Hip hop musicFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia(Redirected from Hip-hop)Jump to: navigation, searchThis article is about the music genre. For the culture in general, see Hip hop. For other uses,see Hip hop (disambiguation).This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. Discussion ofthis nomination can be found on the talk page. (August 2012)Hip hopStylisticoriginsFunk, disco, dub, rhythm and blues,reggae, dancehall, toasting, performancepoetry, spoken word, signifyin, TheDozens, scat singing, talking bluesCulturalorigins1970s, the Bronx, New York CityTypicalinstrumentsTurntable, synthesizer, DAW, rapping,drum machine, sampler, drums, guitar,bass, piano, beatboxing, vocalsDerivativeformsElectro, breakbeat, oldschool jungle, drumand bass, trip hop, grime, breakbeathardcore, neo soul, big beatSubgenresAlternative hip hop – Turntablism – Christian hip hop –Conscious hip hop – Experimental hip hop – Freestyle rap –Gangsta rap – Homo hop – Hardcore hip hop – Horrorcore– Instrumental hip hop – Mafioso rap – Nerdcore – Politicalhip hop – Baltimore club – Bounce – Brick City club –Chicano rap – Native American hip hop – JerkinFusion genres
Country rap – Australian hip hop – Hip hop soul – Hiphouse – Crunk – Hyphy – Jazz rap – Merenrap – Neo soul –Nu metal – Ragga – Reggaeton – Rap opera – Rap rock –Rapcore – Rap metal – Cumbia rap – Merenrap – Hiplife –Low Bap – Ghettotech – Glitch hop – Wonky – Industrialhip hop – New jack swing – Psychedelic hip hopRegional scenesAtlanta hip hop – Bangladeshi hip hop – East Coast hip hop– West Coast hip hop – Southern hip hop – Midwest hiphop – Southwest hip hop – British hip hop – French hip hop– Kenyan hip hop – Japanese hip hop – Korean hip hopHip hop music, also called hip-hop,rap music,or hip-hop music,is a musicgenre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, arhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted.It developed as part of hip hop culture, asubculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, breakdancing, and graffiti writing.Other elements include sampling (or synthesis), andbeatboxing.While often used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of theentire subculture.The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with theterm rap music,though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genremay also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing and scratching,beatboxing, and instrumental tracks.Contents[hide]1 Origin of the term2 1970so 2.1 Originso 2.2 Introduction of rappingo 2.3 Influence of discoo 2.4 Transition to recording3 1980so 3.1 New school hip hopo 3.2 Golden age hip hopo 3.3 Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop4 1990so 4.1 Mainstream breakthrough
o 4.2 World hip hopo 4.3 East vs. West rivalry 4.3.1 West Coast hip hop 4.3.2 East Coast hip hopo 4.4 Diversification of styles5 2000s and 2010so 5.1 World and national musico 5.2 Crunk and snap musico 5.3 Glitch hop and wonky musico 5.4 Decline in saleso 5.5 Innovation and revitalization6 Notes7 References8 External linksOrigin of the termCreation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with GrandmasterFlash and the Furious Five.However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywoodused the term when the music was still known as disco rap. It is believed that Cowboycreated the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing thewords "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiersmarching.Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stageperformance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in"Rappers Delight".Universal Zulu Nation founder Afrika Bambaataa is credited with first using the term todescribe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it wasa derogatory term to describe the type of music.The first use of the term in print was inThe Village Voice,by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop.1970sOrigins
1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc that is often considered thebirthplace of hip hopDJ Kool Herc, recognized as one of the earliest hip hop artistsHip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s when block parties becameincreasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African American youth residingin the Bronx.Block parties incorporated DJs who played popular genres of music,especially funk and soul music. Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating thepercussive breaks of popular songs. This technique was then common in Jamaican dubmusic,and was largely introduced into New York by immigrants from Jamaica andelsewhere in the Caribbean, including DJ Kool Herc, who is generally considered the fatherof hip hop.[by whom?]Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and disco records weregenerally short, Herc and other DJs began using two turntables to extend the breaks.Turntablist techniques – such as scratching (attributed to Grand Wizzard Theodore),beat mixing and/or matching, and beat juggling – eventually developed along with the breaks,creating a base that could be rapped over, in a manner similar to signifying, as well as the artof toasting, another influence found in Jamaican dub music.Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a "voice" for thedisenfranchised youth of low-economic areas,as the culture reflected the social, economicand political realities of their lives.Introduction of rapping
Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speakslyrically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. Beats, almostalways in 4/4 time signature, can be created by sampling and/or sequencing portions of othersongs by a producer.They also incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands.Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella orto a beat.Hip hop music predates the introduction of rapping into hip hop culture, and rap vocals areabsent from many hip hop tracks, such as "Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don‘t Stop)" by Man Parrish;"Chinese Arithmetic" by Eric B. & Rakim; "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)" and "Were Rocking thePlanet" by Hashim; and "Destination Earth" by Newcleus. However, the majority of the genrehas been accompanied by rap vocals.The roots of rapping are found in African-American music and ultimately African music,particularly that of the griots of West African culture.The African-American traditions ofsignifyin, the dozens, and jazz poetry all influence hip hop music, as well as the call andresponse patterns of African and African-American religious ceremonies. Soul singer JamesBrown, and musical comedy acts such as Rudy Ray Moore and Blowfly are often considered"godfathers" of hip hop music.Within New York City, performances of spoken-word poetry and music by artists such asThe Last Poets, Gil Scott-Heronand Jalal Mansur Nuriddin had a significant impact on thepost-civil rights era culture of the 1960s and 1970s, and thus the social environment in whichhip hop music was created.DJ Kool Herc and Coke La Rock provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping bydelivering simple poetry verses over funk music breaks, after party-goers showed littleinterest in their previous attempts to integrate reggae-infused toasting into musical sets.DJs and MCs would often add call and response chants, often consisting of a basic chorus, toallow the performer to gather his thoughts (e.g. "one, two, three, yall, to the beat").Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic delivery, incorporating briefrhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort to differentiate themselves andto entertain the audience. These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of AfricanAmerican culture. Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hop group to gainrecognition in New York,but the number of MC teams increased over time.Grandmaster Flash
