Establishing a multi-dimensional quality framework for assessing work-based learning Kathy Henschke, Beverley Jackling, Fr...
RMIT University© What is Work Based Learning? <ul><li>Industry-based learning (IBL), work-based learning (WBL) and work-in...
Our Research <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RMIT WIL Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was Involved </li></ul><ul><ul><...
RMIT WIL Policy   <ul><li>Principle 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The key feature of a WIL experience in RMIT programs is assessed p...
RMIT WIL Policy   <ul><li>Principle 2 </li></ul><ul><li>All RMIT programs shall set a goal of integrating effective WIL ac...
Findings - Literature Review <ul><li>Types of Learning (Bloom, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>How to deliver/promote learning -  ...
Findings – Analysis of Course Guides   <ul><li>Examination of assessments in Co-op WIL programs in the </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Findings - Survey <ul><li>Student satisfaction with types of WIL assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer Evaluation  3.2...
Findings - Survey <ul><li>Benefits of work placements on student generic skill development </li></ul>RMIT University© Skil...
How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>1. What is the teaching, learning  & assessment practice at RMIT? </li></ul>RMIT...
How we made sense of our findings  <ul><li>2.   What is the pedagogical underpinning for RMIT’s learning and teaching prac...
How we made sense of our findings   <ul><li>3a. What does the literature say about WBL? </li></ul><ul><li>Brodie & Irving ...
How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>3b.  What does the literature say about WBL </li></ul><ul><li>The Action Learnin...
How we made sense of our findings   <ul><li>4 .  Recognising the complexity of workplace learning </li></ul><ul><li>Influe...
Criteria for the CCARDS Assessment Framework  RMIT University© C  ONTEXTUAL Does the assessment tool provide for the integ...
Case Study: Using CCARDS Framework   RMIT University© C  ONTEXTUAL Does the assessment tool provide for the integration of...
Assessment CCARDS RMIT University© D A R C C S
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Kathy Henschke et al 2008

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Session B - H6-03

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  • Not work-placed but work-based. Work-placed learning – learning in domain of organisations (training courses etc for staff) Work-integrated learning – learning driven by university curriculum but located in workplace. What is IBL Broad purpose More detailed purpose Learning To motivate students To diagnose strengths and weaknesses To provide feedback To consolidate work done to date To help students develop their capacity for self-assessment To establish the level of achievement at the end of a unit of study Certification To establish the level of achievement at the end of a programme of study To pass or fail a student To grade or rank a student (with reference to norms and/or criteria) To underwrite a ‘licence to practise’ To demonstrate conformity with external regulations, such as those of a professional or statutory body To select for employment, further educational activity, etc. To predict future performance Quality assurance To assess the extent to which a programme’s aims have been achieved To judge the effectiveness of the learning environment To provide feedback to teachers regarding their personal effectiveness To monitor levels of achievement over time To assure interested parties that the programme or unit of study is of an appropriate standard To protect the relevant profession To protect the public Table 1 Purposes of assessment Note: This Table draws on Atkins et al (1993), Brown et al (1997, p.11), Yorke (1998, p.178) and Micklin and Kenworthy (2000, pp.108-9).
  • Kathy Henschke et al 2008

