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Introduction to pathology

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  • 1. WELCOME TOPATHOLOGYDEPARTMENT
  • 2. FATHER OF PATHOLOGY: VIRCHOWSFATHER OF HISTOLOGY: FRANCOIS BICHATFATHER OF MICROSCOPY: ANTONY VAN LEEUWENHOEKFATHER OF MICROBIOLOGY: LOUIS PASTEUR
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY The word PATHOLOGY is derived from two Greek words- ‘Pathos’ meaning suffering and ‘logos’ meaning study. Pathology is a study of the structural, biochemical and functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that underlie disease.
  • 4.  The knowledge and understanding of pathology is essential for all would be doctors and general practitioners. Unless they know the causes and mechanism of disease and understand the language spoken by the pathologists in the form of laboratory reports. They would not be able to institute appropriate treatment or suggest preventive measures to the patient.
  • 5. HEALTH AND DISEASE ‘Health- complete physical, mental and social well being, not merely an absence of disease. ‘Disease- is expression of discomfort due to structural or functional abnormality. ‘Illness- is the reaction of individual to disease in the form of symptoms.
  • 6. TERMINOLOGY IN PATHOLOGY ‘Patient- is a person affected by the disease. ‘Lesion- is characteristic changes in tissue and cells. ‘Morphology- is examination of diseased tissue. ‘Etiology- is the cause of the disease.
  • 7.  ‘Pathogenesis- is the mechanism by which the disease is produced. ‘Physical signs- are the functional implications of the disease felt by the patient. Earlier concept of disease-it was the outcome of ‘curse’ or ‘evil’ eye of spirits.
  • 8.  Pathology is broadly divided into two categories:1. General pathology2. Systemic pathology
  • 9. SUBDIVISION OF PATHOLOGY General pathology-deals with general principle of disease. E.g inflammation ,cancer, ageing. Systemic pathology-Study of disease pertaining to the specific organs and body systems. It is further divided in to following branches….
  • 10. 1.HISTOPATHOLOGY a. gross or macroscopic examination b. microscopic examination It is further divided in to a. Surgical pathology b.Forensic pathology i.e. autopsy2.CYTOPATHOLOGY 1.Exfoliative cytology 2.FNAC
  • 11.  3.HAEMATOLOGY-deals with the disease of blood and blood related components. 4.MICROBIOLOGY-deals with the study of microorganisms. 5.CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY-analysis of biochemical constituent of blood, urine, semen,CSF etc. 6.IMMUNOLOGY-detection of abnormalities in the immune system of the body.
  • 12.  7.EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY -study of disease in experimental animal. 8. GEOGRAPHIC PATHOLOGY-study of diseases in populations in different parts of world. 9.MEDICAL GENETICS-it deals with the relationship between heredity and disease. 10.MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY-Detection and diagnosis of abnormalities at the level of DNA.
  • 13. Thank you

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