Often these were collaborations between former gangs, such as Afrikaa BambaataasUniversal Zulu Nation—now an international organization. Melle Mel, a rapper with TheFurious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC".During the early 1970s B-boying arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in frontof the audience to dance in a distinctive and frenetic style. The style was documented forrelease to a world wide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as StyleWars, Wild Style, and Beat Street. The term "B-boy" was coined by DJ Kool Herc to describethe people who would wait for the break section of the song, getting in front of the audienceto dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as DJHollywood, Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee, the frequency of solo artists did not increase untillater with the rise of soloists with stage presence and drama, such as LL Cool J. Most earlyhip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral tothe show.An example would be the early hip hop group Funky Four Plus One, whoperformed in such a manner on Saturday Night Live in 1981.Influence of discoHip hop music was both influenced by disco music and a backlash against it. According toKurtis Blow, the early days of hip hop were characterized by divisions between fans anddetractors of disco music. Hip hop had largely emerged as "a direct response to the watereddown, Europeanised, disco music that permeated the airwaves",and the earliest hip hopwas mainly based on hard funk loops. However, by 1979, disco instrumental loops/tracks hadbecome the basis of much hip hop music. This genre got the name of "disco rap". Ironically,hip hop music was also a proponent in the eventual decline in disco popularity.DJ Pete Jones, Eddie Cheeba, DJ Hollywood, and Love Bug Starski were disco-influencedhip hop DJs. Their styles differed from other hip hop musicians who focused on rapid-firerhymes and more complex rhythmic schemes. Afrika Bambaataa, Paul Winley, GrandmasterFlash, and Bobby Robinson were all members of this latter group.In Washington, D.C. go-go emerged as a reaction against disco and eventually incorporatedcharacteristics of hip hop during the early 1980s. The genre of electronic music behavedsimilarly, eventually evolving into what is known as house music in Chicago and techno inDetroit.Transition to recordingPrior to 1979, recorded hip hop music consisted mainly of PA system recordings of partiesand early hip hop mixtapes by DJs. Puerto Rican DJ Disco Wiz is credited as the first hip hopDJ to create a "mixed plate," or mixed dub recording, when, in 1977, he combined soundbites, special effects and paused beats to technically produce a sound recording.The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be The Sugarhill Gangs "Rappers Delight",from 1979.However, much controversy surrounds this assertion as some regard "KingTim III (Personality Jock)" by The Fatback Band, which was released a few weeks before"Rappers Delight", as a rap record.There are various other claimants for the title of firsthip hop record.
By the early 1980s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place.Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had permeated outside of New York City; it could befound in cities as diverse as Atlanta, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Dallas,Kansas City, San Antonio, Miami, Seattle, St. Louis, New Orleans, Houston, and Toronto.Indeed, "Funk You Up" (1979), the first hip hop record released by a female group, and thesecond single released by Sugar Hill Records, was performed by The Sequence, a group fromColumbia, South Carolina which featured Angie Stone.Despite the genres growing popularity, Philadelphia was, for many years, the only citywhose contributions could be compared to New York Citys. Hip hop music became popularin Philadelphia in the late 1970s. The first released record was titled "Rhythm Talk", byJocko Henderson.The New York Times had dubbed Philadelphia the "Graffiti Capital of the World" in 1971.Philadelphia native DJ Lady B recorded "To the Beat YAll" in 1979, and became the firstfemale solo hip hop artist to record music.Schoolly D, starting in 1984 and also fromPhiladelphia, began creating a style that would later be known as gangsta rap.1980sThe 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complexstyles.Early examples of the diversification process can be identified through such tracksas Grandmaster Flashs "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel"(1981), a single consisting entirely of sampled tracksas well as Afrika Bambaataas"Planet Rock" (1982), which signified the fusion of hip hop music with electro. In addition,Rammellzee & K-Robs "Beat Bop" (1983) was a slow jam which had a dub influence withits use of reverb and echo as texture and playful sound effects. The mid-1980s was marked bythe influence of rock music, with the release of such albums as King of Rock and Licensed toIll.Heavy usage of the new generation of drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX andRoland 808 models was a characteristic of many 1980s songs. To this day the 808 kickdrumis traditionally used by hip hop producers. Over time sampling technology became moreadvanced; however earlier producers such as Marley Marl used drum machines to constructtheir beats from small excerpts of other beats in synchronisation, in his case, triggering 3Korg sampling-delay units through a 808. Later, samplers such as the E-mu SP-1200 allowednot only more memory but more flexibility for creative production. This allowed the filtrationand layering different hits, and with a possibility of re-sequencing them into a single piece.Afrika Bambaataa (on the left)
With the emergence of a new generation of samplers such as the AKAI S900 in the late1980s, producers did not require the aid of tape loops. Public Enemys first album was createdwith the help of large tape loops. The process of looping break into a breakbeat now becamemore common with a sampler, now doing the job which so far had been done manually by theDJ. In 1989, DJ Mark James under the moniker "45 King", released "The 900 Number", abreakbeat track created by synchronizing samplers and vinyl.The lyrical content of hip hop evolved as well. The early styles presented in the 1970s soonwere replaced with metaphorical lyrics over more complex, multi-layered instrumentals.Artists such as Melle Mel, Rakim, Chuck D, and KRS-One revolutionized hip hop bytransforming it into a more mature art form. The influential single "The Message" (1982) byGrandmaster Flash and the Furious Five is widely considered to be the pioneering force forconscious rap.During the early 1980s, electro music was fused with elements of the hip hop movement,largely led by artists such as Cybotron, Hashim, Planet Patrol and Newcleus. The mostnotable proponent was Afrika Bambaataa who produced the single "Planet Rock".Some rappers eventually became mainstream pop performers. Kurtis Blows appearance in aSprite commercialmarked the first hip hop musician to represent a major product. The1981 songs "Rapture" by Blondie and "Christmas Wrapping" by the new-wave band TheWaitresses were one of the first pop songs to use some rapping in the delivery.Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the context of the UnitedStates. However, during the 1980s, it began its spread and became a part of the music scenein dozens of countries.Beastie Boys in 1992.In the early part of the decade, B-boying became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reachJapan, Australia and South Africa, where the crew Black Noise established the practicebefore beginning to rap later in the decade. Musician and presenter Sidney became Francesfirst black TV presenter with his show H.I.P. H.O.P.which screened on TF1 during 1984,a first for the genre worldwide. Radio Nova helped launch other French stars including DeeNasty whose 1984 album Paname City Rappin along with compilations Rapattitude 1 and 2contributed to a general awareness of Hip Hop in France.Hip hop has always kept a very close relationship with the Latino community in New York.DJ Disco Wiz and the Rock Steady Crew were among early innovators from Puerto Rico.combining English and Spanish in the lyrics. The Mean Machine recorded their first song
