Transcript of "Exploring technology for improving livelihood of craftsmen"
Exploring technology for improvinglivelihood of craftsmenbyDhyan Suman(09633004)GuideProf. Anirudha JoshiSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for thedegree ofMaster of Design in Interaction DesignIndustrial Design CentreIndian Institute of TechnologyPowai, Mumbai2011Interaction Design Project 3
DeclarationI declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my ownwords and where others’ ideas or words have been included, I haveadequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare thatI have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity andhave not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the abovewill be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evokepenal action from the sources which have thus not been properly citedor from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed._________________________________(Signature)________________________________(Name of the student)_________________________________(Roll No.)Date: __________
Approval sheetThe Interaction Design—Project 3 entitled ‘Exploring Technology forLivelihood of Craftsmen’ by Dhyan Suman is approved, in partial fulfill-ment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Design in Inter-action Design.Guide:Chairman:Internal Examiner:External Examiner:
AcknowledgementI would like to acknowledge the support of the following people fortheir contribution and thank them for making it work out in a very suc-cessful manner.First of all I would like to thank my parents and family for their love,blessings and support.My special thanks to Prof. Anirudha Joshi, for his invaluable guidanceand support. I would also like to thank Prof. Ravi Poovaiah and Prof.Pramod Khambete for their time to time inputs.Also Sanjay Chippa and Mukesh Jajpura for helping me in user studies.
Contents1. Overview Abstract 1 Objective 3 Introduction 42. Literature review Research papers & articles 63. Primary Study Finalizing on User group 10 Pharad: about craft 13 The process 15 User study 21 The System 33 People and Process 374. Problems & Insights 38 What are the things that drive a craft 42 Experts views on craft 43 Why people buy 44 Consumer’s view 455. Parallel Study Organizations working in craft sector 46 Business models 49 Grameen Bank 49 Amul 53 Ebay 57 Selling online 586. Design Brief Design directions 59 Design Goal 617. Early Concepts 63 Concept 1 65 Concept 1.2 67 Concept 2 69 Concept 3 71 Concept 4 73 Concept 5 75 Concept 6 778. Final Concept 79 Working of system 82 Explorations 103 Final Interface 1139. Evaluation 115 Reference 116 Bibliography 117
1AbstractThe aim of the project is to use technology to help craftsmen in mar-keting/ reaching out to more customers. The project proposes a systeminvolving Indian Postal Service and mobile technology to connectcraftsmen to consumers on an online buyer-seller portal.As part of this project various organizations working in craft sectorswere analyzed and different types of business models (especially deal-ing with social benefit) were studied. A detailed analysis of Pharadcraft from Bagru town was done.The online portal is proposed to be one dedicated only to crafts wherethe buyers would be enlightened with crafts’ history, making processand to information about all the craftsmen connected to the system.Also it was taken care that the solution should not force craftsmen tolearn new technology to get benefited. A simple way of accessing tothe online world of selling with the present knowledge of technology;in this case it was use of a basic mobile phone.Keywords:Craftsmen, System design, mobile application1. Overview
3ObjectiveThe earlier projects I did at IDC were mainly focused on learningabout electronics and tangible interaction, this time I wanted to ex-pand my horizon by learning other skills in interaction design.In this project I wanted to work for a real cause, issues inspired frommy past experience, thus I chose working for craftsmen. I always hadinclination towards crafts and through this project I would get a betterunderstanding of the business model followed and the opportunity tocome up with some solution that would help them. I also wanted todo more user study and contextual inquiry based project to hone myskills of interviewing and researching.
4IntroductionIndia is land of vast variety, a land of vast diversity in climate, culture,traditions, cuisines and crafts. The range and diversity of Indian craftis incredible, it’s a reflection of connections with social, economic,cultural and religious forces. The craft is a mirror of the deep-rootedculture, rich heritage and the true character of Indian-ness; be it thePapier-mache of Kashmir, the mashroo fabrics of Gujarat, the durriesof Rajasthan, the Chikankari of Lucknow, the meenakari and kundanworks of North India and many more.Handicrafts and handloom is not source of livelihood of 130 lakhweavers and artisans, buts also an environment friendly, energy sav-ing form of art that has secured India’s presence in millions of homeacross the globe.These craft persons equipped with inherent skill, technique, and tra-ditional craftsmanship are finding it difficult to compete with the vastforce of globalization. The local markets filled with cheap replicas ofcrafts and all mass-produced items, makes it difficult for the crafts per-son to survive; the look alike Banarasi saree and Kanchivaram sareesmass produced in china, made up of synthetic yarn, might be veryreasonable and functional, but do not have the authenticity of place,handmadeness and emotional value attached with the crafts. Withvanishing local haat culture (in detail in chapter 6), majority of Indiancraftsmen suffer from limitations in accessing and understanding pos-sible new markets.This project is an attempt to help the craftsman to create a niche for him-self that would help him in sustaining himself and his family and to gener-ate employment through his traditional knowledge and craftsmanship.
5MethodologyLiterature review• Primary research• Findings, insights and observations• Identifying problem• Design goal• Initial concepts• Final concept• User testing & feedback•
6Research papers & articlesIn India, crafts is one of the major industry and India being one of theimportant suppliers of the handicrafts to the world market. There hasbeen rapid growth of handicraft items in export and domestic marketsince last few years (table 1 & 2). Though recent recession has also ef-fected the handicrafts exports, employment has increased since 90s tillnow; 19.7 % increase in 1994-95 (table 1) and there has been a con-stant growth in number of people employed in handicrafts (table 2).Paradoxically, with the growth in handicrafts, the struggling craftsmenare not benefited. A report on Andhra Pradesh weavers by GopinathReddy have harsh and tragic stories where talented and skilled weav-ers have died from starvation or have committed suicide . Theexample of Andhra weavers is an extreme one, but a vast majority ofpossessors of traditional knowledge are struggling to earn a living.Source: Offices of the Development Commissioner (Handlooms, Handicraft s), Ministry ofTextiles, New Delhi , India.Table 2 Performance of Handicraft sector during 11th five year plan2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 (P)Handicrafts production (Rscrore)38,660 31,940 19,376 20,221.5Employment (lakh persons)handicrafts67.69 69.72 71.81 73.96Handicrafts export (Rs crore) 20,963 17,536 10,891 11,224.27Source: National Sample Survey of Unorganized Manufacturing (45th and 51st rounds), 1989-90 and 1994-5, New Delhi , India.Table 1 Handicrafts in India: Basic Statistics2. Literature Review
7According to numerous articles I went through, the major problemsfaced by Indian craft person are —Artisans generally lack knowledge of and access to means of• increasing quality and productivity, especially in the areas of skilldevelopment, design input (to meet market requirements), andtechnical innovation (in such areas as labour saving methodology,standardization, productivity enhancement and environmentalconcerns and consumer safety) .Craft producers who have lost their traditional markets often are not• aware of the potential new markets for their products, in urban Indiaand abroad. The low level of education and rural orientation of themajority of crafts people leave them vulnerable to exploitation by allthose middleman who are their only means of access to distant mar-kets. Craft producers suffer greatly from lack of working capital andaccess to credit and loan facilities. The producer who receives a largeorder will often not be able to find the funds necessary to purchase rawmaterial in bulk, or to support the family while work is in process .Various credit schemes are available to crafts person, primarily throughgovernment institutions, but it is difficult for the uneducated artisanto understand and access these programs, and its often impossible fora poor crafts person to manage the necessary collateral or funds forrequired bribes. Craftsmen generally suffer from weak marketing, lackof negotiation power and inability to display their items in appropriatemanner.They need better market infrastructure, professionally orga-nized exhibition of products at the international level, efficient systemof supply chain management, brand promotion and standardization .When they do have the opportunity to interact directly with a• buyer, the problems multiply. The essentially agrarian, rural worldview of the producer does not match with the exacting demands ofthe international market, and experiments in direct market accessoften end in a total failure.A major disadvantage of this unorganized sector is the total lack of• civic, professional and social service infrastructure. The individualcrafts person suffers from all of these problems. Scarce and irregu-lar electricity, lack of good roads and absence of transportationfacilities are professional problems as well as daily aggravations.Craft specific professional infrastructure—work sheds, storagespace, shipping and packaging facilities is totally lacking for mostrural crafts producers. And social services infrastructure—insur-ance, medical care, pension plan is something beyond hope .The crafts person in most cases gets little recognition or tangible• reward for extraordinary skills or talents. The craft producer haslittle means of protecting individual creative innovations or tradi-tional community knowledge . Copying is a way of life in India,and exploitation is pervasive at every level. And craftsmen oftenleak unique designs belonging to their clients to the highest bidder.
8The exact ratio between the amount a crafts producer is paid for an• item at source and the final selling price of that item is extremelydifficult to determine. These are matters of extreme secrecy fordealers, traders, and exporters and crafts producers themselves arereluctant to divulge this information. According a case study of asingle piece had the craft producer/retail ratio of 1:70 . Handi-craft export is certainly a profitable business, but little of the profitreaches the hand of the creator. Craft producers who specialize inunique, time consuming processes suffer competition from cheapknockoffs in local markets.
