nervous system prone to overstimulation and fatigue
    • Sexually
    • Desire exist in men but is absent in women.
    • “ Woman is a constantly growing child, and in the brain,
    • as in so many other parts of her body,
    • she conforms to her childish type."
  • 12. Mainstream Influence
    • Women's magazines
    • Advice books
    • Religious journals
    • Newspapers
    • Fiction
    • Popular culture
  • 13. Godey’s Lady’s Book
    • This new ideal provided a new view of women's duty and role while cataloging the cardinal virtues of true womanhood for a new age.
    • A new ideal of womanhood and a new ideology about the home arose out of the new attitudes about work and family.
    Publisher : Louis A. Godey Editor: Sarah Josepha Hale Circulation: 150, 000 48 Years ~ 1830–1878 Subscription: $3 Annually
  • 14. Wedding Invitation Sample of women’s place in social hierarchy .
  • 15. Public High School Graduation Program & Diploma Sample of how status effects option in school
  • 16. Religious Programs of Times
  • 17. Betsy Ross                    
  • 18. True Womanhood and their challenges: Betsy Ross
    • True womenhood: homemaker, marriage, children, cooking, cleaning, laundry
    • Betsy did marry and have children, but she always did what she loved. Sewing!!!
    • Betsy did not follow true womenhood in the aspect that she did what pleased her.
    • Betsy’s consequences were that she had no family except her husband. Disowned by family and religion. Looked down upon by society.
  • 19. Betsy’s personal choice and the effect of her decisions.
    • Betsy chose to elope with her first husband John Ross.
    • Betsy and her husband dealt with this issue perfectly fine, and then soon opened an upholstery shop.
    • Betsy was disowned by her family, and religious group.
  • 20. Historical Events: Betsy Ross
    • Betsy Ross is known for sewing the first flag of the United States.
    • This event did not change Betsy’s life, because she was not recognized as sewing the first flag until her death.
    • This event coincides with the Revolutionary Era, when women were involved with the boycotts against the British.
  • 21. Did She or Didn’t She? William Canby: Author Canby Papers: The History of the Flag of the United States Presented: Historical Society of March Dated : July 31, 1871 Affidavits: Rachel Fletcher – Daughter Sophia B. Hildebrant – Granddaughter Margaret Donaldson Boggs – Niece “ I remember to have heard her also say that it was made on the order of a committee of whom Col. Ross was one and that Robert Morris was one of the committee. George Washington acting in conference to the committee called with her her at her house. “ ……….”That next day, Col. Ross called upon my mother and informed her that her work had been approved and her flag adopted. “ To this day…historians discuss documents that also support Mary Pickersgill as the flags seamstress.
  • 22. The effect Betsy Ross had on my life.
    • Betsy Ross sewed a flag that we recognize as a symbol for our country.
    • When we go to games we look to our flag and sing the national anthem.
    • Without Betsy Ross we might have not had a flag at all.
  • 23. Margaret Sanger
  • 24. Political docs of times
    • The Comstock Law of 1873 was a federal law
    • that made it a crime to sell or distribute
    • materials that could be used for
    • contraception or abortion. It was
    • motivated by growing societal concerns
    • over obscenity abortion, pre-marital and
    • extra-marital sex, the institution of marriage,
    • the changing role of women in society, and increased
    • procreation by the lower classes.
    • Sanger was violating the Comstock Law by providing information about birth control and contraception, and by doing so Sanger was indicted on obscenity charges.
  • 25. Margaret Sanger
    • Women during the early 1900s were expected
    • to be wives, mothers, and stay home to
    • raise a family. This lifestyle did not suit
    • Margaret, she wanted something
    • different for her life.
    • Both Margaret and her husband
    • were liberals who didn’t seem very interested
    • in the traditional lifestyle of the man going
    • out to work while the woman stayed home to raise a family. Margaret was even a member of the Liberal Club. Having the support of her husband was crucial to Margaret’s persistence of a topic that was very personal to her.
  • 26. Challenges
    • Sanger had to face many challenges
    • in order to fight for what she believed in.