under the label "Disco Dreams" in 1981, while Kid Frost from Los Angeles began his careerin 1982.Cypress Hill was formed in 1988 in the suburb of South Gate outside Los Angeles whenSenen Reyes (born in Havana) and his younger brother Ulpiano Sergio (Mellow Man Ace)moved from Cuba to South Gate with his family in 1971. They teamed up with DVX fromQueens (New York), Lawrence Muggerud (DJ Muggs) and Louis Freese (B-Real), aMexican/Cuban-American native of Los Angeles. After the departure of "Ace" to begin hissolo career the group adopted the name of Cypress Hill named after a street running through aneighborhood nearby in South Los Angeles.Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and startedplaying hip hop records in the early 1980s.Japanese hip hop generally tends to be mostdirectly influenced by old school hip hop, taking from the eras catchy beats, dance culture,and overall fun and carefree nature and incorporating it into their music. As a result, hip hopstands as one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the linebetween it and pop music is frequently blurred.New school hip hopMain article: New school hip hopThe new school of hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. As with the hip hop preceding it (whichsubsequently became known as old school hip hop), the new school came predominatelyfrom New York City. The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine-led minimalism, with influences from rock music. It was notable for taunts and boasts aboutrapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style.In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy attitude. These elementscontrasted sharply with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands,synthesizers and party rhymes of artists prevalent prior to 1984, and rendered them old-school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, andmore cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began toestablish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. Hip hop music becamecommercially successful, as exemplified by the Beastie Boys 1986 album Licensed to Ill,which was the first rap album to hit #1 on the Billboard charts.Golden age hip hop
Public Enemy in 2006.Main article: Golden age hip hopHip hops "golden age" (or "golden era") is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop—usually cited as between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s—said to be characterized by itsdiversity, quality, innovation and influence.There were strong themes of Afrocentrismand political militancy, while the music was experimental and the sampling, eclectic.There was often a strong jazz influence. The artists most often associated with the phrase arePublic Enemy, Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul, A Tribe CalledQuest, Gang Starr, Big Daddy Kane and the Jungle Brothers.The golden age is noted for its innovation – a time "when it seemed that every new singlereinvented the genre"according to Rolling Stone. Referring to "hip-hop in its goldenage",Spin‘s editor-in-chief Sia Michel says, "there were so many important,groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time",and MTV‘s Sway Callowayadds: "The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived. Everything wasstill being discovered and everything was still innovative and new".Writer William JelaniCobb says "what made the era they inaugurated worthy of the term golden was the sheernumber of stylistic innovations that came into existence... in these golden years, a criticalmass of mic prodigies were literally creating themselves and their art form at the sametime".The specific time period that the golden age covers varies little from different sources.MSNBC states, "the ―Golden Age‖ of hip-hop music: The ‘80s".Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hopMain articles: Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hopGangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of inner-city Americanblack youths.Gangsta is a non-rhotic pronunciation of the word gangster. The genre waspioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T, and was popularized in
the later part of the 1980s by groups like N.W.A. Ice-T released "6 in the Mornin", which isoften regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in 1986. After the national attention that Ice-Tand N.W.A created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap became the mostcommercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop.N.W.A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their lyricswere more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts,featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word "nigger". These lyrics wereplaced over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the musics hard-edged feel. Thefirst blockbuster gangsta rap album was N.W.As Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988.Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establishLos Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hops long-time capital, New York City. StraightOutta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song"Fuck tha Police" earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director, Milt Ahlerich, stronglyexpressing law enforcements resentment of the song.Due to the influence of Ice T andN.W.A, gangsta rap is often credited as being an originally West Coast phenomenon, despitethe contributions of East Coast acts like Boogie Down Productions in shaping the genre.The subject matter inherent in gangsta rap has caused a great deal of controversy. Criticismhas come from both left wing and right wing commentators, and religious leaders. Gangstarappers often defend themselves by saying that they are describing the reality of inner-citylife, and that they are only adopting a character, like an actor playing a role, which behaves inways that they may not necessarily endorse.1990sMainstream breakthroughRap is the rock n roll of the day. Rock n roll was about attitude, rebellion, a big beat, sex and,sometimes, social comment. If thats what youre looking for now, youre going to find it here.“”— Bill Adler, Time, 1990In 1990, Public Enemys Fear of a Black Planet was a significant success with music criticsand consumers.It was highly contributory to hip hops mainstream emergence in 1990,dubbed by Billboard editor Paul Grein as "the year that rap exploded".In a 1990 article onits commercial breakthrough, Janice C. Thompson of Time wrote that hip hop "has growninto the most exciting development in American pop music in more than a decade."Thompson noted the impact of Public Enemys 1989 single "Fight the Power", rapper ToneLōcs single Wild Thing being the best-selling single of 1989, and that at the time of herarticle, nearly a third of the songs on the Billboard Hot 100 were hip hop songs.In asimilar 1990 article, Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times put hip hop musicscommercial emergence into perspective:It was 10 years ago that the Sugarhill Gangs "Rappers Delight" became the first rap single toenter the national Top 20. Who ever figured then that the music would even be around in1990, much less produce attractions that would command as much pop attention as Public