9Through numerous promotional schemes Government of India, Stategovernment and other agencies has helped crafts of rural and urbancenters with great effect over past years. With intention to reach allcorners of the country Government has set up avenues with help ofhandloom and handicrafts board and office of development commis-sioner of handicrafts. Government support to crafts for a viable localand export industry is visible through the consistent growth and de-mand in handicraft in local and international marketThough Governments efforts to develop the handicraft sector, the earli-er stated problems exists everywhere. Suggestions have been made bythe authors of these articles, on possible solutions to these problems.To increase the income of crafts producers, the requirements are• adaptation of skills and products to meet new market requirementsand improvement in market access and supply.To sustain the traditional skill base and to protect the artisans’• traditional knowledge resources, the priority is development andimplementation of appropriate IPR legislation.Adapting traditional skills to new products for changing markets.• This adaptation can be accomplished in many areas in India, in-cluding fashion, home furnishings and tourism.Repositioning skills and products for upscale markets that appreci-• ate and are willing to pay premiums for handcrafted quality andcharacter.There are two main acts especially relevant to crafts –1) The Copy-right Act of 1957 was amended in 1994 to afford greater protection tooriginal literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. 2) The Trade andMerchandize Marks Act of 1958 and The Design Act of 1911 have alsobeen replaced. The new Trademarks Act, among others, amplifies thedefinition of trademarks to incorporate collective marks. We can see some of the good and successful examples of develop-ment in few craft clusters. One of the most successful examples isfashion designer Ritu Kumar, who has been working with traditionaltextile artists since 1970s, to produce Indian and fusion clothing that isfinding an international market.Two of the highly respected firm in craft—FabIndia and Anokhi, main-taining the high standards in crafts with providing education, healthand other social program to their artisan group.Some organizations (URMUL & SEWA) run by craft producers seemsto prove the possibility of community organizational structures thatfunction fairly effective, benefiting the artisans directly.
10Finalizing on User GroupSince it would have been impossible to look at all the crafts for thisprojects in the available time span, but it is my genuine wish to comeup with a solution that can help other craft clusters. For this project,‘Pharad’ craft—hand block with natural dyes has been the focus ofstudy.Finalizing on a groups of craftsmen or a craft from the hundreds ofavailable in India was quite a dilemma. Looking at the given timeframe for this project it was wiser to choose a craft from the perspec-tive of understanding of language; that is choosing a craft where com-municating with craftsmen is not a problem.The best way to figure out number of crafts was to go through the‘Handmade in India’ book. To my surprise there were 178 craftsaround north India where I believed I would be comfortable talkingto. The next criteria to narrow down was the closeness in distance andtime; how easy and fast to commute to the place. And finally on thebasis of the commercialization/exposure to the craft; is the craft dyingor flourishing or just managing to sustain itself.3. Primary Study
11With a soft corner for textile crafts, I finally chose ‘Pharad’—naturaldye hand block printing, as final crafts person group.Another criteria for chosing craft was to look at crafts from its valueaddition to the society. How does one decide whether a particularcraft is worth preserving or not ? With mechanized manufacturing pro-cesses the products can be produced faster and at less product cost ascompared to handmade process, it feels that there might be no needof few crafts in today’s world. But these crafts passed on from onegeneration to another have the historical and traditional importancewhich can not be measured. They are our direct connection withthe history. By not being judgemental about any craft and not to hurtanyone’s feelings (directly/indirectly) I kept this criteria aside for timebeing.I chose five crafts near or around Jaipur, which I thought had potentialto do much better than they were doing presently, They were—1. Natural perfumed dyes: Unfortunately, the crafts person I knewwho did this was no more and none of his son knew how to do it.Sadly, this craft was never even documented.2. Bakhtar craft: Its a craft of making iron dress used for battles us-ing small loops of iron wire. There are few craftsmen in Udaipur areawho still make products out of this technique.3. Pharad (natural dye hand block): Mainly from Bagru,a small town near Jaipur, Pharad is the hand block printing using onlynatural dyes. Traditionally only natural dyes were used in block print-ing, but with exposure to easy to use chemical dyes, lots of printershave stopped practising this craft.4. Block making: Block making is a part of process in block print-ing. There is a separate group of craftsmen who just make these wood-en blocks.5. Taziya making: Taziya is a structure of a mosque made for theprocession in Moharram festival of Muslims. The structure is usuallymade by bamboo and the decorated with colored paper.
13PharadAbout the CraftBlock printing is done in many places in Rajasthan, but Sanganer andBagru are quite famous with their style. Bagru, is a small town situatedat a distance of 32kms from Jaipur. Traditionally the Bagru hand blockprint was done using natural colors and dyes, but craft persons havestarted using chemical dyes. For getting rich colors in designs andmotifs prints, natural material like Indigo for blue, Alizarin for red, Ironfor black, Turmeric for bright yellow are used on cotton fabric.There no written literature available to trace the starting of printing inBagru. According to a legend, the hand printer community ‘Chippa’came to Bagru around 350 yrs. ago from Sawai Madhopur, Alwar,Jhunjhunu and Sikar.Another insight on ‘chippa’ settling down in Bagru was availabilitysuitable conditions for dyeing and printing and availability of water—Sanjariya river, which used to provide water to the town has turnedinto a dirty nala today. The Bagru town has around 130-140 familieswho does block printing, but very few are remaining who do it withnatural colors.
14Figure 4. A sequence model from manufacturing to buyers, made by the user
15The Process1. First the grey fabric is kept overnight or for a day in water mixed with T.R.O. (earlier cow dung was used in place of TRO) to removestarch. Next day the fabric is washed to remove the starch andother impurities.2. Once the fabric is dried, it is then treated in a mixture of Harda,Gingelly oil in water and then spread on ground for drying (fig 4).After drying the fabric will be ready for printing.3. First the outline of the motif is printed with a dark color paste madeout of natural ingredients (fig 5). 4. After printing the fabric is washed to remove extra gum and is driedagain.Figure 4. Harda treatment of fabricFigure 5. Block printing
165. Now the cloth is treated with alizarin process. A furnace is pre-pared where alizarin, dhawari flowers are boiled in a copper vesselto get rich shade of red (fig 6). Once Alizarin process is over con-go-red color is added to the dye bath and the fabric is boiled foranother half an hour and washed with clean water at the end.6. Before sending the fabric for next step of printing, ‘kundi’ a substi-tute to ironing is performed.Figure 6. fabric being dyed in Alizarin.
177. Thereafter, the resist or Dabu (fig 7 & 8) is applied and cloth isdried in sun again. As name suggest it resists parts of fabric wherewe don’t want the dye to go.8. The fabric is then dyed in cold nasphal dye bath, which was pre-pared a day before. The fabric is kept in dye bath for few minutesand taken out and dried again.Figure 7. Dabu printing Figure 8. Fabric before and after Dabu printing
189. The dried fabric is then put in the indigo dye bath (fig 9). This pro-cess would give the fabric blackish blue color. The fabrics is againdried under the sun.10. Next process is fixing the colors by treating the fabric in alumsolution. The alum weaken the resist paste, so it can be easilywashed out in next process. The fabric is again kept for drying.11. The fabric is then thoroughly washed in clean water to remove theresist paste and extra dye (fig 10).Once dried and ironed the fabric is ready to use.Few of Pharad patterns require a second dabu printing at the end ofwhole process and hence making the process even lengthier.Figure 9. Indigo dye bath Figure 10. Finished fabric kept for drying
19Pharad in past have been mainly used by the localities. Especiallywomen of different castes wore as printed skirts (Ghaghra, fig 11) andduppatta. Specific motifs and color denoted a particular catse, for ex-ample Gurjar wore Asmani Pharad with motifs of Dhania, Chobundiand Pat. According to attire people could verify the community. Nowa days, Pharad got extended to sarees, stoles, shirts, table covers andbed covers.Figure 11. Localite wearingpharad skirtFigure 12. Pharad printsPeople mostly confuse Sanganeri prints (fig 13) with Pharad prints (fig14). The Sanganeri prints are mainly done on white base, while Pharadhas various shades of natural dyes. The speciality of Pharad is in creat-ing so many shades in natural dyes by using blocks precisely and byfollowing the manufacturing process correctly. After so many washesthe grains of the fabric loose their position and it become tricky to putthe dabu block in right place. This precision comes with practice andcannot be achieved in screen printing.Figure 13. Sanganeri print Figure 14. Pharad print
21User StudyAs described earlier the users or the final group was chosen accordingto the craft they were doing. In the case here it was Pharad, I startedwith one user I knew and got contacts of other craftsmen in this craft.The user study is done with the aim of getting information about theusers, understanding their environment, their opinions, their goals andfactors that effect their life.The contextual interviews were conducted mostly in Bagru and oneof it in Jaipur. The user group consist of four users, two of them fromthe next generation of the craftsman’s family and two from the oldergeneration.User 1Mr. Sanjay Chippa, a craftsman, designer and businessmanUser 2Mr. Ratan lal, hand block printerUser 3Mr. Mukesh Jajpura, craftsman and businessmanUser 4Mr. Sachin Chippa, hand block printer
22User 1Male, 25, (Designer & printer), married, graduation in design fromIICD,family of five, lives in JaipurHe is also a craftsman turned into entrepreneur. He studied in Indianinstitute of Craft and Design where his fees was waived off because hebelonged to crafts family. He knew the importance of craft and did hisgraduation in design from IICD.Only few families practice ‘Pharad’ style of printing at present. Thecraft itself is expensive in manufacturing, including various steps ofdyeing, block printing and resisting process.The skills of the craftsmen is degrading in terms of natural dyeing pro-cess and fine quality of block printing.Most of the craftsmen have the midset for ensuring quantity and notquality.He is eager to know more about natural dyes and how to create moreshades.He has never tried selling his product online, but would not mind it.He has few permanent buyers and otherwise sells through exhibitionsorganized by govt. and private organizations. He does not export him-self but sell to few buyers who does export of it.The exhibitions system has lottery system to allot space for craftsmen,due to high demand of craftsmen trying to display.The big buyers like FabIndia usually give less as compared to the pricein wholesale market, thus making craftsmen to cut down on quality,skipping few process in dyeing or shifting to cheap dyes.Other than that there are few designers to whom he sells his product.Till his father was handling the craft, he was able to make around 4lakh per annum as turnover for a family of five. Now he mainly workson the natural dyes ‘pharad’ and with little design intervention hasbeen able to increase the turn over to 30 lakh in just 1.5 yr.Since the process is expensive his products are a bit expensive ascompared to the market, and few of his buyers did try other craftsmenfor less amount but no one can give the quality he is providing and sodoes his buyers came to him only for that.Its just not possible for someone to get the same thing with naturaldyes and with screen printing, that’s his USP and with more awarenesstowards eco friendly dyes and going organic way this craft can gainmore popularity.