    1. 1. Establishing a multi-dimensional quality framework for assessing work-based learning Kathy Henschke, Beverley Jackling, Friederika Kaider, Joan Richardson Acknowledgements: Mark Tolson, Lynn Yu
    2. 2. RMIT University© What is Work Based Learning? <ul><li>Industry-based learning (IBL), work-based learning (WBL) and work-integrated learning (WIL): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>university programs that bring together universities and work organisations to create new learning opportunities for students in workplaces. Provide students with professional and context-based, experiential learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At RMIT WIL includes co-operative education (Co-op), practicum, internships, industry-based projects, simulated work activities </li></ul>
    3. 3. Our Research <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RMIT WIL Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was Involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Development Unit; Schools of Accounting & Law; & Business Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope of Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergraduate programs across discipline schools in the College of Business; 6-12 month placement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature reviews; document analysis of course guides; student, academic and industry questionnaires; academic focus groups </li></ul></ul>RMIT University©
    4. 4. RMIT WIL Policy <ul><li>Principle 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The key feature of a WIL experience in RMIT programs is assessed professional or vocational work in a work context in which feedback from clients and others from industry and community is integral to the experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be simulated. </li></ul><ul><li>This 'learning by doing' critically involves the experience and assessment of ‘doing’ in a context which reflects a realistic work situation along with work relevant interactions </li></ul>RMIT University©
    5. 5. RMIT WIL Policy <ul><li>Principle 2 </li></ul><ul><li>All RMIT programs shall set a goal of integrating effective WIL activities, particularly the WIL assessments of Principle 1 above, through the curriculum of the program as a whole, as part of all students’ experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3 </li></ul><ul><li>By 2010: All advanced diplomas and associate degrees shall have at least one core course where WIL activities of Principle 1 above are the predominant assessments; all higher education bachelor awards will have one or more core courses totalling at least 24 credit points of WIL; and all graduate diploma and master by coursework awards will have one or more core courses totalling at least 12 credit points of WIL </li></ul>RMIT University©
    6. 6. Findings - Literature Review <ul><li>Types of Learning (Bloom, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>How to deliver/promote learning - Pedagogical WBL Model (Brodie & Irving, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>How adults learn influenced by personal, interpersonal, institutional, social and historical factors (Foley, 2004). Complexity of WBL ( Smith and Sadler-Smith, 2006 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between stakeholders (student, university & industry) to manage diversity (McNamara, 2008) </li></ul>RMIT University©
    7. 7. Findings – Analysis of Course Guides <ul><li>Examination of assessments in Co-op WIL programs in the </li></ul><ul><li>College of Business (20,000+ students): </li></ul><ul><li>Predominant assessments were a business proposal and a business report (ranging from 3000-7000 words) </li></ul><ul><li>Little evidence of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assessments specifically measuring objectives outlined in course guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guided reflective exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, innovative WIL learning activities and related assessments were being developed in some programs </li></ul>RMIT University©
    8. 8. Findings - Survey <ul><li>Student satisfaction with types of WIL assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer Evaluation 3.29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project proposal 3.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace tasks 3.16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project report 3.13 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least satisfied with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal oral presentation 2.51 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diary/Journal/Log 2.33 </li></ul></ul>RMIT University©
    9. 9. Findings - Survey <ul><li>Benefits of work placements on student generic skill development </li></ul>RMIT University© Skill Mean Std Deviation Analytic skills 3.10 .709 Problem Solving skills 3.10 .709 Written communication 3.08 .829 Plan and manage work 3.07 .797 Initiative and enterprise skills 3.05 .749 Helped workplace preparation 3.02 .974 Team skills 2.95 .815 Application of theories/concepts 2.90 .810
    10. 10. How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>1. What is the teaching, learning & assessment practice at RMIT? </li></ul>RMIT University© RMIT T & L Practice Activities designed to enable students to acquire the capabilities outlined in the objectives Learning Objectives Outcomes Learning Activities Provides a rich learning environment Crosses discipline boundaries l discipline-specific capabilities and graduates attributes/ employability skills assessments employed to measure & provide evidence that students have acquired capabilities outlined in objectives
    11. 11. How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>2. What is the pedagogical underpinning for RMIT’s learning and teaching practices? </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy : three domains of educational activities </li></ul><ul><li>Affective domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes </li></ul>RMIT University© Bloom’s Taxonomy growth in feelings or emotional areas ( Attitude ) manual or physical skills ( Skills ) mental skills ( Knowledge ) affective cognitive psychomotor
    12. 12. How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>3a. What does the literature say about WBL? </li></ul><ul><li>Brodie & Irving (2007) propose a ‘inter-relationship and inter-dependency between understanding learning, critical thinking and capability building within a WBL context’ (p11) </li></ul><ul><li>Workplaces provide a rich learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cross discipline boundaries </li></ul>RMIT University© Pedagogical WBL Model Students learning how they learn – approaches, theories, validity, applicability, to make most of learning opportunities Students reflecting critically on their learning: applying models, establishing validity, applicability, appropriateness Self audit, target settings: interpersonal & transferable capability, ‘work’ based – technical/discipline/subject specific Learning Capabilities Critical reflection
    13. 13. How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>3b. What does the literature say about WBL </li></ul><ul><li>The Action Learning Cycle. An action learning model encourages the learner, the organisation and the program facilitators to reflect, review, and modify assumptions and actions ( Garratt, 1997; Weinstein, 1999) </li></ul>RMIT University©
    14. 14. How we made sense of our findings <ul><li>4 . Recognising the complexity of workplace learning </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by a highly complex set of variables loosely grouped across three overlapping dimensions: the contextual dimension, the social dimension and the learning dimension (Smith & Smith-Sadler, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>One size does not fit all! </li></ul>RMIT University© Complexity of WBL nature, type & size of company Strategies, policies, structures, processes; learning orientation assumptions, expectations & concerns held by the stakeholders towards learning Learning Social Contextual formal, non-formal, informal & incidental Occurs consciously/unconsciously Individual learning styles
    15. 15. Criteria for the CCARDS Assessment Framework RMIT University© C ONTEXTUAL Does the assessment tool provide for the integration of workplace information? C APABILITY DRIVEN Does the assessment tool specifically measure the discipline-specific capabilities and graduate attributes / employability skills articulated in the course objectives? A CTION-BASED LEARNING Does the assessment tool promote the improvement cycle of action based learning? R ELATIONSHIP COLLABORATION Does the assessment tool factor in feedback from workplace players? How do all the stakeholders collaborate and relate? D EVELOPMENTAL Is the assessment tool developmental in nature? Does it specifically provide for formative feedback and assessment? S TUDENT–CENTRED Does the assessment tool recognise the self-directed learning and increased responsibility that the student takes in learning in the workplace?
    16. 16. Case Study: Using CCARDS Framework RMIT University© C ONTEXTUAL Does the assessment tool provide for the integration of workplace information? eg organisational analysis C APABILITY DRIVEN Does the assessment tool specifically measure the discipline-specific capabilities and graduate attributes / employability skills articulated in the course objectives? eg innovation, problem solving, business communications A CTION-BASED LEARNING Does the assessment tool promote the improvement cycle? eg project plans and report on achievements R ELATIONSHIP COLLABORATION Does the assessment tool factor in feedback from workplace players? How do all the stakeholders relate? eg negotiated partnerships between students, workplace supervisor & academic supervisor D EVELOPMENTAL Is the assessment tool developmental in nature? eg formative feedback on learning activities S TUDENT–CENTRED Does the assessment tool recognise the self-directed learning and increased responsibility by the student? eg reflective journals
    17. 17. Assessment CCARDS RMIT University© D A R C C S
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