Enemy and N.W.A? "Rappers Delight" was a novelty record that was considered by much ofthe pop community simply as a lightweight offshoot of disco—and that image stuck foryears. Occasional records—including Grandmaster Flashs "The Message" in 1982 and Run-DMCs "Its Like That" in 1984—won critical approval, but rap, mostly, was dismissed as apassing fancy—too repetitious, too one dimensional. Yet rap didnt go away, and anexplosion of energy and imagination in the late 80s leaves rap today as arguably the mostvital new street-oriented sound in pop since the birth of rock in the 50s.However, hip hop was still met with resistance from black radio, including urbancontemporary, of which Russell Simmons said in 1990, "Black radio hated rap from the startand theres still a lot of resistance to it".MC Hammer hit mainstream success with the multi platinum album Please Hammer, DontHurt Em. The record reached #1 and the first single, "U Cant Touch This" charted on the topten of the billboard hot 100. MC Hammer became one of the most successful rappers of theearly nineties and one of the first household names in the genre. The album raised rap musicto a new level of popularity. It was the first hip-hop album certified diamond by the RIAA forsales of over ten million.It remains one of the genres all-time best-selling albums.Todate, the album has sold as many as 18 million units.In 1992, Dr. Dre releasedThe Chronic. As well as helping to establish West Coast gangsta rap as more commerciallyviable than East Coast hip hop,this album founded a style called G Funk, which sooncame to dominate West Coast hip hop. The style was further developed and popularized bySnoop Doggs 1993 album Doggystyle.Hip hop became a best selling music genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genreby 1999 with 81 million CDs sold.By the late 1990s hip hop was artisticallydominated by the Wu-Tang Clan.The Beastie Boys continued their success throughout thedecade crossing color lines and gaining respect from many different artists.Record labels based out of Atlanta, St. Louis, and New Orleans gained fame for their localscenes. The midwest rap scene was also notable, with the fast vocal styles from artists such asBone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, and Twista. By the end of the decade, hip hop was anintegral part of popular music, and many American pop songs had hip hop components.World hip hopIn Haiti, hip hop was developed in the early 1980s, and is mostly accredited to Master Djiand his songs "Vakans" and "Politik Pa m". What later became known as "Rap Kreyòl" grewin popularity in the late 1990s with King Posse and Original Rap Stuff. Due to cheaperrecording technology and flows of equipment to Haiti, more Rap Kreyòl groups are recordingsongs, even after the January 12th earthquake.In the Dominican Republic, a recording by Santi Y Sus Duendes and Lisa M became the firstsingle of merenrap, a fusion of hip hop and merengue.
De La Soul at Demon Days Live in 2005New York City experienced a heavy Jamaican hip hop influence during the 1990s. Thisinfluence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightenedimmigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth whowere coming of age during the 1990s.In Europe, Africa, and Asia, hip hop began to move from the underground to mainstreamaudiences. In Europe, hip hop was the domain of both ethnic nationals and immigrants.British hip hop, for example, became a genre of its own and spawned artists such as Wiley,Dizzee Rascal, The Streets and many more. Germany produced the well-known DieFantastischen Vier as well as several Turkish performers like the controversial Cartel, KoolSavaş, and Azad. Similarly, France has produced a number of native-born stars, such as IAMand Suprême NTM, MC Solaar, Rohff, RimK or Booba. In the Netherlands, importantnineties rappers include The Osdorp Posse, a crew from Amsterdam, Extince, fromOosterhout, and Postmen. Italy found its own rappers, including Jovanotti and Articolo 31,grow nationally renowned, while the Polish scene began in earnest early in the decade withthe rise of PM Cool Lee. In Romania, B.U.G. Mafia came out of Bucharests Pantelimonneighborhood, and their brand of gangsta rap underlines the parallels between life inRomanias Communist-era apartment blocks and in the housing projects of Americas ghettos.Israels hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars bothPalestinian (Tamer Nafar) and Israeli (Subliminal). In Portugal hip hop has his own kind ofrapping, which is more political and underground scene, they are known for Valete, Dealemaand Halloween. Russian hip hop emerged during last years of Soviet Union and cementedlater, with groups like Malchishnik and Bad Balance enjoying mainstream popularity in the1990s, while Ligalize and Kasta were popular in the 2000s.In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the Philippines, led by Francis Magalona,Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane. In Japan, where underground rappers had previouslyfound a limited audience, and popular teen idols brought a style called J-rap to the top of thecharts in the middle of the 1990s.Latinos had played an integral role in the early development of hip hop, and the style hadspread to parts of Latin America, such as Cuba, early in its history. Later in the decade, withLatin rap groups like Cypress Hill on the American charts, Mexican rap rock groups, such asControl Machete, rose to prominence in their native land. An annual Cuban hip hop concertheld at Alamar in Havana helped popularize Cuban hip hop, beginning in 1995. Hip hop grewsteadily more popular in Cuba, because of official governmental support for musicians.
Brazilian hip hop is heavily associated with racial and economic issues in the country, wherea lot of black people live in a bad situation in the violent slums, known in Brazil as favelas.São Paulo is where hip hop began in the country, but it soon spread all over Brazil, and today,almost every big Brazilian city, such as Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Curitiba, Porto Alegre,Belo Horizonte, Recife and Brasilia, has a hip hop scene. Some notable artists include:Racionais MCs, Thaide, and Marcelo D2Bosnian and Herzegovinan hip hop is currently dominated by Edo Maajka, the most popularrapper of the Balkans. In that region, especially Bosnia, hip hop is still used as a political andsocial message in song themes such as war, profiteering, corruption,etc... Frenkie anotherBosnian rapper, who is associated and the closest worker with Edo Maajka, has collaboratedbeyond Bosnians boarders. Frenkie collaborated with German artists such as Flip Star, CikaReks and others. Frenkie also collaborated on his latest album, Protuotrov, with Masta Ace,the song is Zivili (lived).East vs. West rivalryMain article: East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalryWest Coast hip hopMain article: West Coast hip hopSnoop DoggAfter N.W.A broke up, Dr. Dre (a former member) released The Chronic in 1992, whichpeaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart,#3 on the pop chart and spawned a #2 pop singlewith "Nuthin but a G Thang." The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction,influenced strongly by P funk artists, melding smooth and easy funk beats with slowlydrawled lyrics. This came to be known as G-funk and dominated mainstream hip hop forseveral years through a roster of artists on Death Row Records, including Tupac Shakur,whose double disc album All Eyez on Me was a big hit with hit songs "Ambitionz az a Ridah"and "2 of Amerikaz Most Wanted",and Snoop Dogg, whose Doggystyle includedthe songs "Whats My Name?" and "Gin and Juice", both top ten hits.As the Los Angeles-based label Death Row Records built an empire around Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, and thecharismatic, complicated rapper-actor Tupac Shakur. It also entered into a rivalry with NewYork City‘s Bad Boy Records. (See the article on the East Coast-West Coast hip hop rivalry.)