23User 2Male, 65-68yrs, printer, married, two daughters married.He and his wife, lives in BagruHe used to work in Pharad printing earlier. At present he does theDabu resist. He has been working in hand block printing around 50+yrs. Hand block printing has been passed on from generation to gen-eration in his family.“I have become old and do not have the power in my body to doPharad anymore”.“Only old and learned people can do Pharad. The new generationkids do not have the skills do it. That’s why it has become less.”He does not have any son. He has two daughters who are married,now its him and his wife. His daughters are married in the family ofblock printers. One stays in Bagru and another stays in Jaipur.Other than dabu resist work, his wife has a small suitcase based shop(opened recently), selling biscuits, paan, biddi, tobacco etc.The ‘seth’ provides him with material, resist paste and the blocks towork.“I have become a labourer”.Pharad work is done in Bagru only, Sanganer has totally turned toscreen printing now. Sanganer printers do not have the skills to doPharad.“I had a business earlier. Worked for clients from Delhi. Had twotables also, did all the work, but now I have become old and can notdo anything.”“karo aap kuch, order- worder laao”His business closed down because of shortage of craftsmen to workand he did not had any son also to take care of business.The speed of work depends on his health; If he is not well then cannoteven finish 10 mts in a day otherwise if he is able to sit for long he cando 100 mts in day.For Pharad, in a month one can produce 300-400 mts including allthe processes. Pharad is time taking process and now its value is notmuch.“Earlier I used to develop around 600 mts fabric of Pharad.”Earlier they used to prepare the whole fabric by themselves and sell itin the monthly haat at ‘choti chaupar’ in Jaipur.
24“We used to start early in the morning, around 5 am and reach thereby 6, sell the material and return to home by evening. By 8-9 o’ clockeverything used to be sold.”Yes I do have a mobile. I do not give my number to people.“pare-shaan karte hain.”I don’t go and ask for work. If ‘seth’ has got work to do, he will comeand give material and things to him.“kaam karana hai to ghar aanahai”.The money is usually given at the end. Sometimes a part of it is givenin advance. His workplace is his home. He has never tried or wentto join bigger units of block printing. He is paid 1-2 rs. per/mt, It mayvary also depending upon the intricacy of the print. If I am not well Isometimes do not take the orders.I have built this house and got my two daughters married by this craft.No, I don’t have bank account. I haven’t opened the account.“pet hi nahi barata hai hamara, to jama kahan se karwayenge hum?”The dealing is usually just word of mouth.No paper slip or written things is done for record.His wife does the final check or repair work of the resist before givingit back to ‘seth’.
25User 3Male, 25 yrs, printer, married, M.com,lives in joint family, lives in BagruHis unit has block printers from his family and other from his cast(chippa). Earlier his father and grandfather used to print Pharad, butnow only his grandfather do it regularly. His grandfather used to goto Haat in choti chaupar in Jaipur to sell fabric, around 25 ago. Therewere 10-15 families in Bagru, who used to do Pharad.Since the process is lengthy the final costing of the fabric is relativelyhigh. The size of the block for Pharad printing is usually small and thuslots of printers do not want to do such a labour intensive work. For anormal hand block printing on an average a craftsman can do 60-70mts in a day , but in Pharad he might be able to do just 30 mts. in aday.People who understand about natural dye, only they buy this fabric.Monsoon and winter season is not favorable for printing.He showed the images from a fashion show where his fabric was used.He used to give to DCH (govt. organization) but have stopped since last6-7 years. DCH used to give less money. The fabric cost has increase 30to 40 rs. and even the raw materials are expensive, so the price of finalfabric increased, but DCH still wanted to give less amount. One moretrouble was that each piece of fabric was checked again at their office.So if he went in morning to DCH office in Jaipur for say 200 pcs. It willbe night by the time he would finish rechecking of the pieces.His father tried to supply to fabindia, his father went to Delhi for that,but did not have any connections or known people in fabindia. Forexample, if he gave his samples of fabric to fabindia, but they wouldgive order to their known supplier to get screen printed.“Today most of the Fabindia print is screen printed, even in anokhi.”Pharad can not be screen printed. If tried screen printing the motifs,would not come at right place.“aajkal customer ko chahiye thoda reasonable rate aur quality achhi”“We have been working for this customer since 9-10 yrs, now weknow the sized he requires. For example he has written 103 tablecloths, we know which size he wants.”Sometimes he makes the designs and sometimes customer too givesdesigns. Then he will give it to block makers to make blocks of thatdesign. The designs and samples are usually sent through courier.He has customers from Delhi who exports. He has been thinking ofdoing export. One of their customer from Jaipur does export.There are lots of things involved in export; you need license, thenthere is quality factor, the money transaction, sometimes buyers visit
26the unit also. And finding buyer is difficult. Then how to supply, howwill the transaction or money transfer would happen.“fir konsa form export ka, kya hai uska knowledge nahi hai”.“export ke liye mediator hona achha rahata hai”He can supply the material to the mediator and sending / selling is hisbotheration. Since they know the mediator (the person who exports)they can ask for money anytime.He told an incident of the person who exports, where an order of4000-5000 pcs got cancelled because of late delivery. But he sold thatstuff next year“apana hote to fans jaate.”Orders of table covers, coasters are repeated through out the year.There is always demand of these products. One design goes on foraround 10-12 yrs.One block can be used for around 1000 mts, after that it looses theability to absorb the dye and a new block has to be made. Presentlythey get their blocks made in Bagru itself, earlier they used to getblocks made from Jaipur.He might not continue doing Pharad after his grandfather, since thereis no manpower to do.He work on orders from customers. They keep order sheets withdetails of no. of pcs. design and color combination. They keep ordersheets till 3-4 yrs with them. Sometimes he makes the sample andsend it to customers, then after approving they give order. The pc sizedepends on what is it for like is it a saree, or table cover or dress mate-rial. For around 500-1000 mt order the mode of payment is cheque.For small orders cash is preferred.He wants to increase business in printing base market; what are thenew trends, what customer wants, that comes in marketing. By mar-keting we can outsource the production from printers and can takegood price from customers. for eg. fabric is around 35-40 p/mt +25/30 p/mt printing outsourced and we can sell that at 90/100 to cus-tomer. He had catalogue and visiting cards.The delivery due date is usually 90 days. Usually printers take halfmoney in advance by 7-8 the day of work and rest when he gets allthe job done. Then it will take 8-10 days for packaging, then it goes tocustomer. Then customers usually do the payment within 30-45 days“The customer has become smart these days, he is risking our moneyinitially. He will add his profit to the order and sells it and when hegets the money, he will pay us and keep the profit with him.”Sometimes if we ask the customer gives some advance payment tooFor a new customer we keep the cash transaction in cash. After gain-ing trust then we do the cheque transaction and the payment period of30 days.
27Now a days they use money transfer as mode of payment. The cus-tomer takes their account no. and deposits the money. Once its con-firmed the delivery is done.Internet is not working since 2-3 months lately. He searches for newbuyers on internet. On net you can search for the contact details andmeet them later on. But nothing can replace face to face talk.If required by customer they get the door delivery done by transportcompanies in Jaipur. For sending parcels they have to go to Sanganer.
28User 4Male, 40 yrs, (printer), married, education- 8th std,family of three, lives in BagruHe used to work in Kota printing sarees earlier. His whole family andrelatives stays in Kota, and most of them are in govt. services. Onlyhim, his wife and kid stays in Bagru. He is the only one who is inprinting.His wife is working at the public water provider setup by govt at Anaajmandi. She has been working there since last 7 years in hope of get-ting a permanent govt job. He is even ready to give bribe of 50-60k ,or even 1 lakh for that.He has helped a lot of people in getting jobs in units. He told thestory of his nephew, who earned around 80-100rs daily and was alabourer. He has taught his nephew this craft and got him placed in aunit in Sanganer. His nephew learnt the gold block printing there (1gmpigment dye) and started earning good. Later he used to go to marketto supply the finished material. Now his nephew has his own unit andaround 30 block printers work for him. He works completely for thelocal market of Jaipur. He never tried to open his own unit.The craft and this business is not difficult, if someone has interest cando quite good in this.If you want to export then there are people in Jaipur and Delhi. Youcan supply your material to them and they will export it, anywhere inthe world. Direct connection to client is usually not possible.“Direct karna chaho to karlo, woh to contact hona chahiye na apna.”“Ab export ki knowledge to kya, sab ke bas ki baat nahi hai”One can put up his showroom, have a good margin. The local markethas also developed now (normal printing). You have to send sample ofthe design with four color variation to the client. When they approve,they might order for 2000 /500/100 mts. If you have direct contactwith clients in Delhi, Mumbai. You can just make samples, get themapproved and outsource the manufacturing. Lot of outside clientscome to Bagru, some take ready stuff and some chose the sample onfabric provided by printer for the order.Preparation for pigment is not difficult. Buy the pigment dye and startprinting, it’s hassle free.The fabric printed with rapid dyes has to be washed in acid and nitratemixture. Sanganer works in rapid dyes, all materials like dress materi-als, bedcovers, dupattas, are done in rapid dyes. Rapid dyes requiremore water than pigment. Pigment dye is not as fast as rapid dyes.He didn’t know about the side effects of the chemical dyes.
