Ieva Stupans 2008

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Session B - H6-03

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Ieva Stupans 2008

  1. 1. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations Ieva Stupans University of South Australia
  2. 2. Three interrelated objectives for quality in student assessment in higher education <ul><li>1. Assessment that guides and encourages effective approaches to learning </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assessment that validly and reliably measures expected learning outcomes, in particular the higher-order learning that characterises higher education; and </li></ul><ul><li>3. Assessment and grading that defines and protects academic standards </li></ul><ul><li>EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>(McInnis, 2004) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations <ul><li>EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCE EFFICIENCY </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations <ul><li>Analysis of marks on 1,712 modules at Oxford Polytechnic. Modules with 100% coursework had an average mark 3.5% higher than modules with 100% examinations, and there were three times as many failed students on modules where there were only examinations. (Gibbs & Lucas, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>F our universities - coursework marks higher by one third of a degree classification in English and History and higher by two thirds of a degree classification in Biology, Business Studies, Computer Studies and Law. (Bridges et al. 2002) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations <ul><li>Audit from an Australian university indicated that approximately 50% of first year subjects had final examinations within their assessment profile, within sciences this was approximately 80%. (Taylor, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to certification or accreditation of learning by an external body such as a health profession accreditation body, for example, FIP recommends ‘ a final examination should lead to the granting of a diploma or degree’ . (FIP, 2000) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>for learning = coursework type assessments </li></ul><ul><li>of learning = invigilated examinations </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>‘ traditional’= learning at the lowest levels of Bloom’s cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><li>‘ alternative’ = positioned to measure learners’ higher-level thinking skills of synthesis, analysis, and evaluation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations <ul><li>Assessment of learning is not mutually exclusive to “alternative” assessment </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>is frequently associated with question spotting, cramming and short-term knowledge retention </li></ul><ul><li>therefore </li></ul><ul><li>the concept of structuring questions which allow students to demonstrate higher-level thinking skills is one which needs to be developed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Returning to the unseen invigilated exam ! <ul><li>“ Blueprinting” </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment and grading that defines and protects academic standards </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving MCQ </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment that validly and reliably measures expected learning outcomes, in particular higher-order learning </li></ul><ul><li>“ cheat sheets” and open book </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment that guides and encourages effective approaches to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order learning </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ Blueprinting” e.g. stats Level of skill required Standards Definitions Compre- hension Application Analysis Problem solving Total Analyse data using mean, median etc 2 MCQ 2 MCQ 8 MCQ 1 written response 12 MCQ+ written Predict from data 6 MCQ 2 MCQ 1 written response 8 MCQ+ written
  10. 10. “ Blueprinting” <ul><li>Tension between efficiency and effectiveness (reliability) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the optimal number of items, balance of items- MCQ, short answer and extended answer? </li></ul><ul><li>Should components be weighted? </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of different learning outcomes but these are interrelated. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problem solving MCQ <ul><li>MCQ in Pharmacology </li></ul><ul><li>Questions which require application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation can be written </li></ul><ul><li>Writing of such questions needs to be intentional ( importance of “blueprinting”) </li></ul><ul><li>For NESB students to achieve similar results, attention needs to be paid as to whether questions are assessing application of pharmacology knowledge or application of pharmacology knowledge and language proficiency. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cheat sheets and open book <ul><li>Students have access to “essential reference books” in examination </li></ul><ul><li>Does this impact on “quality” of answers particularly for weak students. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a way to optimise student learning using open book and “cheat sheets” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cheat sheets and open book <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies such that there is motivation for students to organize all of the materials in their minds prior to the exam </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies so that exam time is not the time for students to work through the texts for the first time </li></ul>
  14. 14. Wanted! Evidence based guidelines for unseen invigilated examinations Educational Effectiveness Resource efficiency Hornby, 2003 Unseen Examination Learning logs/diaries Peer assessment Annotated bibliographies Projects/case studies

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