Detached from this scene were other artists such as Freestyle Fellowship, The Pharcyde aswell as more underground artists such as the Solesides collective (DJ Shadow andBlackalicious amongst others) Jurassic 5, Ugly Duckling, People Under the Stairs, ThaAlkaholiks, and earlier Souls of Mischief represented a return to hip hop roots of samplingand well planned rhyme schemes.East Coast hip hopMain article: East Coast hip hopIn the early 1990s East Coast hip hop was dominated by the Native Tongues posse which wasloosely composed of De La Soul with producer Prince Paul, A Tribe Called Quest, the JungleBrothers, as well as their loose affiliates 3rd Bass, Main Source, and the less successful BlackSheep & KMD. Although originally a "daisy age" conception stressing the positive aspects oflife, darker material (such as De La Souls thought-provoking "Millie Pulled a Pistol onSanta") soon crept in.Artists such as Masta Ace (particularly for SlaughtaHouse) & Brand Nubian, Public Enemy,Organized Konfusion, Ingnacio Bernal, had a more overtly militant pose, both in sound andmanner. Biz Markie, the "clown prince of hip hop", was causing himself and all other hip-hopproducers a problem with his appropriation of the Gilbert OSullivan song "Alone again,naturally".Wu-Tang Clan at the Virgin Festival in 2007.In the early-1990s, the Wu-Tang Clan revitalized the New York hip hop scene by pioneeringan East coast hardcore rap equivalent to what was being produced on the West Coast.According to Allmusic, the production on two Mobb Deep albums, The Infamous and Hell onEarth (1996), are "indebted" to RZAs early production with Wu-Tang Clan.Thesuccess of artists such as Nas and Notorious B.I.G. during 1994–95 cemented the status of theEast Coast during a time of West Coast dominance.The productions of RZA, particularly for Wu-Tang Clan, became influential with artists suchas Mobb Deep due to the combination of somewhat detached instrumental loops, highlycompressed and processed drums and gangsta lyrical content. Wu-Tang solo albums such asRaekwon the Chefs Only Built 4 Cuban Linx, Ghostface Killahs Ironman, and GZAs LiquidSwords are now viewed as classics along with Wu-Tang "core" material. The clans baseextended into further groups called Wu-affiliates.
Producers such as DJ Premier (primarily for Gangstarr but also for other affiliated artists suchas Jeru the Damaja), Pete Rock (With CL Smooth and supplying beats for many others),Buckwild, Large Professor, Diamond D and The 45 King supplying beats for numerous MCsregardless of location.Albums such as Nass Illmatic, Jay-Zs Reasonable Doubt and O.C.s Word...Life are made upof beats from this pool of producers.The rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast rappers eventually turned personal.Later in the decade the business acumen of the Bad Boy Records tested itself against Jay-Zand his Roc-A-Fella Records and, on the West Coast, Death Row Records. The mid to late1990s saw a generation of rappers such as the members of D.I.T.C. such as the late Big L andBig Pun.On the East Coast, although the "big business" end of the market dominated matterscommercially the late 1990s to early 2000s saw a number of relatively successful East Coastindie labels such as Rawkus Records (with whom Mos Def and Talib Kweli gained greatsuccess) and later Def Jux; the history of the two labels is intertwined, the latter having beenstarted by EL-P of Company Flow in reaction to the former, and offered an outlet for moreunderground artists such as Mike Ladd, Aesop Rock, Mr Lif, RJD2, Cage and Cannibal Ox.Other acts such as the Hispanic Arsonists and slam poet turned MC Saul Williams met withdiffering degrees of success.Diversification of stylesFurther information: List of hip hop genresIn the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging on the nationalscene. Southern rap became popular in the early 1990s.The first Southern rappers to gainnational attention were the Geto Boys out of Houston, Texas.Southern raps roots can betraced to the success of Geto Boys Grip It! On That Other Level in 1989, the Rick Rubinproduced The Geto Boys in 1990, and We Cant Be Stopped in 1991.The Houston areaalso produced other artists that pioneered the early southern rap sound such as UGK and thesolo career of Scarface.Atlanta hip hop artists were key in further expanding rap music and bringing southern hiphop into the mainstream. Releases such as Arrested Developments 3 Years, 5 Months & 2Days in the Life Of... in 1992, Goodie Mobs Soul Food in 1995 and OutKasts ATLiens in1996 were all critically acclaimed. Later, Master P (Ghetto D) built up a roster of artists (theNo Limit posse) based out of New Orleans. Master P incorporated G funk and Miami bassinfluences; and distinctive regional sounds from St. Louis, Chicago, Washington D.C.,Detroit and others began to gain popularity.In the 1990s, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popularmusic. Neo soul, for example, combined hip hop and soul music. In the 1980s and 1990s, raprock, rapcore and rap metal, fusions of hip hop and rock, hardcore punk and heavy metalbecame popular among mainstream audiences. Rage Against the Machine and Limp Bizkitwere among the most well-known bands in these fields.