29For natural dyes here the water is kept on boiling and dawariya isadded. Then the fabric is put in that water and tossed for 1-2 hrs to getthe color.“yeh mehnat ka kaam hai, Bagru ka kaam to kya hai bekaar hai pura.lekin sabse badhiya kaam to kya hai ki pigment ka dye laao, pigmentlagao aur pigment ke upar as pass gold/silver ka patli line lagao.”Earlier direct gold color paste was used on odhani, lugadi, palla. Nowbetter gold powder is used (100gm/ per kg), with binder for better du-rability. Here the demand is of traditional black and red color preparedfrom iron, alum etc. for export.In pigment one need not to do the final washing, the fabric is printed,dried, ironed and given to the customer. Lots of sarees come in forprinting are printed, ironed and sent directly.These stuff would not be bought by any other person, the standard VIPpeople buy these sarees of rs. 1500, 2000, 2500 and on. They will useit 3-4 times and wont use it more. These pieces (table covers) wouldgo to showrooms, wholesalers, big hotels. Will be used/washed twice/thrice and will be thrown away.If you want to get that in natural dyes, its difficult and laborious work.But sarees are doing good, one can do business in sarees, have ashowroom or supply to showrooms. Now very less people do Pharad.There is no manpower/craftsmen left to do pharad.His has son, 10 yrs old. He doesn’t want him to teach this craft. Hehimself does not have any interest in this craft anymore“usse to padhayenge, likhayange.”We are printers, we just do the printingThere is a unit who works for a Sardar from Delhi, who does export.Some foreign clients come directly to units. A Japanese used to comeHis seth ji (owner of the unit) does not go out for orders. They workfor clients from Delhi, Ahmedabad.“phone aa jata hai, phone par saare order ki baat ho jati hai.”“Give me any design in print, I will certainly do it”,“I learnt thework in just 7 days”Earlier we used to work with big size blocks, now they are no moreused. For sarees we used the metal wired blocks for finer lines andworked with rapid dyes. Kota works mainly in saree printing. Most ofthe supplies went to Gwalior, Indore, none was exported. Saree print-ing was not practiced in Jaipur earlier, people did not knew about it.Around 25-30 km away from Kota there is village of weavers where
30Kota-malsuria sarees are made, it used to cost around 1500 rs. The du-plicate of that is made in banaras and costs around 90-100. Earlier theKota-malsuria used to plain, now they have started using zari, givingborders.“aaj kal to kai hai, ki 1,2 ,3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, tak ginti sikha aursochta hai 100 tak ginti aagyi apan ko”Rapid dye is much better than pigment, the fabric might wear & tearbut the color won’t become dull. We have to do the matching of col-ors initially and then the printing job.Now a days lot of people have put up showrooms (shops) in Bagru.Sometimes clients come to these showrooms, they are shown the unitalso and sold the ready stuff.“aajkal to computer se hone lag gaya na yeh (printing)”If a hand block printer could do 50 mts in a day, screen printers usedto do 500 mts, so the hand block printing is less practiced .He has worked for 18 years in a karkhana (unit) in Bagru. He left it tosee opportunities outside, to make contacts and to learn what is goingon. He went to Sanganer, Ajmer after that, gained lot of knowledge.Then he did work for a seth near to Pushkar, who was into export busi-ness. He worked there for 8 days and left the job. That village was toofar and separated, he didn’t like it there so left it. The seth asked him totake advance money but to return back. He said that if would want hewould come back. He asked few printers to work for seth in that vil-lage on 300 rs wages, but no one wants to go so far. The seth was evenready to give 350/400 rs per day but no one is still ready.“I have never gone to people to ask for work”“Jaise kisi ne pooch liya kahan laga hai…. Kahin nahi.. to mere ya-han aaja.”Work is usually given through social links and known people. He hasworked in 5-6 places and know a lot of people. To get printers for aunit is based on personal contacts. Like seth said we need more peo-ple, I will ask people I know to join.Printers work on daily basis and the fabric printed. For eg. on at rateof 1.90 / rs 2 if he printed 100 mts in a day.. so he would earn around200 rs. The price of printing is dependent on intricacy of block (no. ofblocks).Sanganer has salary system. 9-5 job with 1 hr break for lunch. It hassecurity of fixed income, but here is the choice of work. Good skilledcraftsmen do not have problem of availability of work.
31User 5Male, 40 yrs, damaskas craft, lives in UdaipurThis user is a one in a million example of craftsman who are sellingonline. Though he did not fall under our targeted group, it was a goodand interesting enough case to be studied.He believes that he is the best in damaskas in Udaipur. He got toknow about ebay from one of his client who is also a good friendaround 7-8 years ago. His friend also taught him to use email, so theycan send orders through email. Even few exporters to whom he usedto supply products used Ebay. Everyone around him seemed usingEbay.He felt the need of trying it himself, so around 2-3 yrs ago, with twoof his other friends they registered a firm, got a credit card and currentaccount for Ebay. In team of three, one of them was a computer savvyperson and he was the one to handle all online things.In beginning they uploaded ten products consisting of some foldingknife and some English knife. The first product got sold was the foldingknife and in a weeks time they sold around three products. Then theyadded damaskas bar to their product list. They got really good re-sponse and thirty-five feedbacks in a month’s time. In a period of threemonths they sold around 40-50 items and had a sale of about 1.5 to 2lakh rupees. They continued to sell on Ebay for another 6 months andlater quit because Ebay started charging a lot.Through Ebay they got connected to lots of other clients. They evengot few big orders from them, but could handle in such large quantityand hence lost business with those clients. He prefers selling in localmarket than exporting, as a minor change in product or a 2-3 daysdelay do not matter much in here.They have different prices for different customers; for a new client theywould sell a product on 200% margin and to their old and regular cli-ents sometime they sell at 25-30% margin. On Ebay they used to sellat 300-400% margin, but the quantity was too less.For Ebay the product was wrapped in foam sheet and then bubble sheetwith company’s hot seal on it, whereas for local market, they just wrap it upin an old newspaper and give it.There were no issues with trust factor with Ebay, seeing as it asks for asecurity deposit from buyer and the seller. In case there was any fraud, Ebaytook the responsibility. Still he feels more convenient dealing in local mar-ket, as Ebay is too strict with deadlines, quality checks and other regulationsand one have to wait for 10-14 days to see if his products are sold. Whiledealing in local market they can ask for an advance (around 70-80%) on abigger order whereas Ebay doesn’t have that option. Lastly Ebay was nevertheir primary source of income, it was more like a side business. One can-not really guarantee the number of pieces would sell on Ebay.Recently he has started working with few designers and feels that the designintervention has helped in preserving their craft and also increased theirincome.
32Craftsman CustomerHAATCraftsman CustomerMiddlemanFigure 15. Business model earlier (20-25yrs ago)Figure 16. Middleman’s entry in the business model
33The SystemThe Pharad craft or for that matter most of the craft business/industryhave different tasks performed by different members of the system. Wecan divide the system on two distinct activities—1. Production of the Pharad2. Marketing of it.Through user study we learnt that around 20-25 yrs. ago the businessmodel was totally different from what it is now. The crafts person usedto do the whole process of washing, printing and dyeing by them-selves and sell their products to the customers at the monthly Haatbazaar held at choti chaupar in Jaipur. Ideally this business modelwas perfect where the there was no middle man and the whole profitwent directly to crafts person (fig 15). But then the demand and theproduction was limited and the craftsman was capable in meeting thedemand with quality work. With increase in demand crafts person hadlot to produce and hence opportunity for a mediator between craftproducer and consumer came. Then the marketing was handled by themediator (fig 16).
