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Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind
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Innovative Designs for the Embodied Mind

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Innovative ideas break conventions. Breaking conventions often confuses the user, because user interfaces do not look or behave the way he is used to. To solve this problem we can base our designs on …

Innovative ideas break conventions. Breaking conventions often confuses the user, because user interfaces do not look or behave the way he is used to. To solve this problem we can base our designs on a level of 'conventional' knowledge, that is not based on expertise with technology. This level of knowledge is formed through interacting with our environment as embodied minds.

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  • 1. Innova&ve  Designs  for  the   Embodied  Mind   Diana  Löffler   University  of  Würzburg   Chair  of  Psychological  Ergonomics  
  • 2. Innova&ve  vs.  intui&ve?   •  familiar and (supposedly) optimal designs are repeated over and over again to make them (more) intuitive to use •  innovation breaks with conventions
  • 3. Levels  of  ‚conven&onal‘  knowledge   Hur@enne  &  Blessing  2008   so far
  • 4. Levels  of  ‚conven&onal‘  knowledge Hur@enne  &  Blessing  2008   so far future: basing designs on a lower level of conventional level knowledge
  • 5. Computa&onal  theory  of  mind   ©  modified  aIer  Max  Planck  Ins&tute  for  Intelligent  Systems   Brain as a computer ‚operating‘ the body. We focus on the mind by trying to tap mental models, asking questionnaires and so on and neglegt the state of the body and our sensorimotor learning history. We base our designs on knowledge we gained through interacting with software that is intangible and can only be experienced with few senses. We are not used to such a limited way of interaction.
  • 6. Embodied  mind   Now, the nature of the human mind is understood as being largely determined by the form of the human body. We form knowledge of how things work through many bodily interactions with the environment since we were born. Because we are embodied minds, our mind not only influences the body but also vice versa: our body influences our minds as well.
  • 7. CONTAINER   ©  hPp://www.seenby.de/steffi-­‐atze/erstes-­‐bad  
  • 8. PATH   ©  hPp://www.seenby.de/steffi-­‐atze/erstes-­‐bad  
  • 9. UP-­‐DOWN   ©  hPp://www.joannajesse.de/uploads/tx_dmfgalleria/JJesse_Sprung_140x210_2011.JPG  
  • 10. BIG  -­‐  SMALL   ©  hPp://farm6.sta@cflickr.com/5464/9048431792_d576db8ce6_o.jpg  
  • 11. Recurring  sensorimotor   experiences  with  the  environment   become  embodied…   Johnson  1987  
  • 12. extend  to  abstract  concepts…   MORE  IS  UP   LESS  IS  DOWN   IBM  shares   Infla%on  is   rising.   Grady  1997  
  • 13. …  and  influence  percep&on,  behavior   and  cogni&on     ©  hPp://speak2all.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/holding-­‐cup-­‐of-­‐coffee1.jpg   ©  Amy  Cuddy   Physical warmth influences judgements of psychological warmth. Power posing influences self-confidence judgements.
  • 14. How  can  we  design  for  the     embodied  mind?  
  • 15. How  can  we  design  for  the     embodied  mind?   She will rise to the top. Everything is under my control. POWERFUL  IS  UP  –  POWERLESS  IS  DOWN  
  • 16. How  can  we  design  for  the     embodied  mind?   POWERFUL  IS  UP  –  POWERLESS  IS  DOWN   Hur@enne  2011  
  • 17. How  can  we  design  for  the     embodied  mind?   • users make less errors • are faster • and prefer arrangements consistent with their embodied concepts Hur@enne  2011  
  • 18. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 19. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 20. remote  control   Toriizuka  2013   ©  Pioneer   Volume and channel are understood along the vertical domain, explaining why users are always confused with the d-pad.
  • 21. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 22. When  the  outside   temperature  falls   below  20°,  I  push  it   up  to  22.   WARM  IS  UP  –  COLD  IS  DOWN   Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010  
  • 23. I  need  a  liPle  heat  in   the  morning  and  a   liPle  heat  in  the   evening.   TIME  PERIODS  ARE  CONTAINERS    Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010  
  • 24. I  need  the  heat  from   6  to  9  in  the  morning   and  from  6  to  10  in   the  evening.   TIME  PERIODS  ARE  ON  A  PATH   Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010  
  • 25. I  turn  it  off  in  the   aIernoon,  put  it  back   on  when  we  go  to   bed.   ON/OFF  IS  CONTACT  
  • 26. Embodied  Design  LCD   Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010   turn  off/ put  back   on  is   CONTACT   @me  periods   are   CONTAINERS   warm  is  UP  –   cold  is   DOWN   @me  periods   are  on  a   PATH  
  • 27. Familiar  Interface   Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010  
  • 28. User  evalua&on   Hur@enne  &  Langdon  2010   • users make less errors • are faster • and prefer arrangements consistent with their embodied experience
  • 29. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 30. Classic interface
  • 31. Embodied concepts prototype
  • 32. Classic interface
  • 33. Embodied concepts prototype
  • 34. Real-­‐world  costs  and  benefits   Löffler  et  al.  2012,  Löffler  et  al.  2013,  Hess  et  al.  2013     • embodied prototypes are more intuitive to use, described as innovative and creative • the method offers a favorable cost-benefit- ratio
  • 35. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 36. tangible  accoun&ng   Hur@enne,  Weber  &  Blessing  (2008);  Hur@enne,  Israel  &  Weber  (2008),  Thorenz  (2013)  
  • 37. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 38. tangible  interac&on   Hur@enne,  Stößel  &  Weber  (2009),  Arlt  (2013)   Participants categorize abstract concepts based on physical object attributes.