Digable Planets 1993 release Reachin (A New Refutation of Time and Space) was aninfluential jazz rap record sampling the likes of Don Cherry, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey,Herbie Mann, Herbie Hancock, Grant Green, and Rahsaan Roland Kirk. It spawned the hitsingle "Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)" which reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100Though white rappers like the Beastie Boys, House of Pain and 3rd Bass had had somepopular success or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, Eminems success,beginning in 1999 with the platinum The Slim Shady LP,surprised many.2000s and 2010sEminem performing live at the DJ Hero Party in Los Angeles.The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s. Dr. Dre remained an importantfigure, and in the year 2000 produced, The Marshall Mathers LP by Eminem. Dre alsoproduced 50 Cents, 2003 album Get Rich or Die Tryin which debuted at number one on theU.S. Billboard 200 charts.Hip hop influences also found their way increasingly into mainstream pop during this periodmainly the mid-2000s, as the Los Angeles style of the 1990s lost power. Nellys debut LP,Country Grammar, sold over nine million copies. In the 2000s, crunk music, a derivative ofSouthern hip hop, gained considerable popularity via the likes of Lil Jon and the Ying YangTwins. Jay-Z represented the cultural triumph of hip hop. As his career progressed, he wentfrom performing artist to label president, head of a clothing line, club owner, and marketconsultant—along the way breaking Elvis Presley‘s record for most number one albums onthe Billboard magazine charts by a solo artist.In addition to the mainstream success, the United States also saw the success of alternativehip hop in the form of performers such as The Roots, Dilated Peoples, Gnarls Barkley andMos Def, who achieved significant recognition. Gnarls Barkleys album St. Elsewhere, whichcontained a fusion of funk, neo soul and hip hop, debuted at number 20 on the Billboard 200charts. In addition, Aesop Rocks 2007 album None Shall Pass was well received,andreached #50 on the Billboard charts.World and national music
The continuation of hip hop can also be seen in different national contexts. In Tanzania,maintained popular acts of their own in the early 2000s, infusing local styles of Afrobeat andarabesque melodies, dancehall and hip-hop beats, and Swahili lyrics. Scandinavian,especially Danish and Swedish, performers became well known outside of their country,while hip hop continued its spread into new regions, including Russia, Japan, Philippines,Canada, China, Korea, India and especially Vietnam. Of particular importance is theinfluence on East Asian nations, where hip hop music has become fused with local popularmusic to form different styles such as K-pop, C-pop and J-pop.In Germany and France, gangsta rap has become popular among youths who like the violentand aggressive lyrics.Some German rappers openly or comically flirt with Nazism,Bushido (born Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) raps "Salutiert, steht stramm, Ich bin derLeader wie A" (Salute, stand to attention, I am the leader like A) and Fler had a hit with therecord Neue Deutsche Welle (New German Wave) complete with the title written in ThirdReich style Gothic print and advertised with an Adolf Hitler quote.These references alsospawned great controversy in Germany.Meanwhile in France, artists like Kery JamesIdéal J maintained a radical, anti-authoritarian attitude and released songs like Hardcorewhich attacked the growth of the French far right.In the Netherlands, MC Brainpower went from being an underground battle rapper tomainstream recognition in the Benelux, thus influencing numerous rap artists in the region. InIsrael, rapper Subliminal reaches out to Israeli youth with political and religious-themedlyrics, usually with a Zionist message.One of the countries outside the US where hip-hop is most popular is the United Kingdom. Inthe 2000s a derirative genre from Hip-Hop (as well as UK Garage and Drum and Bass)known as Grime became popular with artists such as Dizzee Rascal becoming successful.Although it is immensely popular, many British politicians criticize the music for what theysee as promoting theft and murder, similar to gangsta rap in America. These criticisms havebeen deemed racist by the mostly Black British grime industry.Despite its controversialnature, grime has had a major effect on British fashion and pop music, with many youngworking class youth emulating the clothing worn by grime stars like Dizzee Rascal andWiley.There are many subgenres of grime, including "Rhythm and Grime," a mix of R&Band grime, and grindie, a mix of indie rock and grime popularized by indie rock bandHadouken!Hip hop has globalized into many cultures worldwide, as evident through the emergence ofnumerous regional scenes. It has emerged globally as a movement based upon the maintennets of hip hop culture. The music and the art continue to embrace, even celebrate, itstransnational dimensions while staying true to the local cultures to which it is rooted. Hip-hops inspiration differs depending on each culture. Still, the one thing virtually all hip hopartists worldwide have in common is that they acknowledge their debt to those AfricanAmerican people in New York who launched the global movement.While hip-hop issometimes taken for granted by Americans, it is not so elsewhere, especially in thedeveloping world, where it has come to represent the empowerment of the disenfranchisedand a slice of the American dream. American hip-hop music has reached the culturalcorridors of the globe and has been absorbed and reinvented around the world.Crunk and snap music
Main articles: Crunk and Snap musicCrunk originated in Tennessee in the 1990s. The style was pioneered and commercialized byartists from Memphis, Tennessee and Atlanta, Georgia.Looped, stripped-down drum machine rhythms are usually used. The Roland TR-808 and 909are among the most popular. The drum machines are usually accompanied by simple,repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass stabs. The tempo of the music is somewhatslower than hip-hop, around the speed of reggaeton.The focal point of crunk is more often the beats and music than the lyrics therein. Crunkrappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating an aggressive, almost heavy,style of hip-hop. While other subgenres of hip-hop address sociopolitical or personalconcerns, crunk is almost exclusively party music, favoring call and response hip-hop slogansin lieu of more substantive approaches.Snap music is a subgenre of crunk that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia, in the late 1990s.The genre soon gained mainstream popularity and in mid-2005 artists from other southernstates such as Tennessee began to emerge with this style. Tracks commonly consist of an 808bassdrum, hi-hat, bass, snapping, a main groove and a vocal track. Hit snap songs include"Lean wit It, Rock wit It" by "Dem Franchize Boyz", "Laffy Taffy" by D4L, "Its GoinDown" by Yung Joc and "Crank That (Soulja Boy)" by Soulja Boy Tell Em.Glitch hop and wonky musicMain articles: Glitch hop and Wonky (music)The Glitch MobGlitch hop and Wonky music evolved following the rise of trip hop, dubstep and IDM. Bothstyles of music frequently reflect the experimental nature of IDM and the heavy bass featuredin dubstep songs. While trip hop was described as being a distinct British upper-middle classtake on hip-hop, glitch-hop and wonky music have featured much more stylistic diversity.Both genres are melting pots of influence, echoes of 1980s pop music, Indian ragas, eclecticjazz and West Coast rap can be heard in glitch hop productions. Los Angeles, London,Glasgow and a number of other cities have become hot spots for these scenes, andunderground scenes have developed across the world in smaller communities. Both genresoften pay homage to older and more well established electronic music artists such asRadiohead, Aphex Twin and Boards of Canada as well as independent hip hop producers likeJ Dilla and Madlib.