34Craftsman CustomerBusinessmanWasherPrinterResistLocalmerchantExhibitionsGovt./privatebodyShowroomExportDesignerFigure 17. Business model at present
35020004000600080001000012000140001600018000200001994-951995-961996-971997-981998-991999-20002000-012001-022002-032003-042004-052005-062006-072007-082008-092009-1002000400060008000100001200014000160001800020000According to the statistics by EPCH (fig 18) the rise in export of handi-crafts can be seen from 1997-98 and since then it has increased a lot.So with the growing market the craftsmen were bound to producemore and with help of chemical dyes the speed of production also in-creased. The lure international buyers mediators wants craft productsat throw away prices, this lead to the degradation of quality in craftand a new mentality in craftsmen developed of quantity then qualityin products. Though the quantity in work grew but at the price of finecraftsmanship and the whole essence of the craft.In present system lot of middle men are there at various steps betweencraftsmen and consumer. Middlemen or the mediator does not alwaysmean a bad thing, some add value to the system.The present system also shows the fragmentation or division of workamong the craftsmen (fig 17). Earlier the work which was totally doneby one crafts person/family is now divided in different groups. Thereare few people who just do the washing of the fabric, other do theprinting of the fabric, some other group would do the resist part. Tobe optimistic in approach, we can say that there has been increase inwork and thus division of work make it more efficient for the systemto produce more, for e.g. if a single craftsperson had to do all thing on himself todayhe might not have been able to completeeven one order.Other than through mediators, craftsmensell their products in the exhibitions andfairs organized by government and privateorganizations. But chances of getting a stallis less since no. of craftsmen are more andthe final decision is taken through lotterysystem.Source: Export Promotion Council for HandicraftFigure 18. Exports of Handicrafts
36washing dyeingblockprinting18432567-VE +VE• too muchwashing•no machinesused in washing•washer man isfrom printersʼcommunity• printers neednot worry aboutwashing•happens early inthe morning, sothey get wholeday freeSHOP/HOME-VE•bad presentation•Donʼt know howto sell story. Weakmarketing+VE•platform tocontact customersdirectlyDEALERS-VE•eat up lot of profit ofthe product•mentality ofproducing more-lowskills and bad qualityproducts+VE•marketing no hasslefor craftsmen•do not need to replyon final consumer formoney•gets bigger orders•He is the link to globalmarketing•adds value to productby nice presentationGovt./NGOsexhibition-VE•lottery system•Govt. offices giveless money•bribing people toget schemessanctioned+VE•direct contactwith customers•exposure to newmarket•workshops andschemes forcraftsmenconsumerFigure 19. From manufacturing to final product and people involved
37People and ProcessI have tried to look at positive side and negative side of process andpeople involved in the system. Lets start with the manufacturing pro-cess (fig 19).For Pharad craft it takes around 8 steps of washing, dyeing and print-ing stretched over a period of 8 to 11 days, to make a final product. Itis quite lengthy and time taking process, and involves lot of washingby a group in the printers’ community. Washing in it self is not a craftand mechanizing the washing process could save time and manpower.But if look at the positive side, other printers and dyers do not needto worry about the washing part as there a dedicated group for doingthat. The washing starts early in the morning around 4am and finishesby 11 am, thus the washer men have the whole day almost free.The final product is then passed through three type of groups beforereaching to the customer – 1)home/shop, 2)dealers, and 3) Govt. &NGOs organized exhibitions.1. Home/shop – Few of the craftsmen have made a small outsidetheir houses or in the local market or sometimes deal directly fromtheir home. These types of setup definitely help them and provide aplatform to reach the local customers and clients directly, without themiddleman.2. Dealers – here by dealers I mean the wholesalers, the showroomowners, the exporters and designers. We always have a stereotypicalimage of the middleman, who only thinks of his profits and exploitsthe producers to the fullest, but it’s not case in real life. They provide ahassle free marketing to the craftsmen; it came out from the user studythat most of the craftsmen wanted to have the mediator to handle thetransaction and paper work part, because they do not want to get intocomplexity. The craftsmen also need not reply on the final customerfor money, the middleman directly pays them. It’s through the media-tors that the craftsmen are able to get bigger orders. He is their link tothe global market. Dealers like showroom owners and designers addvalue to the craftsmen products. The middleman seems to have lotof positive effects on craftsmen but as said and believed they do takea major portion from the profits. Getting bigger order and demandof competitive price have resulted in developing a mentality amongcraftsmen of producing more with compromise on the quality.3. Govt. & NGOs organized exhibitions – the exhibitionsprovide lot of opportunity for the craftsmen to get directly connectedwith clients, exposure to new places and new markets. Indirectly theseexhibitions help craftsmen to improve on their presentation part. Theseorganizations also conduct workshops for craftsmen and have welfareschemes for them. But getting a space in exhibitions is very difficult, asnumbers of booths are limited and very less as compared to number ofcraftsmen eager to exhibit. The booths are allotted on lottery system.Govt. introduces a lot of schemes for the rural and craftsmen sector,but to get benefit of that one needs to bribe officials at various level ingovt. offices.
38Problems & InsightsChallenges with the craftRaw material sourcingRaw material for natural dyes is not easily available. The craftsmenhave to go to Jaipur to buy it.Lengthy manufacturing processDue to so many steps involved in Pharad, the final product becomevery expensive as compared to the other products available in market.Being a lengthy process also hinders production or taking orders forlarge quantity.Deteriorating skillsWith very less demand of high quality products, craftsmen have losttheir skills of doing fine work. A common mentality has developed toproduce more than focusing on quality of the product. So for a craftperson who wants to produce quality Pharad, the availability of skilledcraft person is difficult.Season dependentThe craft has lot of steps in process where the fabric needs to be driedunder the son, hence winter and monsoon are not good period forprinting and dyeing.4. Problems & Insights
39Limited buyersAccording to users the most difficult part of the craft is finding clients.Today consumer wants reasonable and durable product, and wouldnot mind buying machine made/ printed fabric. The customers forPharad are very limited; only once who know and understand thebeauty of this craft buy it. With earlier business model where crafts-men used to sell his product at haat bazaar to customers, he never hadto go and find customers. Customers used to come to them to buy.With local markets gone and crafts person do not have access to theglobal market and lacks awareness about potential new markets.Information gapThe user wanted to know more about natural colors and techniques,which he could not find from any source.Three out of four users talked about exports, their fears related to itand some stories of failed attempts to do export by other people. Thereis lot of desire to grow in this craft, but fear of not knowing what to do,holds them back.Not many craftsmen knew about Government schemes and otherscholarships available for crafts persons’ children in education.Exposure to marketThe problem I see here is that the final profit does not go to the pro-ducers, because they are working as laborers now for the middle-man or the business man today. The system of division of work is verysimilar to of any industry, but the main problem is that all these groupswork as an independent group and not as parts of a single organiza-tion.With many gaps in the system it become easy for middle man to enterthe system, and with each new middle man in the system reduces theprofit for craftsmen and increased price for customer.Only few of the craftsmen who are exposed to the market and knowwhat sells, have been successful in getting connected with customersdirectly.
40Figure 21. A design samplefrom a buyerFigure 20. Receipts and invoices from clients
41InsightsNecessity of middlemanBased on user study few behaviors of users were noted down whichmight be helpful in understanding the user. All the users agreed thathaving a middleman is important. Its surprising because these are thepeople whom we blame that are not letting the profit reach the craftpeople. But I guess the craftsman do not want to tackle the hassle offinding clients, getting orders, doing shipping and maintaining re-cords.Self esteemIt was seen in the older generation of craftsmen that they never go andask for work to people. If someone wants to get work done, they haveto come to the craftsman’s place. They get work through their socialnetwork and known links. Though the users said that they do not askfor work, during the interview one of the user asked me to get workfor him, this way he would not asking for work directly to people. Ithink this is why they feel mediators are important.A way of marketing their skillsThe place where hand block printing is done is usually attached withthe craftsman’s house. It is a room, which has doors opening towardsthe road outside house. It serves as a purpose of a shop, where thecraftsman wants others to know about his profession and the opendoors are an indication that he is open for taking work. It is like mar-keting yourself.Importance of networkingNetworking within the community was observed. As mentioned earlierthat social network helps in getting work, freelance printers try to workin different units to make more contacts. It is like securing ones future.Awareness towards their rightsBagru has a committee of printers and they have applied to get pat-ent of Bagru prints, after which an authentic seal would be providedby Govt. to them. Awareness about getting authenticity seal, patent orcraftmark is developing in craftsmen.Trading methodsIn this craft, no transaction or deal is recorded on paper within theprinter’s community. For buyers, yes they do have proper order sheets,bills that are given to clients and design and color samples for produc-tion (fig 20 & 21).Inheritor of the traditionHaving son decides if the craft would be passed on to the next gen-eration or not. The girls are not taught this craft since they will getmarried and go away, so girls are not looked up as someone who willcontinue the tradition of craft.Influential peopleMost of hand block printers work on orders from the buyers or media-tors of bigger clients. The buyer is a very important part of influencingthe craft, since they are the once who indirectly control the produc-tion and the price.
42What are things that drive a craftAfter the user study I was thinking over a point that why craft productssell? What are the things that add value to any craft product? What arethe elements to a particular craft product which increases its perceivedvalue?With my understanding and experiences, its the skill of the craftsperson which adds value to the product. How well and intricately isthe work done is most important among the things that drive a craft.Next thing would be the process or the technique used to perform thatskill, for example a fine handwoven shawl from Kashmir; here ‘fine’ isthe skill and ‘handwoven’ is the process or technique used. Later oncomes the material used to make that product and then the design ormotifs/pattern.The whole charm of buying a craft product is the story of the craft andcraftsmen who has put in so much effort to make the product. Storiessensitize the buyers towards the skills, process, material, design andthe efforts. Imagine you got a gift of a pair of wooden shoes made insome part of Europe. What value does it have to you, just that it isforeign made... nothing? But when someone tells you the story behindthat product, the value of that thing actually increases a lot.We can also analyze at craft products from point of view of Don Nor-man’s three level of design: Visceral (appearance), Behavioral (func-tionality) and Reflective (emotional). Lets see it through an ex-ample, a handwoven carpet from Kashmir is beautiful to look at withits intricate patterns and also fulfills the its function as a carpet, butwhat distinguishes it from the other machine made carpets is emotionsattached to it. Don Norman’s says that reflective level is about themessage, the culture and about the meaning of a product. The valueof the Kashmir carpet is in making process, its history and associationwith place. Hand-crafted products are more than owning a product,they reflect the buyers belief in the culture, the eye to appreciate effortof the craftsmen and a contribution towards helping craft & craftsmen.
