2. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITBAcknowledgementI would like to acknowledge the support of all those peoplewho were involved with me in my project and made it workout in a very successful manner.First of all I would like to thank my parents for their love,blessing and support and encouraging me to give my bestall the time and providing everything, such as money, tobuy anything that are related to this project work and theiradvise, which is the most needed for this project.My warm thanks to Anirudhha Sir and Ravi Sir for letting usto go ahead and do a self- sponsored project and all IDCfaculties for their support and guidance.To my guide Mr. Dhaval Joshi for his valuable guidanceand direction through out the project period.Last but not the least, GOD for providing me strength whenthings were not going well and motivation to go on.
3. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITBSynopsisThe Summer Internship is the first project of your secondyear at Industrial Design Center, which offers a student anopportunity to learn, hone and display the design skills in areal life situation. In a period of 4-6 weeks, the student withguidance from faculty and external guide, strives to offer acomprehensive solution to the need.This Summer Internship was a self-sponsored project,which was carried out under guidance of Dhaval Joshi, aDesign researcher in field of Interaction deign. The projectaimed to understand and explore the basics of electronicsusing various textile and non textile materials.Working on this project required me to be self-disciplined,organized and motivated, since it is very difficult to workwhen there are no constraints with timings and no one totell you what to do.
4. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITBContents1 Exploring ways of interacting (project 1) 1.1 Project brief and scope..........................1 1.2 Approach................................................2 1.3 Secondary research...............................3 1.4 Material sourcing....................................6 1.5 Learning electronics...............................72 Computing for socio-economic development (project 2) 2.1 Introduction to ICTD...............................20 2.2 About MSR Summer School...................21 2.3 ICTD projects by TEM MSR...................22 2.4 Projects..................................................243 Conclusions........................................................294 References.........................................................30
5. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 11-Exploring ways of interacting 1.1 Project brief and scopeWith getting into Interaction in IDC, I always thought thatI would try mixing technology with textiles during my extratime, but could never make it. Summer internship was theopportunity for me to explore this field and since I am fromnon-technical background, I had to start from the basics.The project brief was to understand, learn and explorethe basics of electronics, so that I could be able to makeworking prototypes for my projects in future.The project provides great scope for experimentationand innovation; a good opportunity for exploring differentmaterials and techniques.It also gives an opportunity to research about the ongoingexperiments in related field, become literate to thetechnical language, and to learn some basic coding foryour experiments.
6. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 21.2 ApproachThe first task for any project is to research, study what isthe present scenario in this field. This is an important phasein project life cycle, in which the project focus was realizedand basically established a direction of the project.Next phase involved developing the skills; understandingof working of electronics.Material sourcing was carried out in local markets of Delhiand Bangalore, were explored to find the options availablefor project.In the next phase, explorations were carried out. Due to theexperimental nature of this phase, it was a good learningexperience. Small working projects were developed in thelast phase of the project.
7. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 31.3 Secondary researchThe field of smart textiles is very new in India and there arebarely any firms working on this field. So doing a secondaryresearch was the most appropriate option given the 4 weekstime.The once I came across were1) Talk to my shirt:This site is dedicated to Wearable Electronics in the purestsense: Textile based, Clothing and Fashion Accessories.That’s all. If a new product claims to be Wearable(Electronics) but does not meet this criteria, it will not beincluded in this site. Portable (Electronics) does not meanWearable (Electronics). talk2myShirt is the ‘missing link’,the worldwide communication platform to enable suchcollaboration.2) Plusea:This site has DIY (Do it Yourself) projects on wearabletechnology which require a reasonable understanding ofelectronics and circuits.Calle Rosenqvist, Beat Dress (photo by Johan Sundell)
8. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 43) HIgh-low tech:High-low tech is a collaborative effort of faculties from MITMedia labs, working on wearable textiles. The facultiesinvolved are Leah Buechley (Assistant Professor of MediaArts and Sciences, MIT Media Lab), David Mellis(Graduate Student of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT MediaLab), Emily Lovell(Graduate Student of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT MediaLab), Hannah Perner-Wilson(Graduate Student of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT MediaLab), Bonifaz Kaufmann(Visiting Student of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT MediaLab).4) Fashion & Technology at the School of Arts andCommunication at Malmö University:The course explores the field through a study of clothing andstyle as socio-cultural communication and an investigationof how emerging technologies can assist in personalexpression. After that, practical workshops invite studentsto craft their own prototype.
9. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 55) Cute Circuit:CuteCircuit is a fashion company based in London thatdesigns wearable technology. CuteCircuit productsare innovative intelligent clothing that integrate newfunctionalities into fashion through the use of smart textilesand micro electronics. CuteCircuit is the first company tomerge wearable and telecommunication technology tocreate emotionally rich experiences for users in the fashion,sport and communication industries.One of Cute Circuit’s products, the Hug Shirt, washonored as one of the Best Inventions of The Year byTime Magazine. This same product was also awardedthe First Prize at Ciberart Festival in Bilbao, Spain.CuteCircuit work is frequently featured in books on design,art and innovation, publications include: World Changing,Fashioning the Future, Smart Materials in Design,Fashion and Architecture, Sex Design, and Designing forInteraction. Many of CuteCircuit products have also beenpublished on magazines and newspapers worldwide, suchas TIME Magazine, ELLE, Design Matters, Stuff, WIRED,The Daily Telegraph, The Times, the Financial Times, andCNN. CuteCircuit was featured in the special issue on theAmerican Avant Garde by Surface Magazine. The recentbook Fashionable Technology, prominently features all ofCuteCircuit’s work to date.
10. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 61.4 Material sourcingDuring the secondary research, I came across throughmaterials which were suitable for my project; Conductivethread, conductive fabric, conductive sheet (velostat).These materials are flexible, washable as a polyester fabricand sewable, even with sewing machines.I tried few manufacturers in India, but it seemed impossibleto find these materials in India and ordering form US wouldbe time consuming and expensive.Most of the material related to electronics were sourcedfrom S.P. Road in Bangalore and in Old Delhi.
11. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 71.5 Learning electronicsRepairing fuse at home was the only thing I have done sofar in electronics and I needed much more to learn to makeprototypes in future. So starting with a beginner’s kit wasnot a bad idea.I used a kit for control-less robots by using a combination ofdigital and analog electronic circuits. The kit contained allthe necessary electro-mechanical components to start with.By using the same fundamental concepts of electronics,we could control behaviors for our robot. These behaviorscan consist of path tracing, clap sensing, obstacle avoidingetc.Later I explored the function of Arduino, a single-boardmicro controller and a software suite for programming. Thehardware consists of a simple open hardware design for thecontroller with an Atmel AVR processor and on-board I/Osupport. The software consists of a standard programminglanguage and the boot loader that runs on the board.Arduino hardware is programmed using a Wiring basedlanguage (syntax + libraries), similar to C++ with somesimplifications and modifications, and an Processing basedIDE.
12. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 8Starting from lighting up an LED on a bread board andlearning basics simultaneously, I moved further with morecomplex circuits. In this process I learnt to read a circuitdiagram very well, which initially I found very confusing.
13. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 9Further the projects included things like capacitors,transistors, LDRs, DC motors etc.Images: Top left - a circuit when triggered turns the LEDon for sometime.Bottom left - A circuit for a robot which runs when there islight.
14. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 10A clap activated LED circuit, which turns the LED on forsometime when clapped.
15. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 11A clap activated robot, which runs forward when clapped.The role of IC is very important in the circuit for suchproject.
16. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 12A robot with IR (infra red) sensor pair. The IR LED andIR photodiode help the robot to follow a path (black line /white line).
17. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 13Arduino project began in Ivrea, Italy in 2005 to make a devicefor controlling student-built interaction design projects lessexpensively than other prototyping systems available atthe time.It is an open-source electronics prototyping platform basedonflexible,easy-to-usehardwareandsoftware.It’sintendedfor artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested increating interactive objects or environments. Arduino cansense the environment by receiving input from a varietyof sensors and can affect its surroundings by controllinglights, motors, and other actuators.There are lots of reading material available on Internet forlearning coding for Arduino and few open source projects.Asusualthefirstprojectwastosay“helloworld”byoperatingan flashing LED, using code.
18. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 14Before starting with project, an Arduino requires to beinstalled on your computer and then some changes insettings. The projects done on Arduino are usually knownas sketch.Images: Top left - a sketch of pulsating LED on arduino.Bottom left - a sketch of a traffic light signals. The timingof the LEDs is controlled by the coding done on arduinosoftware.
19. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 15A sketch of interactive Traffic light signal, in which whenthe button is pressed, the arduino reacts by changing thestate of the lights to make the cars stop and allow thepedestrian to cross safely.
20. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 16A sketch to use a string of LEDʼs to make an LED chaseeffect, and on the using the concept of arrays in coding.
21. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 17It is an extension of the earlier sketch of LED chase effectwith addition of the potentiometer. By turning the knob ofthe potentiometer, we can change the value of ledDelayand speed up or slow down the effect.
22. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 18A sketch where the LEDs’ colors slowly change from oneto another, making your own mood lamp.
23. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 19After gaining knowledge in basics of electronics, I wastrying with incorporating SMDs in fabric, by weavinginsulated thin wires to create a matrix. There were lotsof trial and error in this project. The Idea was to have aflexible LED screen on fabric, on which display can becontrolled by arduino. If conductive yarn/fiber were used,the final sample would be washable, and soft.Image: Top left and bottom- a trial structure and workingof LEDs for weaving the SMDs.
24. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 202-Computing for socio-economicdevelopment2.1 Introduction to ICTDInformation and Communication Technologies forDevelopment (ICT4D) is a general term referring to theapplicationofInformationandCommunicationTechnologies(ICTs) within the field of socioeconomic development orinternational development. ICT4D concerns itself withdirectly applying information technology approaches topoverty reduction. ICTs can be applied either in the directsense, wherein their use directly benefits the disadvantagedpopulation, or in an indirect sense, wherein the ICTs assistaid organizations or non-governmental organizations orgovernments or businesses in order to improve generalsocio-economic conditions. In many impoverished regionsof the world, legislative and political measures are requiredto facilitate or enable application of ICTs, especially withrespect to monopolistic communications structures andcensorship laws.The concept of ICT4D can be interpreted as dealingwith disadvantaged populations anywhere in the world,but is more typically associated with applications indeveloping countries. The field is becoming recognizedas an interdisciplinary research area as can be notedby the growing number of conferences, workshops andpublications. Such research have been spurred on in partby the need for scientifically validated benchmarks and
25. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 212.2 About MSR Summer SchoolThe Summer school on computing for Socio-economicDevelopment was organized and financed by MicrosoftResearch India, especially the Technology for EmergingMarkets (TEM) Group at the IISc. The school had lots of veryinteresting lectures and discussions from researchers infield of ICTD and had exciting group works which consistedof field work on the streets of Bangalore.TEM MSR India:The main goals of the TEM group are to understandexisting and potential technology users, to design andevaluate systems and to collaborate with NGOs. Ed Cutrellis actually the manager of the group, he replaced KentaroToyama who went back to the U.S. to work on a book onglobal development.results, which can be used to measure the efficacy ofcurrent projects. Many international development agenciesrecognize the importance of ICT4D.
26. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 221) Text-Free User InterfacesThe goal of this research is to understand, devise andimplement design principles such that a non-literate personcan, at first contact with a PC or phone, immediately realizeuseful interaction with minimal or no assistance.2) Tools for K-12 TeachersLike collage - The tool enables teachers to display digitalscans of textbook pages along with digital multimedia inan interactive fashion. For example, an English teacherteaching a chapter called “Banyan Tree” can show pagesfrom the text and in between the pages s/he can presentimages and videos of a real banyan tree.http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/edulab/collage.html2.3 ICTD projects by TEM MSR
27. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 233) Simultaneous Shared Access- MultipointThey are working on a project where we provide eachchild with a mouse and cursor on screen, thus effectivelymultiplying the amount of interaction per student per PC,for the cost of a few extra mice.http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/edulab/multipoint.htmlhttp://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/edulab/cloze.htmlhttp://www.microsoft.com/multipoint/mouse-sdk/4) Rural Microfinance and ITThey are conducting primary research on understandingthe ways in which rural and urban low-income householdsaccess and use financial services from formal and informalproviders.5) DVDs for EducationA very interesting project! They are developing applicationsfor interactive DVDs using the menu system from ordinaryDVDs for content. So they put for example SchoolsWikipedia on a DVD, so you can access Wikipedia withjust a DVD player + TV.http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/thies/ictd10-abstract.txt6) Everyday mobile use in the developing worldTheir project explores the diversity of mobile use in settingswhere the mobile is the primary ICT, while identifyinggeneralizable patterns and trends.7) ICTs in urban slumsThis work explores the adoption of information &communication technologies in the context of urban slumsin Mumbai. They are conducting ethnographic researchamongst ICT-based business like mobile phone stores,cyber cafes, PC assembling units and computer traininginstitutes to map the ecologies of mobile phones and PCsin these communities.
28. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 248) Digital GreenDigital Green is dedicated to improving the social,economic, and environmental sustainability of small farmerlivelihoods. They aim to raise the livelihoods of smallholderfarmers across the developing world through the targetedproduction and dissemination of agricultural informationvia participatory video and mediated instruction throughgrassroots-level partnerships.9) Mobile-phone-enabled banking and paymentsThe project involves looking at a range of existing andproposed m-banking and m-payment solutions acrosscountries,understandingtheusabilityofm-banking systemsby low-literate clients, as well as assessing the social andeconomic context and impact of the new channel on low-income households.
29. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 252.4 ProjectsThrough out the 15 days of this summer school we hadvery interesting talks by people who have been working inthis field of ICTD, like:Revi Sterling about ‘the history of development theory andpractice’.Aishwarya Ratan about ‘the Mozambican cashew industry’and ‘Portfolio of poor’ (Being poor is a triple “whammy”for these people, it’s not just their low income, it’s as wellthe uncertain timing of cash flows, the irregularity andunpredictability of income, which makes every days lifehard for these people. An other problem is, that financialinstruments don’t address these people.).Nimmi Rangaswamy was speaking about slum ecology.Revi Sterlings talk was about advancement throughinteractive radio (community based radio).Michael Best topic was “Rich digital media as a tool in postconflict trout and reconciliation.Jonathan Donner topic was “A review of the research onmobile use by micro and small enterprises”.Indrani Medhi talked about everyday life in rural village,and about her experiences on the field.Kentaro Toyama talked about “Ten myths of ICT4D”.Joyojeet Pal talked about “Disability in the DevelopingWorld”.
30. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 26In the beginning we did small group discussions on thegoals of development generally and why to use ICTs fordevelopment. We examined development practice througha paper/case study and discussion with faculties.In our field work we went out in small groups of three,where we did quantitative as well as qualitative interviewswith low income workers in Bangalore. Based on our one ofqualitative interviews, we had to make a poster.In a talk by Geeta Menon, she told us about the life in urbanslums, to prepare us for our visit in a slum. In small groupswe visited different slums and had the chance to speakwith the people about their lives, their worries.
31. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 27The school focused quite a lot on the research part of theICTD.WehadlecturesbyIshaRayandNimmiRangaswamyabout the essentials of qualitative methods for ICTDfieldwork. Nimmi Rangaswamy told us about qualitativedata analysis and Aishwarya Ratan about working withquantitative data, statistical methods like Hypothesis testingand also about impact evaluation. Based on these talks wehad group work of coming up with a methods we woulduse for this research, why and how we would design theresearch overall for a given research question and to comeup with research proposal based on your prior work or thefield work done at summer school.We also had talks by people who were actually researchers,but have been contributing a lot in the development of thelow-income group in developing countries.Sean Blagsvedt talked about Babalife and Babajob. Thisis an social networking tool that connects job seekersfrom India’s large informal sector to middle- and upper-class Indians looking to hire maids, cooks, drivers, securityguards, construction workers, and other wage laborers. It isemployment-oriented networking with a social conscienceand a practical function.
32. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 28Rikin Gandhi told us more about the “The digital greenstory”.Solomon Jaya Prakash told us about “Building infrastructureto support low-income workers”. It was mainly aboutLabourNet, a social enterprise which aims at improvingearning opportunities,workingconditions,skillsandsecurityfor workers in the unorganized sector, who constitute over90% of India’s workforce.
33. Dhyan Suman | Summer internship | IDC IITB 293-ConclusionsThe exposure in the field of electronics has improved myskills and has developed confidence in me to try out newideas.The Summer school was a good learning about how peoplehave and we can use the information & communicationtechnology for development of our country people, makingtheir lives better. It was a fantastic experience. I havelearned a lot about ICTD generally and especially how todo research and case studies in that interdisciplinary field.