Glitch hop is a fusion genre of hip hop and glitch music that originated in the early to mid-2000s in the United States and Europe. Musically, it is based on irregular, chaotic breakbeats,glitchy basslines and other typical sound effects used in glitch music, like skips. Glitch hopartists include Prefuse 73, Dabrye and Flying Lotus.Wonky is a subgenre of hip hop that originated around 2008, but most notably in the UnitedStates and United Kingdom, and among international artists of the Hyperdub music label,under the influence of glitch hop and dubstep. Wonky music is of the same glitchy type asglitch hop, but it was specifically noted for its melodies, rich with "mid-range unstablesynths". Scotland has become one of the most prominent places, where wonky music wasshaped by artists like Hudson Mohawke and Rustie.Glitch hop and wonky are popular among a limited amount of people interested in alternativehip hop and electronic music (especially dubstep); neither glitch hop nor wonky have met anymainstream popularity, however, artists like Flying Lotus, The Glitch Mob and HudsonMohawke have seen success in other avenues. Flying Lotuss music has earned multiplepositive reviews on the independent music review site Pitchfork.com as well as a prominent(yet uncredited) spot during Adult Swim commercial breaks. Hudson Mohawke is one of fewglitch hop artists to play at major music festivals such as Sasquatch! Music Festival.Decline in salesStarting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, leadingTime magazine to question if mainstream hip-hop was "dying." Billboard Magazine foundthat, since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%, and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, whilestill a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13%of all music sales where rap music regularly placed.According to Courtland Milloy ofThe Washington Post, for the first time on five years, no rap albums were among the top 10sellers in 2006.NPR culture critic Elizabeth Blair noted that, "some industry experts sayyoung people are fed up with the violence, degrading imagery and lyrics." However, the 2005report Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year-Olds found that hip hop music is byfar the most popular music genre for children and teenagers, with 65 percent of 8- to-18-year-olds listening to it on a daily basis.Others say the music is just as popular as it ever was, but that fans have found other means toconsume the music."It can also be argued that many young people now download musicillegally, especially through P2P networks, instead of purchasing albums and singles fromlegitimate stores. For example, Flo Rida is known for his low album sales regardless of hissingles being mainstream and having digital success. His second album R.O.O.T.S. sold only200,000+ total units in the U.S., which could not line up to the sales of the albums leadsingle "Right Round". This also happened to him in 2008.Some put the blame on the lackof lyrical content that hip hop once had, another example is Soulja Boy Tell Ems 2007 debutalbum souljaboytellem.com was met with negative reviews.Lack of sampling, a keyelement of hip hop, has also been noted for the decrease in quality of modern albums. Forexample, there are only four samples used in 2008s Paper Trail by T.I., while there are 35samples in 1998s Moment of Truth by Gang Starr. The decrease in sampling is in part due toit being too expensive for producers.In Byron Hurts documentary Hip Hop: BeyondBeats and Rhymes, he claims that hip hop had changed from "clever rhymes and dance beats"to "advocating personal, social and criminal corruption."Despite the fall in record salesthroughout the music industry,hip-hop has remained a popular genre, with hip-hop artists
still regularly topping the Billboard 200 Charts. In the first half of 2009 alone artists such asEminem,Rick Ross,The Black Eyed Peas,and Fabolousall had albums thatreached the #1 position on the Billboard 200 charts. Eminems album Relapse was one of thefastest selling albums of 2009.Innovation and revitalizationKanye West performing in 2008It was during the mid-2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within themainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, andGnarls Barkley.Not only did OutKasts Speakerboxxx/The Love Below receive highacclaim from music critics, manage to appeal to listeners of all ages, and span numerousmusical genres – including rap, rock, R&B, punk, jazz, indie, country, pop, electronica andgospel – but it also spawned two number-one hit singles and has been certified diamond byselling 11 times platinum by the RIAA for shipping more than 11 million units,becomingone of the best selling hip-hop albums of all time as well as winning a Grammy Award forAlbum of the Year at the 46th Annual Grammy Awards being only the second rap album todo so. Industry observers view the sales race between Kanye Wests Graduation and 50Cents Curtis as a turning point for hip hop. West emerged the victor, selling nearly a millioncopies in the first week alone, proving that innovative rap music could be just ascommercially viable as gangsta rap, if not more so.Although he designed it as amelancholic pop rather than rap, Kanyes following 808s & Heartbreak would have asignificant effect on hip hop music. While his decision to sing about love, loneliness, andheartache for the entirety of the album was at first heavily criticized by music audiences andthe album predicted to be a flop, its subsequent critical acclaim and commercial successencouraged other mainstream rappers to take greater creative risks with their music.During the release of The Blueprint 3, New York rap mogul Jay-Z revealed that next studioalbum would be an experimental effort, stating, "... its not gonna be a #1 album. Thats whereIm at right now. I wanna make the most experimental album I ever made."Jay-Zelaborated that like Kanye, he was unsatisfied with contemporary hip hop, was being inspiredby indie-rockers like Grizzly Bear and asserted his belief that the indie rock movement wouldplay an important role in the continued evolution of hip-hop.