43Experts views on craftThere are some great examples of organizations that have tried andbeen successful in promoting craft’s value in India and abroad. Oneof the organizations was Craftsbridge India Pvt. Ltd. started by ShibaniJain.“It was exciting to visualize a situation where we could be the bridgebetween the rural/grass roots producer who has no market access andthe end buyer who has no idea about the craft producer and their sto-ries. It was interesting from a social and creative perspective.”–Shibani Jain Craftsbridge’s one of the main marketing tool was through Internet,and their web site worked more as a promotional tool than gettingreal business. Shibani suggested to have unique offerings, good tie-upswith partner sites to get attention of right people and to have constantrenewal of content and offerings to promote one’s web site and makeit more productive in terms of generating business.Another great example is Industree Crafts Pvt. Ltd. by Neelam Chib-ber and Gita Ram who believes that charity doesn’t work if you wantpeople to be self-sustainable in livelihood, one needs to make profits.“If you focus directly on your primary stakeholders, you cannot giveup on them.”– Neelam Chibber Industree crafts model works similar to Grameen bank model; thestakeholders of Industree are the craftsmen who create the products.Industree crafts also have a non-profit organization (Industree craftsfoundation) which assist the craftsmen in becoming entrepreneurs,with micro loans and information on trends, techniques and materials.“Handicrafts can make a great statement. People relate to the culturalunderpinning of a craft item when they pick up one,”says AdarshKumar, one of the founding members of the All India Artisans & Craftworkers Welfare Association (AIACA) AIACA has been involved in reviving dying art and crafts across thecountry. AIACA is also the one who has launched a certification trade-mark called ‘Craftmark’. It’s a seal of authenticity on handmade prod-uct accentuating that they are not machine-made. Craft producers,organizations and companies can apply for Craftmark and a nominalfee is charged for the same. Till now Craftmark is the only certifica-tion mark for handmade craft products and a lot of big organizationsare using it like FabIndia, Dastakar, Anokhi, The Next Shop etc.“Handcrafted items will always be in vogue,”says Kumar. Accordingto him, anyone who look for exclusivity for themselves or their homego for handcrafted products, it’s stylish to own pieces that are notchurned out in industrial quantities.
44Why people buyAccording to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs human beings are animalswho constantly want. No matter how many of their needs have beensatisfied, they always struggle to reach higher levels and Maslow hasdefined these needs in five levels. The first is of lowest and most pow-erful needs, which includes hunger, thirst, sex, air and rest. The secondlevel is of security and safety needs. Third level of love and belong-ing needs; human seek friendship, love, affection and will eventuallywant to start a family. Fourth level is the level of esteem needs, wherepeople need respect, recognition, independence, importance and ap-preciation. The fifth and the highest level is the self-actualization.About 75% percent of buying decisions are based on unconsciousneeds and wants, such as prestige , habit, or perceived values. Accord-ing to marketing point of view, satisfying lower level needs first shouldhave priority; if the lower demands aren’t presently being met, sellingproducts that meet people’s higher needs would not help .While buying customers especially women buyers go on the recom-mendations from friends and acquaintances before they buy, andif they are happy with a product or service, they will talk it up andrecommend it to others. Buyers look for products with warranties andguaranties .
45Consumer’s viewRetail buyersBuying craft products online is not very ususal in India especially anfinding people who have bought craft product onoine was another bigtask. After trying out contacts here and there, I decide to to talk to buy-ers who buy or have bought garments or accessories online recently.Informal telecommunications with them explained their concernsabout the authenticity of the web site and the brand (for web siteswhere international brands are sold on discounted rates). To test thesystem or gain confidence two of them chose the option of cash ondelivery for the first order. Those who used their cards ordered theleast expensive product initially.For the cards security one of them look of secure word in the web ad-dress and others look for the verisign and other security logo. Most ofthe times they are recommended by their friends and known people tosuch websites. Most of the websites also have no. of friends who haveliked it.Before buying all of them followed the website for quite sometime.One of buyer has stopped buying from her favorite discount web sitebecause of the price fluctuation. She explained the reason that onceshe bought a watch and was pretty happy with the deal, but then aftera month or so the same model was available for really less.DesignersA brief conversation with designers working with craft sector clearedthat whenever they need to look for a craftsman, they mostly prefer towork with recommended ones, because it helps to assure the qualityof work, pricing of the products and reliability of deliverable. Word ofmouth seems to be most powerful among the designer community forsearching a craftsman. They also look if the crafts person has earlierworked with designers or not, it helps since few craftsmen are not verycomfortable in making products other than their traditional ones.
46Organizations working in Craft sectorThere are many NGOs, organizations and companies working in craftsector. A breif study of such organization would help me comparingand analyzing my solution with what they are doing. I looked at feworganizations working helping people in craft sector.Craft Council of India:Craft Council of India is a voluntary non-profit organization workingfor the welfare or craftsmen and craftswas established in 1964. CCIconducts workshops for craftsmen to learn about new techniques,designs, new tools and new materials. CCI also have scholarshipprograms for craftsmen’s children. Other than that CCI also focuses onresearch and documentations of crafts.Kala Raksha:Established in 1993 as a society and trust, Kala Raksha was startedas model for development through handicrafts, by preserving the ageold traditions and generating income with contemporary work. KalaRaksha today work with around 1,000 embroiders and seven ethniccommunities . Kala Raksha artisans also attend Preventive HealthCare and Basic Education programs.5. Parallel Study
47Industree crafts:Industree is a hybrid social enterprize started in 1994 in Bangalore,supporting livelihoods of rural producers and agricultural workers.Industree connects two ends of the spectrum - the producer and themarket, for this there are two entities , Industree Crafts pvt ltd with theMother Earth brand and Industree Crafts Foundation. Industree CraftsFoundation was set up in the year 2000 to focus it’s work with ruralproducers on developing design, technical and skill initiatives in thenatural fibre sector .Rural Mart:Rural Mart are a collaboration of National Bank for Agriculture andRural Development (NABARD) and the Human Welfare Associa-tion (HWA). NABARD has opened the first Rural mart in U.P. andhas launched the scheme of setting up Rural mart at district and subdistrict level . The aim is to facilitate both artisans and buyers, bycutting down the middlemen. The Rural mart would be linked to thewebsite of the Consortium of Handicraft and Artisan Society.Rural Mart as a concept sound quite similar to my project, where itstrying to cut down the middleman and provide opportunity to crafts-men to meet buyers directly online. I do not know the details of howRural mart website system works, but my project also looks at givinginformation about the craft, the process and the system mainly workstowards making it easier for the craftsmen to sell online.
48Group of 5Center(comprising of 8-10groups)Area OfficeCentral BranchZonal OfficeFigure 1. Workings structure of Grameen Bank1,253,160 groups144,106 centers2,562 Branch officesBranch Office (comprizingof 50 centers)83,458 villages covered7,970,616 members
49Business ModelsThe craft field is huge in variety and it’s easy to get puzzled, as therecould be many ways to approach the subject. With advice of myguide I started looking through different types of business models andsee how do they work, since in the end my project was to improvingcraftsmen livelihood, or one can say generating more opportunity forthem.Grameen BankGrameen Bank formaly established as Bank in 1983, reversed theconventional banking practicing by removing the security and starteda system based on mutial trust and participation .Grameen Bank is social business, a business that is cause driven ratherthan profit driven. Muhammad Yunus describes that a social busi-ness is company that is cause driven rather than profit driven, withthe potential to act as a change agent for the world. A social businesshas to be self-sustaining, self-propelling, self-perpetuating and self-expanding.
51No one who borrows from Grameen Bank stands alone. Each belongsto a self made group of five friends, no two them can be closely re-lated. So when one wants to take out a loan, she needs approval fromthe remaining four. 8-10 such group have their weekly meeting at‘Center’.Fifty of such centers for a ‘Branch’ office of Grameen bank, and thenfive branch offices makes ‘Area’ office. Five area offices makes a Zonaloffice and all zonal offices to the Central office (fig 1).Similar to Grameen Bank where poor people were benefited, myproject also aimed at helping the craftsmen, who come in the bottomof the piramid. Though I was not planning to help the craftsmen finan-cially but by creating more opportunities for them to earn based ontheir skills and knowledge. Looking at Grameen Bank’s case study andits system increased my understanding towards social business modelsand how we can use the cultural and social factors in the system.
53AmulAmul was founded in 1946 in leadership of Tribhuwandas Patel withguidance from Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Morarji Desai, to stopthe exploitation of milk producers by the middlemen. It started withtwo villages and 247 ltr. of milk .Amul is a cooperative system which places the instruments of the de-velopment in the hands of farmers. It is owned by the 2.6 million milkproducers of Gujarat, who daily travel to give the milk at the VillageDairy co-ooperative Society. In village dairy a managing committeeis chosen by milk producers, who choose the chairman. The price ofmilk is given on basis of quality and quantity.The milk then travels to District Unions for packaging and for othermilk products. District union owns and operates a balancing dairyplants. a borad of directors is chosen by chairmen of Village Dairy Co-opeative society. The board of directors then choose their Chairman.
55The milk and milk products then go to the State Federation, fromwhere the centralized marketing, common branding and quality con-trol takes place.The District Unions also provide good quality cattle feed for bet-ter quality of milk, Vet services, Rural health schemes, dividends onshares and bonus to Village Dairy co-operatives to benefir milk pro-ducers (fig 2).Amul is one of the great examples of unity of people against exploi-tation and developing a co-operative system which benefited theirpeople directly. In present scenario of the craft I studied for project,the craftsmen are competing with eachother and thus giving more op-portunity for middleman to take advantage. It would be an ideal situa-tion where all the craftsmen of a place work as a co-opeartive society,but for it we need great leaders from the craftsmen’s society.
