Motivational Dynamics in Health Behavior Change

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Health behavior change has proven to be extremely difficult to accomplish, and the adoption and maintenance of beneficial health regimens has surfaced as a daunting task for the average individual. While many people voice a desire to more frequently engage in healthy behaviors, the evidence is clear that human desire and motivation can be undermined and our commitments can be easily broken. If we, as designers, want to create systems to facilitate behavior change, we need to better understand how to initiate and support people's intrinsic motivations while balancing extrinsic design factors to optimize success.

In this talk, we'll take a high level look at the psychology of motivation and deep-dive into key points to consider when creating systems to bridge the gap between people's intentions and their actions.

Published in: Design, Technology, Business

Motivational Dynamics in Health Behavior Change

  1. 1. MOTIVATIONAL DYNAMICS  GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   IN HEALTH BEHAVIOR CHANGE DUSTIN DITOMMASO VP, Experience Design dustin@madpow.net | @DU5TB1N | #hxdfconf
  2. 2. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   ENGAGEMENT   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  3. 3. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   ENGAGEMENT   INTRINSIC VALUE   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  4. 4. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   ENGAGEMENT   INTRINSIC VALUE   EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR CHANGE   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  5. 5. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   MOTIVATIONAL DESIGN?   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  6. 6. CHANGE IS HARD  @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  7. 7. COM-B MODEL   Michie et al @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  8. 8. JOHNMARSHALL REEVE   “ Motivation is the process which gives behavior its energy and direction.”@DU5TB1N | #hxdconf Understanding Motivation and Emotion, 2005
  9. 9. INTRINSIC VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS  Intrinsic Motivation  Extrinsic Motivation   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  10. 10. INTRINSIC VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS  Intrinsic Motivation  « Acts for the fun or challenge rather than because of external prods, pressures or rewards« Feelings of satisfaction when engaged in interesting activitiesExtrinsic Motivation   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  11. 11. INTRINSIC VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS  Intrinsic Motivation  « Acts for the fun or challenge rather than because of external prods, pressures or rewards« Feelings of satisfaction when engaged in interesting activitiesExtrinsic Motivation  « Behaviors performed in order to obtain some separable outcome« Such as a tangible reward, an avoidance of punishment, or the attainment of recognition, achievement, or approval @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  12. 12. INTRINSIC OR EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION?   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  13. 13. SELF-DETERMINATION CONTINUUM   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  14. 14. AMOTIVATION  NON-REGULATION  Lacks intentionality and a sense ofpersonal causationResults from not valuing an activity(Ryan, 1995)Not feeling competent to do it(Deci, 1975)Not believing it will yield a desiredoutcome (Seligman, 1975) @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  15. 15. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  EXTERNAL REGULATION  Operant ConditioningActivities are done purely to satisfyexternal demandsBehavior is fueled by the possibility ofreward and punishmentBehaviors cease when reward orpunishment is not explicitly appliedPeople typically feel controlled oralienated performing externallyregulated activities @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  16. 16. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  INTROJECTED REGULATION  Based upon internal rewards andpunishmentsStill controlled behavior, but representsa greater degree of internalizationAvoid guild or anxietyBoost the ego with pride @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  17. 17. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  IDENTIFIED REGULATION  Conscious valuing of a behavioral goalIndividual "identifies with" or personallyvalues the behaviors they engage inWays of thinking and behaving are seenas personally importantBehaviors persist independently ofenvironmental rewards @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  18. 18. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION  INTEGRATED REGULATION  Occurs when Identified regulations havebeen fully assimilated into the selfValues, behaviors and needs broughtinto congruence with other values,behaviors and needsRivals intrinsic motivation in therelative autonomy experience by theactor @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  19. 19. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION  INTRINSIC REGULATION  Pinnacle of self-determined activityActivity is carried out purely for theinherent satisfaction of doing so @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  20. 20. SELF-DETERMINATION CONTINUUM   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  21. 21. @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  22. 22. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK   @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  23. 23. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for it @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  24. 24. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing water @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  25. 25. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it money @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  26. 26. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punished @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  27. 27. