Why Wikis Work Assessing Group Work in an Online Environment   Life Impact   The University of Adelaide Cathy Snelling and...
<ul><li>Dental School Learning and Teaching Philosophy - group work/collaborative and scholarly learning in a contextual f...
<ul><li>Engage  students in the process of learning, rather than promote an outcome-focussed activity </li></ul><ul><li>Ut...
Key Issues   <ul><li>Research has commonly identified the following key issues to consider when engaging students in an on...
<ul><li>Practice run –  </li></ul><ul><li>“  A wiki on how to make a wiki” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of discussion boards and ...
Developing student readiness   <ul><li>O Week   </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a  Community of Practice  where students expl...
<ul><li>Week 1   </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation Session- Using  Wikis  and and  Blogs  in education  </li></ul><ul><li>Sett...
Our Blog  @   http:// bohonecommunity.blogspot.com     Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work  Life Impact  The Universit...
<ul><li>Step 1: Make a wiki on a wiki – developed in wikispaces.com </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2:   Allocate groups to topics ...
<ul><li>Step 5:   Students invited to begin collaborative wiki  work on group pages </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6:   Students s...
Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide Human Biology I OH Rubric for Wiki and Po...
  Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide D. Students organise  information colle...
The Changing role of the Teacher and  How the Wikis Worked :    http://boh08.wikispaces.com/ Bachelor of Oral Health: Why ...
/ Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide
<ul><ul><li>Accountable Group Work  through the history tab – facilitator can track quality of group contribution through ...
<ul><ul><li>Frequent contact -  online and face to face fosters a  learning community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilise a...
  Why students think Wikis work     Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide <ul><...
  Why students think Wikis work     Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide <ul><...
What Students didn’t like about Wikis      Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaid...
Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide Guiding Principle   Chickering & Ehrmann ...
<ul><li>On-line technologies such as Wikis are becoming part of mainstream teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>3 Wiki-...
We wish to acknowledge the support, guidance and encouragement of  Dr John Willison  Project Leader Research Skills Develo...
References     Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work  Life Impact  The University of Adelaide Chickering A and Ehrmann S...
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Cathy Snelling And Sophie Karanicolas 2008

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Cathy Snelling And Sophie Karanicolas 2008

  1. 1. Why Wikis Work Assessing Group Work in an Online Environment Life Impact The University of Adelaide Cathy Snelling and Sophie Karanicolas School of Dentistry Faculty of Health Sciences
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dental School Learning and Teaching Philosophy - group work/collaborative and scholarly learning in a contextual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Human Biology in Bachelor of Oral Health - traditional group assignment followed by PowerPoint presentation of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in assessing quality of group work processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disparities in quantity and quality of individual input hard to monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of group roles and processes largely based on anecdotal evidence. </li></ul></ul>Background Life Impact The University of Adelaide Bachelor of Oral Health : Why Wikis Work
  3. 3. <ul><li>Engage students in the process of learning, rather than promote an outcome-focussed activity </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise contemporary social technologies to foster learning communities </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce collaborative research methods in the early years of an undergraduate program </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate students to actively and equitably participate in a group based assessment activity . </li></ul> Rationale for change Life Impact The University of Adelaide Bachelor of Oral Health : Why Wikis Work
  4. 4. Key Issues <ul><li>Research has commonly identified the following key issues to consider when engaging students in an online learning environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing role of the ‘teacher’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Fahraeus et al 1999, Felder 1995, Oliver 2001 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Determining explicit levels of performance by which the groups would be assessed. </li></ul>Bachelor of Oral Health : Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  5. 5. <ul><li>Practice run – </li></ul><ul><li>“ A wiki on how to make a wiki” </li></ul><ul><li>Use of discussion boards and blogs for collaborative research </li></ul>Developing teacher readiness Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  6. 6. Developing student readiness <ul><li>O Week </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a Community of Practice where students explore and develop their: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preferred approaches to learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group norms and learning culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry survey: Research Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning support further reinforced - General Studies Stream </li></ul>Bachelor of Oral Health : Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  7. 7. <ul><li>Week 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation Session- Using Wikis and and Blogs in education </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up of class blog as a social learning forum. </li></ul>Developing student readiness Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  8. 8. Our Blog @ http:// bohonecommunity.blogspot.com Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  9. 9. <ul><li>Step 1: Make a wiki on a wiki – developed in wikispaces.com </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Allocate groups to topics </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Allocate e-facilitator to each wiki group </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Wiki orientation session – hyperlinks on homepage to sites that support learning – eg., examples of other wikis </li></ul>Setting up and developing the Wiki Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  10. 