56Seller BuyerLists theitems at EbayHighest bidderwinsBuyer pays for the item plusshipping charges andhandling fees through ebay.A fee is paid by sellerto ebay for the solditemBuyer ships the itemto sellerFigure 3. Ebay’s business model
57EbayEbay is actually a broker which brings buyers and sellers together andtakes fee or commission on successful transactions (fig 3). The advan-tages of having an online platform are:Not effected by the space limitation. Its a virtual space and there• is no actual limit to it. More and more sellers can put up thingsforsale without worrying about space.No limitation of location. Since it is online and not fixed at par-• ticular place, anyone with internet connection and browser canconnect to Ebay.The auction broking system of Ebay is such that it continues on its• own.Geographical locations do not mean anything. Any product put up• on Ebay would cost same all over the world, even if the seller livesright next to your house.• The system of Ebay was studied to understand things involved in anonline buyer-seller platform. Ebay and other portals provide a placewhere the manufacturer can contact the consumers directly withouta lot of middlemen in the cycle. It can provide a good opportunity tocraftsmen to reach its consumers all over the world.Till now, such portals required buyers and sellers to have good knowl-edge of operating computers and have credit card, company nameand other bank requirements, which seems too much to ask from theuser group I was dealing with.
58Selling onlineA few parameters to keep in mind while selling online:Making people safe when they order from your web site. Using a• secure server for payment and affirming that all their informationwill be kept confidential.Its important to remind people to visit your web site through e-• mags, subscriptions, alerts etc. People usually don’t purchase atthe first time they visit. The more they visit your site, greater thechances they will buy from your web site.Customers feel comfortable when they know from whom they are• buying. It is advisable to have ‘about us’ section with business de-tails, history of company and contact information.Having a professional look to your web site helps in building trust• with customer. The web site should be easy to navigate through.Accepting different modes of payments.• Your advertisements and marketing techniques should attract• you’re your target audience.Creating urgency to buy your product. If there is no urgency,• people put off buying for later on even if they are interested in aproduct.
59Design directionsBased on the user study and the analysis of the process, I could seetwo broad approaches towards designing the solution.1) Improved and streamlined production process:Better washing & drying solution for the manufacturing process,• which consumes less waterMaking block making fast and easier to use.• Making use of the rejected blocks.• Better packaging for value addition to the product.• Less time consuming patterns that also go with global trends.• Introducing new materials and new products.• Developing more shades with natural dyes.• A system that makes manufacturing process more efficient; con-• suming less water, faster production with no compromise on qual-ity.2) System for marketing and selling craft:Designing a cooperative system for Bagru printers where instead of• competing with each other they will make mark in global market.This would also help them in handling bigger orders and becauseof no competition among themselves; they can quote their desiredprice. The profit would also come directly to them, which can beused for their community’s welfare.A system for authenticating the craft; Govt. Seal, Craftsmark, Intel-• lectual property rights for their designs.Empowering craftsmen with information/opportunities.• Bridging the gap between craftsman-consumers.• 6. Design Brief
60Exposure to the online world of selling products.• Connecting craftsmen and designers.• Making a directory of craftsmen with details for their expertise.• Making easy to source raw material and dispatching orders.• Improving on marketing skills and techniques.• Conceptual model of how to start export and approach buyers.• Improvement in production process is an interesting direction to workon, but most of the ideas I could think of were related to product de-signing or textile designing and to come up with a system for efficientproduction, first the printer community needs to have a unity or workas a team. Through literature review and primary research, problemsof information gap, reaching the consumers and marketing wereamong the main problems. So I opted for second approach towardsdesigning the solution ‘system for marketing and selling crafts’. Basedon it the Design Goal was defined.
61Design GoalDesigning a system thatBridges gap between craftsmen and consumer.• Provide exposure to the online world of selling online.• Empower craftsmen to required information.•
63Early ConceptsThe solution was a system design and from beginning I was sure that Iwanted to infuse other existing system in my proposed system design.It was observed from other ICT projects that creating a totally newsystem might not really work; the best example is the kiosk system,which weren’t a hit among targeted users. I feel that it’s always betterto add something to the existing system or combine two-three systemsand create a new one.7. Early Concepts
64Figure 22. A Kiosk based system model with localcyber cafe’ person involved
65Concept 1A craft product gets its value adding only when there is a story at-tached to it. If a buyer who doesn’t have any knowledge of a craft,might not cherish a handcrafted product well unless he knew the his-tory of craft, the cultural/religious value and the hardship went behindthat product.This concept is about a portal of Crafts in India, similar to a web ver-sion of ‘Handmade in India’ book, which tells the tale of the craft, themakers of it and then links to a platform for buying that craft products(fig 22).The products can be uploaded by craftsman from a kiosk set up at acyber café in his village. Here, I have tried to involve the cyber cafeguy who will actually do the uploading process and he can charge asmall amount per use/ per upload. The idea was inspired from presentscenario of booking train tickets with help of cyber café person, whoacts like an agent.The kiosk suggested here is a tiny tabletop kiosk always connected tothe server with a camera fixed with pre installed settings. For transac-tion purpose the craftsman can submit his account information in hisaccount on the server through kiosk.It’s advantageTill now there haven’t been good online information portal that takesthrough the journey of Indian crafts, craftsmen and also have the op-tion of buying craft products directly from craftsmen. The concept triesto fill that missing link and provide an opportunity to craft producer toconnect to the global market.Through this model the craftsmen need not to learn about comput-ers and how to operate Internet, the cyber café person who is alreadyhave become a comfortable with that technology can help the crafts-man and earn an extra income.It’s limitationsAs learnt from the earlier projects in ICTD in India, kiosks have notbeen very successful (give Kentaro’s paper ref). From the user studythat most of the craftsmen would never go and ask for work to people.If someone wants to get work done, they have to come to the crafts-man’s place. So chances of them going to kiosk with their product area bit less.Till the product is small and easy to carry, it is possible to get it to thekiosk, but if it is furniture or a product in stone, something big in size,it will become difficult for the craftsmen and the cyber café person toupload the image.
66Figure 23. A Telemarketing service initiated system,to upload data through phone
67Concept 1.2This concept is similar to the earlier concept; the basic difference isthat the registration, uploading of product and other information ishandled by the telemarketing service centers (fig 23). Since most ofthe craftsmen own mobile, its not very difficult to reach them.The process is that telemarketers ask through sms to craftsman if theywant to be listed on the server, on replying ‘yes’ the telemarketers callthem and open their account with their details and also sends a smallapp to their phone. The app would be embedded with tutorials of howto use the system, with facility to sending the images of their productsto the telemarketers company. The telemarketing company then up-loads images of the product to various online portals like ebay, rediff,amazon, etsy etc. sms alerts are sent to craftsmen on sell, transactions,or any changes.It’s advantagesThis system gives the craftsman the freedom to upload his products’images, his information, and access account from his mobile. As com-pared to earlier concept, the craftsman need not to take his productsto any kiosk and the issue of size of product is also taken care. Thecraftsman can also upload videos of the craft products.It’s limitationsTo have full advantage of this system, the craftsmen are required tohave a cell phone supporting good quality image & video facility andGPRS/3G connection. The uploading of images & videos and access-ing account might cost them a bit, since the mobile network providerwould provide this service. Teaching them to use this applicationwould be another task in itself.
68Figure 24. Craftsmen have different prices fordifferent buyers
69Concept 2This concept is based on scenario where the craftsman has differentprices for different buyers (fig 24 & 25). Based on user study research,craftsmen usually have separate price for retail buyers (when they selldirectly to the customer), the wholesalers or the merchants who buyin bulk and for designers who buys in less but have lot of experimen-tations.It is an addition to the earlierconcept and here we assumethat the craftsman has the serviceto register, upload products andadd other things on the server.It’s advantagesThe craftsmen have the facility tohave separate prices for differentbuyers.It’s limitationsThis concept cannot be a wholesystem in itself; it can be an add-on the system.Figure 25. A Phone applicationwhich helps craftsmen inputting separate prices of asame product for differentbuyers.
71Concept 3The model of Haat bazaar was that it used to happen weekly or fort-nightly and gave the craftsman opportunity to deal with the final user.This concept tries to create a virtual haat online where the craftsmancan put on his products throughout the week and it would be openonly on a particular day (fig 26).Another feature is that it has the option of bargaining. The buyers cannegotiate with the price put by the craftsman through the virtual haatserver. The craftsman gets alerts of each bargain done by buyers andhe can either accept or deny it.Craftsman’s cell sim can work as his user ID and login can be basedon voice recognition system.It’s advantagesThe craftsman can accumulate products throughout the week for sale,instead of uploading daily. This feature would also give buyers lot ofoptions to buy from. Similarly to a Haat bazaar, the sale would be forlimited time, which would create rarity and an urgency to buy. Thecraftsman also needs not to wait for 10-15 days to know whether hisproducts got sold (as in ebay).It’s limitationsThe bargaining feature might be a little time taking, as both, the buyerand seller might not be available at the same time.
73Concept 4This concept aims at scenario where craftsman need information re-lated to craft, marketing and new techniques and materials. It’s a voicebased information portal, where people can ask questions, reply toquestions and listen to other questions and answers (fig 27).The portal can be taken cared by organizations like Dessert Craft Han-dloom and Export Promotion Council of Handicraft. When a questionis answered the craftsman gets an alert on his mobile with a link tolisten the answer. He can also download the answer and save it forfuture references.It’s advantagesAt present for any inquiry related to exhibitions, schemes or otherinformation related to craft, the craftsmen of Bagru, had to either asktheir peers or go to the DCH. This system provides the craftsman of fa-cility of asking/replying questions, listening to experts’ comments andsaving the answers without going anywhere.It’s limitationsThe limitation of an IVR system would be that high level of interactionwould not be available. To find the right question might take a lot oftime that might demotivate the users for using the service in long run.