    • There were many people rooting against
    • her because she was violating obscenity
    • laws.
    • Issues such as birth control and female
    • reproductive health was something that was
    • not talked about and especially not something
    • to make public.
    • Sanger had to overcome obstacles from the Comstock Law and against institutions that controlled women’s bodies.
  • 27. True Womanhood for Margaret Sanger
    • For women in this period true womanhood meant
    • being a wife, a mother, taking care of the household,
    • not having a job, and raising the children.
    • This was something that Margaret didn’t want
    • for her life. Although she was married and had
    • three children, staying quiet and being at home
    • while her husband made the income did not interest Sanger.
    • Margaret became interested in sex education after seeing her mother die from frequent pregnancy. So Sanger began the fight to educate women about sex and the important facts they should know.
    • Margaret went against true womanhood ideals of the time. Being a subservient wife did not fit Sanger’s lifestyle and beliefs.
    • Margaret received backlash from many people doing what she did in order for women to live safe and healthy lives. Sanger wanted all women to have the right to choose the size of her family.
  • 28. Personal Choices - Take Action
    • Margaret chose to take action
    • for what she believed was
    • important and a right that all women
    • should have. Sanger was very brave
    • for going against the society norm
    • and taking a stand.
    • Margaret handed out pamphlets about contraception, started a magazine, and opened the first birth control clinic.
  • 29. Graciela Ramona Adame
  • 30. True womanhood for Graciela
    • Totally submissive to her husband, raising the children, living the domestic life of cleaning and cooking
    • Taking care of children remained a priority even after her divorce
    • By 1969 she became more independent after filing for divorce
    • The true womanhood ideology started to change for Graciela
  • 31. Graciela’s personal choices
    • Her decisions to divorce her husband was a life changing event for her and her children it was finalized on Sept 25 1970
    • Graciela would receive recognition from the media for her involvement in education as a teachers aid Nov. 6, 1970
    • also in 1970 she decided to go to college to become a teacher
    • She would also receive recognition from the state for her dedication to working with children and the Fresno school district
  • 32. Consequences for Graciela’s choices
    • There were consequences for her choices. Some good consequences
    • She would raise four children by herself with no financial help from her x-husband
    • Graciela would attend and graduate from Fresno city college and Fresno State University. she would graduate from CSUF in 1979 with a Bachelors Degree in Liberal Studies
    • She would subsequently receive her teaching credential from the state of California in 1980 and she would teach 15 years before she retired in 1995
  • 33. More good consequences
    • The Catholic church is a big part of the change in Graciela’s life
    • Catechism or bible study with youth is a joy in Graciela’s life
    • Graciela received many letters of recognition for her work at Saint Anthony Claret Church in Fresno
  • 34. How has Graciela affected my life
    • Graciela has been a constant encouragement in my life.
    • I have seen her strength during difficult times
    • I have seen her devotion to her church family and community
    • Graciela is truly the most influential woman in history to me
  • 35. Louise Nevelson
  • 36. “ True Womanhood” The Berliawsky Family Challenges
    • 1912: Cultural Isolation ~ Russian Jewish Exile
    • Displacement from homeland, traditions and
    • equalitarian societies baptized women into an
    • altered sense of identity and uncertainty of
    • purpose and value in society.
    • 1920 – 1930: Rockland, Maine : Stifling Social Mores – Discrimination
    • Occupational downgrades , martial strife, social, religious and
    • economic discrimination.
    • Socialist Beliefs Unacceptable – Puritanical Protestant Society
    • Education - Immigrant status limits to commercial courses.. Classic, college prep or liberal arts restricted enrollment. Bookkeeping , stenography, penmanship, typing algebra, French and geography allowed.
  • 37. Personal Choices ~ Louise Berliawsky Nevelson
    • 1918: Public High School Graduation.
    • Parents supported additional courses in piano, dance, voice and art. 
    • 1920: Marriage to Charles Nevelson Wealthy Family of Clipper ship Builders ~ Rockland, Maine
    • Purpose: To gain acceptance into culture and avoid poverty, depravity or intemperance.