10. <ul><li>Step 5: Students invited to begin collaborative wiki work on group pages </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Students select a focus area of research to develop a poster for presentation in a simulated academic forum </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: E-facilitators log in at least once weekly to support group progress </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8: Provide assessment rubric for wiki and poster work based on Research Skills Development Framework (RSDF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.adelaide.edu.au/clpd/rsd </li></ul></ul>Setting up and developing the Wiki Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  11. 11. Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide Human Biology I OH Rubric for Wiki and Poster Project Facet of Inquiry RSD Level 1 RSD Level 2 RSD Level 3 A. Students embark on inquiry and so determine a need for knowledge/ understanding <ul><li>Identifies peripheral/duplicated core components of topic </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal articulation of core components to oral health practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies core components of topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear articulation of core components to oral health practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification includes and goes beyond core components of topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive articulation of core components to oral health practice. </li></ul>B. Students find/generate needed information/data using appropriate methodology <ul><li>Search strategy is limited to a single source (eg internet only) for finding information. </li></ul><ul><li>Content generated is partially relevant to the topic and/or primarily drawn from one or two sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of group roles to manage workflow is minimally identified on the wiki page. </li></ul><ul><li>Inequitable distribution of group work contribution with minimal evidence of shared leadership roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Search strategy uses several different sources (eg catalogues and databases) for finding information. </li></ul><ul><li>Content generated is relevant to the topic, and primarily based on several sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of group roles to manage workflow is identified on the wiki page. </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable distribution of group work contribution with evidence of shared leadership roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Search strategy includes multiple source types for finding quality information (eg scientific catalogues, library databases, search engines) </li></ul><ul><li>Content generated is relevant and draws on a wide range of sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of group roles to manage workflow is clearly detailed and identified on the wiki page. </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable distribution of high degree group work contribution and strong evidence of shared leadership roles . </li></ul>C. Students critically evaluate information/data and the process to find/generate this information/data <ul><li>Identifies indicators of sources credibility and reliability but does not fully apply them in evaluating data or process </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence in search strategy only partially supplied and/or inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Missing: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal evidence of a team approach to reviewing, revising and editing group content contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies several relevant indicators of source credibility and reliability and provides appropriate rationale for use/inclusion of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence in search strategy supplied but some details inaccurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of a team approach to reviewing, revising and editing group content contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies a wide range of indicators of source credibility and reliability and fully applies these in selection of data for inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence in search strategy is extensive and appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong evidence of a team approach to reviewing, evaluating, revising and editing group content contributions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide D. Students organise information collected/ generated <ul><li>The group use basic strategies to organise the wiki (eg headings, dot points etc.) but with little flow or connection. Problems with:________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>The group use basic strategies to organise the poster (eg layout, sections, choice of visuals etc.) with some explanations and basic conclusions. Problems with: _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>The group use several sound strategies to organise the wiki, with linkage between and within most sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with </li></ul><ul><li>The group use several sound strategies to organise the poster with accurate explanations and sound conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>The group use a wide variety of strategies to organise the Wiki with coherent linkage between and within all sections </li></ul><ul><li>The group use a wide variety of strategies to organise the poster with accurate and complete explanations and draw distinct conclusions. </li></ul>E. Students synthesise and analyse and apply new knowledge <ul><li>Content largely restates information from original sources used, with minimal integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Poster has a broadly based and superficial coverage, which does not specifically address the chosen learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Information from original sources is integrated data but overall theme closely resembles that of the original sources </li></ul><ul><li>Poster has broadly based coverage, with detailed information provided for at least one of the chosen learning outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Content incorporates paraphrasing of information and presents ‘new’ interpretations/context from that of original sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Poster has a focussed and in-depth coverage of all chosen learning outcomes. </li></ul>F. Students communicate knowledge and the process used to generate it, with an awareness of ethical, social and cultural issues <ul><li>Minimal coverage of poster appearance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Partially conforms to spelling, grammar conventions except for: </li></ul><ul><li>Partial/incomplete referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Missing: </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate coverage of poster appearance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally conforms to spelling, grammar conventions; minor errors with: </li></ul><ul><li>Generally well referenced; </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with </li></ul><ul><li>Complete and total coverage of poster appearance criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurately conforms to spelling/grammar conventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Full and correct acknowledgement of all sources used in poster. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Changing role of the Teacher and How the Wikis Worked : http://boh08.wikispaces.com/ Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  14. 14. / Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Accountable Group Work through the history tab – facilitator can track quality of group contribution through edits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and notification facility- all posts and discussions can be monitored as they evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides immediate peer and facilitator feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution to group work at a time that suits the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the learning process rather than outcome-focussed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowers students to make sense of their learning through active engagement </li></ul></ul> Why we think Wikis work Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Frequent contact - online and face to face fosters a learning community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilise a variety of learning styles - the more timid or shy students can flourish in a non-threatening environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters creativity and diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes reflection of written work , critical assessment and peer review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds a shared knowledge repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to the tech savvy Gen Y students – familiarity with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on-line social technologies </li></ul></ul>Why we think Wikis work Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  17. 17. Why students think Wikis work Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide <ul><ul><li>Wikis accessible off campus and “on demand” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator can check progress and provide ongoing guidance – “they were really accessible” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great to see the wiki grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer encouragement provided enthusiasm to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to do your best not to let the group down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fun” “Freedom” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Able to motivate each other” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Why students think Wikis work Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide <ul><ul><li>Wikis have a legitimate role to play in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-course: 57% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-course: 91% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am uncertain about my role in using a wiki as a group learning tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-course: 81% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-course: 15% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am confident in my ability to use a wiki as a learning tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-course: 34% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-course: 97% agreement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. What Students didn’t like about Wikis Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide <ul><ul><li>Formatting limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t save changes at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a more ‘snazzy’ looking wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform was not always ‘user friendly’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited tools and functions- limits creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Communication could be misinterpreted” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide Guiding Principle Chickering & Ehrmann (1996) Application in Wiki Project Encourage increased communication between faculty and student Initially in Blog; consolidated and developed via discussion board on each Wiki site Develop reciprocity and co-operation between students Collaborative group research, Wiki and poster development Use of active learning technologies Social technologies promoted student on-line engagement Provide prompt feedback On-line facilitation which created a tangible social and cognitive teaching presence Make effective use of time ‘ On demand’ on/off campus Respect diverse talents and approaches to learning Learning tasks allocated according to individual talents; constructivist approach Communicate high expectations Explicit levels demonstrated in assessment rubrics; formative peer and facilitator feedback
  21. 21. <ul><li>On-line technologies such as Wikis are becoming part of mainstream teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>3 Wiki-based group work projects in undergraduate Oral Health programs have consistently generated positive student feedback in both a qualitative and quantative context. </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment rubric, based on the Willison and O’Reagan RSD Framework, has provided explicit levels of performance in the groups’ learning process and summative product. </li></ul><ul><li>This assessment strategy has the potential, and indeed is being utilised, in other disciplines, to provide a transparent and equitable process of assessing the effectiveness of group-based learning. </li></ul>In Summary Bachelor of Oral Health: Why Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  22. 22. We wish to acknowledge the support, guidance and encouragement of Dr John Willison Project Leader Research Skills Development Framework CLPD, The University of Adelaide and and Associate Professor Tracey Winning , Associate Dean Learning & Teaching School of Dentistry. Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide
  23. 23. References Bachelor of Oral Health: How Wikis Work Life Impact The University of Adelaide Chickering A and Ehrmann SC (1996) Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as a Lever. American Association for Higher Education (AAHE) Bulletin, October, 9 3-6. Fahraeus E, Chamberlain, B, Bridgman N, Rugeli J and Fuller U (1999). Teaching with Electronic Collaborative Learning Groups: Report of the ITiCSE’99 working Group of Electronic Collaborative Groups. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin. 31(4), 121-128. Felder RT (2005) We never said it would be easy. Chemical Engineering Education , 29 (1), 32-33. Oliver R (2001) Assuring the Quality of Online Learning in Australian Higher Education. In Wallace M, Ellis A and Newton D (eds) Proceedings of Moving Online II Conference (9 21) Lismore: Southern Cross University. http://boh08.wikispaces.com/ http:// bohonecommunity.blogspot.com

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