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedSet up a water-drinking skills training program @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  28. 28. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedSet up a water-drinking skills training programDevise water-drinking regulations @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  29. 29. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedSet up a water-drinking skills training programDevise water-drinking regulationsPut up signs pointing the way to the pond @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  30. 30. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedSet up a water-drinking skills training programDevise water-drinking regulationsPut up signs pointing the way to the pondShow another horse doing it @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  31. 31. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  Tell it that water is good for itShow it enticing pictures of refreshing waterOffer it moneyWarn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedSet up a water-drinking skills training programDevise water-drinking regulationsPut up signs pointing the way to the pondShow another horse doing itGive it straw @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  32. 32. GETTING A HORSE TO DRINK  EDUCATIONPERSUASIONINCENTIVISATIONRESTRICTIONTRAININGCOERCIONENVIRONMENTAL RESTRUCTURINGMODELINGENABLING @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  33. 33. REGULATORS, RIDE!  EDUCATION Tell it that water is good for itPERSUASION Show it enticing pictures of refreshing waterINCENTIVISATION Offer it moneyRESTRICTION Warn it that if it doesn’t it will be punishedTRAINING Set up a water-drinking skills training programCOERCION Devise water-drinking regulationsENVIRONMENTAL Put up signs pointing the way to the pondRESTRUCTURINGMODELING Show another horse doing itENABLING Give it straw @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  34. 34. PUTTING IT TOGETHER   + Promote Identified Regulation ++  Promote  Iden,fied  Regula,on  +   for doing the activity 1.  Provide the rationale 2.  Acknowledge that the person might not want to do what you are asking them to do 3.  Ensure that the language and style used to initiate participation in the activity involves minimal pressure @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  35. 35. PUTTING IT TOGETHER   + Promote Interest ++  Promote  Iden,fied  Regula,on  +   1.  Seek out ways to make uninteresting and boring activities not boring 2.  Enhance the challenge offered by an activity to test participant’s skill 3.  Add novelty and variety to repetitive tasks, where possible 4.  Frame the context within story or even fantasy 5.  Behavior Change Games FTW! @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  36. 36. PUTTING IT TOGETHER   + Promote Competence ++  Promote  Iden,fied  Regula,on  +   1.  Provide clear instructions and individualized goals 2.  Break complex tasks down (Make it easy!) 3.  Tolerate and forgive failures 4.  Provide positive (& juicy!) feedback 5.  Use extrinsic rewards to mark achievement not to motivate action @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  37. 37. KURT LEWIN  “ There is nothingso practical as agood theory.” @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  38. 38. “ Buy it Beer! ” @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  39. 39. SOME REFERENCES  Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. (1994). Losing control: How andwhy people fail and self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.DeCharms, Richard (1968), Personal Causation: The Internal Affective Determinantsof Behavior. New York: Academic Press.Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination inhuman behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Deci, Edward L., Halah Eghrari, Brian C. Patrick, and Dean Leone (1994),“Facilitating Internalization: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective,” Journal ofPersonality, 62 (1), 119–42.Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘‘what’’ and ‘‘why’’ of goal pursuits: Humanneeds and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.Michie et al.: The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising anddesigning behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science 2011 6:42.Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes.Journal of Personality, 63, 397–427.Ryan, R. M., Frederick, C. M., Lepes, D., Rubio, N., & Sheldon, K. M. (1997). Intrinsicmotivation and exercise adherence. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28,335–354.Ryan, R. M., and Edward L. Deci (2000a), “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: ClassicDefinitions and New Directions,” Contem-porary Educational Psychology, 25 (1), 54–67. @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  40. 40. SOME MORE REFERENCES  Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivationalstyles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 599–620.Vallerand, R. J., & Reid, G. (1984). On the causal effects of perceived competence onintrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of SportPsychology, 6, 94–102.Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsicmotivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp.271–360). New York: Academic Press.Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996).Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 70, 115–126.IMAGE CREDITS  Cover: http://wallpaper-s.org/12__Color_Flow_Light_Effect.htmSmoke: http://portablewheelchairrampsguide.comBurger: http://us.123rf.com/KettleBell: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/Kurt Lewin (MIT)HorseDrinking Painting: salliesart.blogspot.comHoseHorse: DineDashDeadlift.comBeerHorse: Lee Sanders/newsteam.co.uk 22/09/09 @DU5TB1N | #hxdconf
  41. 41. THANK YOU ! !  “ Give it Beer! ” Portsmouth      |      Boston      |      Louisville   We deliver research-inspired design aimed at improving the experiences people have with technology, organizations, and each other. DUSTIN DITOMMASO VP, Experience Design dustin@madpow.net | @DU5TB1N

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