  • 39. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 40. free  hand  and  touch  gestures   Hur@enne,  Stößel,  Sturm,  Maus  et.  al  (2010)   Participants performed touch and free hand gestures on abstract concepts.
  • 41. 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   near-­‐far   up-­‐down   centre-­‐periphery   up-­‐down   near-­‐far   up-­‐down   front-­‐back   up-­‐down   up-­‐down   near-­‐far   front-­‐back   near-­‐far   Young  Group   Old  Group   Familiarity   Happiness   Importance   Power   Valence   Quan&ty   Time   Valence   Virtue   Similarity   Progress   Items  to  be  considered     Abstract  Domain   Physical  Dimension   %  of  gestures  correctly  predicted   !   chance   !   Popula@on-­‐ stereotypes   *   *   Hur@enne,  Stößel,  Sturm,  Maus  et.  al  (2010)  
  • 42. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 43. heuris&c  expert  evalua&on   Bischof  (2013)   Heuristic expert evaluation of user interfaces with embodied concepts to identify potential user problems.
  • 44. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 45. energy  consump&on   Nisha@  ni  kitu  kinacho   mwezesha  mtu   kufanya  kazizake  kwa   urahisi.   Energy  is  something   that  enables   somebody  to  do  work   his  with  ease.     Löffler,  Lindner  &  Hur@enne  (2014)   72% overlap of identified embodied concepts between Swahili and English
  • 46. energy  consump&on   Löffler,  Lindner  &  Hur@enne  (2014)   Paper prototype to identify energy needs and select a solar panel size.
  • 47. central  hea@ng   image  edi@ng   order  &  customer  management   tangible  accoun@ng   tangible  interac@on   free  hand  and  touch  gestures   heuris@c  evalua@on   remote  control   energy  consump@on   touchscreen  interac@on  
  • 48. touchscreen  interac&on    Hur@enne,  Löffler  &  Schmidt  (2014)  
  • 49. body  posture    Hur@enne,  Löffler  &  Schmidt  (2014)   0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Dominance prime Morality prime Mean%ofmoney giventootherperson Sitting condition Standing condition Different body postures and context influence behavioral outcomes in a dictator game (people donated +/- 15% to another player) performed on a touch table vs. wall mounted display.
  • 50. Take  Home  Messages   Diana  Löffler  (diana.loeffler@uni-­‐wuerzburg.de)   •  break conventions at the level of expert knowledge •  consider the learning history at the sensorimotor level •  design for the embodied mind •  check our database of embodied concepts: zope.psyergo.uni-wuerzburg.de/iscat •  take part in our tutorial at MUC14: http://muc2014.mensch-und-computer.de/programm/workshops-mci/tutorium-ibis/ •  drop us an email if you are interested in joint projects and research: diana.loeffler@uni-wuerzburg.de •  visit our website to find out more about the cool stuff we are doing: http://psyergo.uni-wuerzburg.de/
  • 51. References  I   •  Johnson,  M.  (1987).  The  body  in  the  mind:  The  bodily  basis  of  meaning,  imagina@on,  and  reason.  University  of   Chicago  Press,  Chicago.   •  Grady,  J.  (1997).  Founda@ons  of  meaning:  Primary  metaphors  and  primary  scenes.  PhD  disserta@on.  University  of   California,  Berkeley.     •  Hur@enne,  J.  (2011).  Image  schemas  and  design  for  intui@ve  use.  Exploring  new  guidance  for  user  interface  design   (Doctoral  disserta@on,  Technische  Universität  Berlin).     •  Hur@enne,  J.,  &  Langdon,  P.  (2010).  Keeping  warm  in  winter:  Image-­‐schema@c  metaphors  and  their  role  in  the   design  of  central  hea@ng  controls.  In  Fourth  Interna@onal  Conference  of  the  German  Cogni@ve  Linguis@cs   Associa@on  (pp.  53-­‐54).  Bremen:  University  of  Bremen.   •  Löffler,  D.,  Hur@enne,  J.,  &  Maier,  A.  (2012).  Die  Brücke  zwischen  Anforderungen  und  Design  schlagen.  Mit  Hilfe  von   Image  Schemata  Gestaltungsentscheidungen  systema@sch  treffen.  [Building  bridges  between  requirements  and   design.  Systema@c  design  decisions  with  image  schemas].  In  H.  Brau,  A.  Lehmann,  K.  Petrovic  &  M.C.  Schroeder   (Eds.)  Usability  Professionals  2012  (pp.  170-­‐175).  StuPgart:  German  UPA.  Link  hPp://issuu.com/germanupa/docs/ usability-­‐professionals-­‐2012   •  Hess,  A.,  Maier,  A.,  &  Löffler,  D.  (2013).  Die  IBIS-­‐Methode  –  Eine  RE-­‐Methode  zur  Entwicklung  intui@ver   NutzungsschniPstellen  [The  IBIS-­‐method  –  a  RE-­‐method  to  develop  intui@vely  usable  user  interfaces].  GI   So:waretechnik  Trends,  33(1).   •  Löffler,  D.,  Lindner,  K.  &  Hur@enne,  J.  (2014).  Mixing  Languages?  Image  Schema  Inspired  Designs  for  Rural  Africa.  In   CHI  2014  Proceedings  of  the  extended  abstracts  of  the  32nd  annual  ACM  conference  on  Human  factors  in   compu%ng  systems  (pp.  1999-­‐2004).  New  York:  ACM.  doi:  10.1145/2559206.258135   •  Löffler,  D.,  Hess,  A.,  Hur@enne,  J.,  Lange,  K.,  Maier,  A.,  &  SchmiP,  H.  (2013).  Gestaltung  intui@v  benutzbarer   SoIwareanwendungen  mit  der  IBIS  Methode  [Designing  soIware  applica@ons  for  intui@ve  interac@on  using  the   IBIS  method].  i-­‐com  Zeitschri:  für  interak%ve  und  koopera%ve  Medien,  12(2),  pp.  48-­‐54.  Munich:  Oldenbourg-­‐ Verlag.  doi:  10.1524/icom.2013.0016  
  • 52. •  Hur@enne,  J.,  Löffler,  D.  &  Schmidt,  J.  (2014).  Zur  Ergonomie  prosozialen  Verhaltens:  Kontextabhängige  Einflüsse   von  Körperhaltungen  auf  die  Ergebnisse  in  einem  Diktatorspiel  [Ergonomics  of  pro-­‐social  behavior:  Context-­‐ dependent  effects  of  postures  on  the  results  in  a  dictator  game].  In  A.C.  Schütz,  K.  Drewing  &  K.R.  Gegenfurter   (Eds.)  Abstracts  of  the  56th  Conference  of  Experimental  Psychologists  (p.  117).  Lengerich:  Pabst  Science  Publishers,   ISBN  978-­‐3-­‐89967-­‐915-­‐1   •  Löffler,  D.,  Hess,  A.,  Maier,  A.,  Hur@enne,  J.,  &  SchmiP,  H.  (2013).  Developing  intui@ve  user  interfaces  by  integra@ng   users’  mental  models  into  requirements  engineering.  In  S.  Love,  K.  Hone  &  T.  McEwan  (Eds.),  Proceedings  of  the   27th  Interna%onal  BCS  Human  Computer  Interac%on  Conference.  Swinton,  UK:  Bri@sh  Computer  Society  University.   Link  hPp://dl.acm.org/cita@on.cfm?id=2578069   •  Hur@enne,  J.,  Israel,  J.  H.,  &  Weber,  K.  (2008).  Cooking  up  real  world  business  applica@ons  combining  physicality,   digitality,  and  image  schemas.  In  A.  Schmidt  ,  H.  Gellersen,  E.  van  den  Hoven,  A.  Mazalek,  P.  Holleis,  &  N.  Villar   (Eds.),  TEI'08.  Second  Interna@onal  Conference  on  Tangible  and  Embedded  Interac@on  (pp.  239-­‐246).  New  York:   ACM.   •  Hur@enne,  J.,  Weber,  K.,  &  Blessing,  L.  (2008).  Prior  Experience  and  Intui@ve  Use:  Image  Schemas  in  User  Centred   Design  (pp.  107-­‐116).  In  P.  Langdon,  P.  J.  Clarkson,  &  P.  Robinson  (Eds.),  Designing  Inclusive  Futures.  London:   Springer.   •  Hur@enne,  J.,  Stößel,  C.,  &  Weber,  K.  (2009).  Sad  is  Heavy  and  Happy  is  Light  -­‐  Popula@on  Stereotypes  of  Tangible   Object  APributes.  In  N.  Villar,  S.  Izadi,  M.  Fraser,  S.  Benford,  D.  Kern  &  A.  Sahami  (Eds.),  TEI’09  Third  Interna@onal   Conference  on  Tangible  and  Embedded  Interac@on  (pp.  61-­‐68).  New  York:  ACM.   •  Hur@enne,  J.,  Stößel,  C.,  Sturm,  C.,  Maus,  A.,  Rö~ng,  M.,  Langdon,  P.,  &  Clarkson,  P.  J.  (2010).  Physical  gestures  for   abstract  concepts.  Inclusive  design  with  primary  metaphors.  Interac@ng  with  Computers,  22,  475-­‐484.   •  Toriizuka,  T.  (2013).  A  study  on  the  opera@on  for  devices  based  on  image  schema.  The  Japanese  Journal  of   Ergonomics  49  (Supplement),  288-­‐289.   References  II  

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