    • 1922: Nevelson gave birth to a son, Myron. Separated from her husband in the winter of 1932-1933; Divorced officially in 1941. Non- acceptance of alimony.
    • 1931: Left son with family and traveled to Europe to study with Abstract Artist, Hans Hoffman.
  • 38. An Artist in Action
    • 1930s
    • Dawn's Wedding Feast: Inspired by decision to focus on career instead of
    • marriage and family.
    • Four O'Clock Forums: Louise hosted and became the meeting grounds for
    • Abstract Expressionist
    • Works Progress Administration (WPA) - Teacher
    • 1940s
    • STYLE: Additive artwork versus carved wood -
    • uniquely female. Favored material was a radical
    • departure from male artistic endeavors.
    • 1950 SOLD FIRST ART PIECE.
    Up to the early 20 th Century ~ Art World: White Male Establishment Acceptable to DEPICT women in art but UNWILLING TO SUPPORT women artists in solo shows, galleries, institutions or purchases by collectors.
  • 39. Art History Milestones
    • New York Chapter of Artists' Equity - 1 ST FEMALE President 1957 -58
    • National Artist’s Equity Org – President 1962 - 1964.
    • LEGACY
    • Challenged stereotypically "male" sculptural forms and was Fundamental building block in the History of Feminist art
    • Major influence on a new generation of females struggling to redefine femininity in art .
    • Predecessor to installation art due to the way she designed pieces in her exhibitions to function, not only as discrete objects, but as parts of a whole.
    • Extended the “Duchampian conversation” in found object sculpture and the readymade, which continues to contemporary practice today.
  • 40. Abstract, Construction Sculpture & Installation Art, Mother
  • 41. Bibliography
    • 1.Ellen Carol Dubois and Lyn Dumenil, Through Women’s Eyes An American History with Documents (Boston – New York: Bedford / St. Martin’s) 2009
    • Betsy Ross - Ranjani Bahadar
    • 1. “Betsy Ross: Her Life,” USHISTORY, http://www.ushistory,org/betsy/flaglife.html
    • Margaret Sanger Brooke Trabell
    • Comstock Law of (1873) http://law.jrank.org/pages/5508/Comstock-Law-1873.html#ixzz0mppMgSfG
    • http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger/secure/aboutms/index.html
    • Graciela Ramona Adame – Michael Hernandez
    • Louise Nevelson – Diane Mello
    • Deborah G. Felder, The 100 Most Influential Women of All Time  - A Ranking of Past and Present ( A Citadel Press Book, Carol Publishing Group, 1996 ) p. 199 - 2006.
    • Erica Stux, Eight Who Made  A Difference: Pioneer Women in the Arts ( Greensboro, Avisson Press Inc., 1999) p. 19 - 333.
    • Lisle, Laurie, Louise Nevelson - A Passionate Life,  (New York, Summit Books, 1990)4. Arnold B. Glimche, Louise Nevelson ( New York, Praeger, 1972)
    • Louise Nevelson : Taped Conversations with Diane Mackown, Dawn and Dusk s ( New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976)
    • Louise Nevelson, Atmospheres and Environments: Introductions by Edward Albee ( New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. , 1980; Whitney Museum of American Art, 1980)
    •   Robert Rosenblum, On Modern American art : selected essays  (New York, Harry Abrams, 1999)
    • Smithsonian Archives of American Art; http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/neveloui/
  • 42. CREDITS
    • Women’s History 101 California State University Fresno Eileen Walsh, PhD Spring 2010
    • Research, Preparation, Writing Ranjani Bahadur Michael Hernadez
    • Diane Mello
    • Brooke Tarbell
  • 43. COPYRIGHT
    • “ True Womanhood” American Women: Society’s Strength 1725 -1988
    • © copyright May 2010. All rights reserved.
    • Ranjani Bahadur, Michael Hernandez, Diane Mello, Brooke Trabell
    • California State University, Fresno
    • Women ’s History 101
    • Spring 2010
    • Eileen Walsh, PhD

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