74Figure 28. Craft tour based system to get exposurewith help of social media
75Concept 5This concept is about using social media for promotion of craft. The ideais developed around tourism, which would lead to sharing experiences,images, and videos about craft by tourists on social networking sites,which finally would help craftsmen to generate extra income (fig 28).Craft tour advertisements/information would be added to travel blogs,ticket booking sites, review sites like trip advisor or raahi and also at lo-cal travel agencies by the craft community, who will organize these crafttours. Tourists would be taken around the craft community, they willget a first hand experience of making of handcrafted products and getthe chance to meet the crafts person. The tour can end at the craft com-munity’s shop and tourists would now have lot to share, which wouldindirectly authenticate the craft and also open up opportunities the craftproducers.It’s advantagesThe power of social media for promotion of the craft is explored in thissystem. The story and the value is added to the craft product through thetour.It’s limitationsThough the social media might help the crafts person indirectly in longrun, the emphasis in this concept is more on tourism then the craft.
76Figure 29. An order and supply chain managementsystem for printer’s co-operative society.
77Concept 6This concept is on a hypothetical situation where the printer commu-nity has formed a cooperative society and works as a single entity. Theconcept is about dealing with information of raw materials, products,payments, events and schemes by the managing team of society andall members (fig 29).
78Figure 30. A system involving Indian Postal Service tohelp craftsmen get exposed to online selling.Ramlal has heard about peopleselling on internet, but doesnʼtknow how to operate computer.He has knowledge of basic phone.He wants to get more opportunityOpen the App- New user- fill details of the craftsman- voice recognition/thumbprint as login ID- clicks photos of productand upload it to site- can also upload video aboutcraftsmenSMS alerts on- account confirmation- product sold withdetailsCraftsmanPostmanMerchantDesignerRetail buyerDesi haat portalBuyer pays to theportalA small commission iskept by the portal andrest sent to India PostThe product issent using IndiaPostMoney is trans-ferred as moneyorderThe postman getsan incentive onproducts soldMerchants anddesigners candirectly contactthe carftsman fordeals/inquiries.
79The final concept has to rise above the limitations of the conceptsmentioned and has to incorporate as many as possible advantages init. The final concept focused on bridging the craftsman-consumer gapby providing a direct contact through Internet, enabling the craftsmanto deal with different buyers differently, making the system and inter-face user friendly for both; craftsmen and consumer and involving anexisting system (fig 30). The system mainly focuses on the crafts per-sons that do not get to reach the consumers and are mainly based invillages.Indian Postal Service has its reach in the nook and corner of Indiaand integrating it in system would help to reach the craftsmen evenin smallest village. We assume that most of the craftsmen would haveaccess to some mobile and the organization, which will handle theonline craft portal, would provide the postmen with special mobilewith internet facility for this system. The shipment of product and pay-ment of money is handled by the Indian Postal Service.My contribution in this system, as an Interaction designer would be atthree points -1. Smart mobile application of Desi haat on handset given to postman2. Simple mobile with the craftsman3. The server or the portal where information about crafts is providedwith a online shopping option.8. Final Concept
82Working of the systemSellerRamlal is a block printer at Bagru village. He has learnt this craft fromhis father and has continued the tradition of passing on the art to nextgeneration. Earlier he and other craftsmen used to go to a weekly Haatbazaar in a near by city to sell there craft products. Now the scenariohas changed and he sells his product to a seth in local village andother wholesale dealers. He has heard about people selling productsonline, but does not have any idea to whom to go and how to do it.He does not know how to operate a computer. The technical knowl-edge he has is of operating a basic mobile phone.One day the postman of their area was on his regular visit and cameto Ram lal’s house on the way. He told Ram lal about the new facilityof India Post and an NPO (non-profit organization) to help craftsmenreach global market.
83The postman fills in the detailsof Ram lal like name, craft ex-pertise, village, experience andphone no.On Ram lal’s request the post-man takes out the handset givenby organization to open Ram lalonline account.After that he asks Ram lal toswipe his finger twice for ac-count security. A visual feedbackis also given when on confirmingthe finger print match. Withinfew seconds Ram lal receives awelcome sms from the Desi haatserver and details about his ac-count.
84Once account is made postmanhelps Ram lal to login throughthe handset and asks if he wantsto put some product for sell.He selects the upload prod-uct option, which turns on thecamera of the handset with frontview suggested on screen of thehandset.For better images Postman wouldbe given a white sheet foldablestructure for background of theproduct.Similarly other views like sideview, top view and close up aretaken and the summary page ofproduct upload is comes.
85This page shows asks to fill indetail of the product and pricesaccording to number of pieces.Once information is filled in, bypressing upload key, all imageswith details are sent to the Desihaat server.Similarly with help of postmanRam lal can add more informa-tion to his profile, add videos ofmaking of craft products, put inrequest for any query to the dis-cussion forum, see his transactiondetails and present orders.
86BuyerThe Desi haat web site changes its interface and the content layoutaccording to the buyer. Based on user study three type of buyers wereidentified 1) designers, 2) wholesalers or merchants, and 3) retail buy-ers,. For designers and merchants the system would require to knowtheir profession or the purpose to visit the web site, so as it can showrelated content. The user registration for them can be done in begin-ning or in parts through the task flow.1. Designer - The home page for designers would have ‘Newly add-ed crafts’ and ‘Recommended craftsmen’ (fig 20). The ‘Newly addedcrafts’ (fig 31.1) would have the making of the crafts, details of crafts-men and the history of it. For a designer its important and advantage toknow about the craft, where is it done and how is it done, so as theycan design accordingly.
818.104.22.168.Figure 31. Home page for a designerThe Second main focus on the home page is the ‘Recommendedcraftsmen’ (fig 31.2) ; since designers usually look for skills of crafts-men, a list of recommended craftsmen would help them to decidewith whom they want to get their samples/products made.The designer can connect his linkedin account with the site (fig 31.3),which would tell how many of his friends are using the site (which in-directly creates trust towards the system), and how many of them haverecommended which craftsmen. The number of likes and number ofpeople shopped creates trust with the system (fig 31.4).In the search option here searches craftsmen rather than products.
88One can search craftsmen by various parameters. Through the searchresults, designer can have option of comparing craftsmen on basis ofratings, punctuality, quality. This feature can be optional since it feels in-human to compare people and it will make them feel as products. In aparticular craft there might now be so many options that one needs tocompare. Various craftsmen can be selected sent inquiry directly fromthe web site.On selection of a craftsman’s profile, the page would have his latestFigure 32. On search for craftsmen Figure 33. Comparing and sending inquiry
89product in focus and rest at bottom (fig 34.1). The benefit in designer’sand merchant’s interface is that they would be shown all the productfrom starting till now, by that craftsmen. Since designers and mer-chants would be buying in large quantity and the deadline for ordercompletion can be discussed by them offline.The craftsman’s profile page also shows his connection to or numberof designers he has worked with (fig 34.2). A percentage of custom-ers is also shown who would deal with him in future again (fig 34.3).These features authenticate the person and his service.A feature of customer order inquiry (fig 34.4) is only available in de-signer’s interface, since designers get a lot of sampling done before thefinal order. On sending customer order inquiry, the craftsmen gets analert on his mobile with detail of the buyer.Figure 34. A craftsman’s profile22.214.171.124.
90On rolling the cursor over the image of product (fig 35.1), the rightside of page turns into a zoom in version of the image (fig 35.2). Asmall translucent box appears in place of cursor and the user can navi-gate through the details of the image.1.2.Figure 35. Details of the product
91On clicking read feedback, the web site connects to a forum wherebuyers have commented and given rating to the craftsman. The forumalso lets buyer to connect to another buyer who have written com-ments, through server’s mail service (fig 36).The ratings and comments are translated in local language and sentto craftsman’s mobile as sms. This feature would help craftsman toimprove and also positive feedbacks would help him in gaining confi-dence in himself and his skills.Figure 36. Feedback forum
922. Wholesaler/merchant - A merchant’s need would be differentfrom a designer and from a retail buyer. The price of the product is intheir priority list and merchants usually do not design products, theygo with regular designs going in the market. According to their needs,their home page would have ‘best prices’ (fig 37.1) of products and‘latest products’ (fig 37.2) as main focus columns.
93Figure 37. Home page for merchants1.2.3.The ‘best prices’ feature would let them compare products based onprices, material, punctuality of the craftsmen and maximum order thecraftsmen can take.The search option of merchant would have an additional parameter- ‘maximum order’ (fig 37.3). This feature would allow him to searchthrough craftsmen’s capacity of production and help him distribute hisorder among craftsmen.
94The compare feature would let him select various products and sendinquiry in a click. All the craftsmen, whose products are selected willbe notified through sms with details of the buyer.Figure 38. Comparision of products and sending inquiry
95The search option would let the buyer sort out products according torecency, price, rating and most viewed (fig 39). As mentioned earlier,all the products irrespective of the fact whether they are available forsale or not are shown to merchant and designers.Figure 39. Search result for product
963. Retail buyer - The retail buyer need not to register for buying anyproduct. The home page (fig 40) here would be the default one show-ing ‘most viewed crafts’ and ‘featured products’. In this interface wewant visitors to have an option of going through the story of the craft.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.