In 2009, Time magazine placed M.I.A. in the Time 100 list of "Worlds Most InfluentialPeople"The alternative hip hop movement is not limited only to the United States, as rappers such asSomali-Canadian poet Knaan, Japanese rapper Shing02, and Sri Lankan British artist M.I.A.have achieved considerable worldwide recognition. In 2009, TIME magazine placed M.I.A inthe Time 100 list of "Worlds Most Influential people" for having "global influence acrossmany genres."Global themed movements have also sprung out of the internationalhip-hop scene with microgenres like "Islamic Eco-Rap" addressing issues of worldwideimportance through traditionally disenfranchised voices.Today, due in part to theincreasing use of music distribution through the internet, many alternative rap artists findacceptance by far-reaching audiences. Several artists such as Kid Cudi and Drake havemanaged to attain chart-topping hit songs, "Day n Night" and "Best I Ever Had"respectively, by releasing their music on free online mixtapes without the help of a majorrecord label. New artists such as Wale, J. Cole, Lupe Fiasco, The Cool Kids, Jay Electronica,and B.o.B, some of whom mention being directly influenced by their nineties alt-rappredecessors, in addition to the southern rap sound, while their music has been noted bycritics as expressing eclectic sounds, life experiences, and emotions rarely seen in mainstreamhip hop.Notes1. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from merriam-webster.com: A subcultureespecially of inner-city youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic musicthat commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.2. ^ a b c d eEncyclopædia Britannica article on rap, retrieved from britannica.com: Rap, musical style inwhich rhythmic and/or rhyming speech is chanted (―rapped‖) to musical accompaniment. This backingmusic, which can include digital sampling (music and sounds extracted from other recordings), is alsocalled hip-hop, the name used to refer to a broader cultural movement that includes rap, deejaying(turntable manipulation), graffiti painting, and break dancing.3. ^ AllMusic article for rap, retrieved from AllMusic.com4. ^ Harvard Dictionary of Music article for rap, retrieved from CredoReference5. ^ a bEncyclopædia Britannica article on hip-hop, retrieved from britannica.com: Hip-hop, culturalmovement that attained widespread popularity in the 1980s and ‘90s; also, the backing music for rap,the musical style incorporating rhythmic and/or rhyming speech that became the movement‘s mostlasting and influential art form.6. ^ Kugelberg, Johan (2007). Born in the Bronx. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7893-1540-3.
7. ^ Brown, Lauren (February 18, 2009). "Hip to the Game – Dance World vs. Music Industry, The Battlefor Hip Hop‘s Legacy". Movmnt Magazine. Retrieved 2009-07-30.8. ^ Chang, Jeff (2005). Cant Stop Wont Stop: A History of the Hip Hop Generation. New York: St.Martins Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-312-30143-X.9. ^ Harvard Dictionary of Music article for hip hop, retrieved from Google Books: While often used torefer to rap music, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of entire subculture10. ^ AllMusic article for Hip-hop/Urban, retrieved from AllMusic.com: Hip-Hop is the catch-all term forrap and the culture it spawned.11. ^ "Hip-hop". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 6 October2011.12. ^ "Hip-hop". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 6 October 2011.13. ^ a b c"Keith Cowboy – The Real Mc Coy". Web.archive.org. 2006-03-17. Archived from the originalon 2006-03-17. Retrieved 2010-01-12.14. ^ Zulunation.com (cached)15. ^ Hagar, Steven. "Afrika Bambaataa‘s Hip-Hop," Village Voice16. ^ Hager, Steven. Hip Hop: The Illustrated History of Break Dancing, Rap Music, and Graffiti. StMartins Press, 1984 (out of print).17. ^ Dyson, Michael Eric, 2007, Know What I Mean? : Reflections on Hip-Hop, Basic Civitas Books, p.6.18. ^ a b cStas Bekman: stas (at) stason.org. "What is "Dub" music anyway? (Reggae)". Stason.org.Retrieved 2010-01-12.19. ^ David Dye (February 22, 2007). "NPR: The Birth of Rap: A Look Back". NPR.20. ^ [dead link]21. ^ Philen, Robert (2007-11-05). "Robert Philens Blog: Mythic Music: Stockhausen, Davis and Macero,Dub, Hip Hop, and Lévi-Strauss". Robertphilen.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-01-12.22. ^ Crossley, Scott. ‘Metaphorical Conceptions in Hip-Hop Music‖, African American Review, St LouisUniversity Press, 2005. pp.501–50223. ^ Alridge D, Steward J. ―Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future‖, Journal ofAfrican American History 2005. pp.19024. ^ "A database of sampled music". WhoSampled. Retrieved 2010-01-12.25. ^ Campbell, K.E. (2005). Gettin our groove on: rhetoric, language, and literacy for the hip hopgeneration, Wayne State University Press26. ^ Cepeda, R., George, N. 2004. And It Dont Stop: The Best American Hip-Hop Journalism of the Last25 Years, New York, Faber and Faber Inc.27. ^ a b"History of Hip Hop – Old School". nciMUSIC. Retrieved 2010-01-12.28. ^ "Article about Mele Mel (Melle Mel)". AllHipHop.com. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02.[dead link]29. ^ Schloss, J.G. (2009). Foundation: b-boys, b-girls, and hip-hop culture in New York, OxfordUniversity Press30. ^ a b* David Toop (1984/1991/2000). Rap Attack II: African Rap To Global Hip Hop, p.94, ?, 96. NewYork. New York: Serpents Tail. ISBN 1-85242-243-2.31. ^ Bynoe, Y. (2006). Encyclopedia of rap and hip-hop culture, Greenwood Press32. ^ nciMUSIC – History of Hip Hop nciMUSIC.com33. ^ The History Of Hip Hop pg 8 Daveyd.com34. ^ Hess, Mickey (2009). Hip Hop in America: A Regional Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. xxxiii. ISBN 978-0-313-34323-0.35. ^ "hip hop". The Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 2010-01-12.36. ^ Chris Heard, Thursday, 14 October 2004, 08:52 GMT 09:52 UK. "Silver jubilee for first rap hit",BBC News.37. ^ Greenberg, Steve; Light, Alan [ed.] (1999). The VIBE History of Hip Hop. Three Rivers Press. p. 28.ISBN 0-609-80503-738. ^ Anonym (2004-02-26). "Hip Hop On Wax: Lady B – To The Beat YAll".Hiphoponwax.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-01-12.39. ^ Benson, G. (2010).Lonely Planet USA, Lonely Planet40. ^ Talbot, M,.(2000). The musical work: reality or invention?, Liverpool University Press41. ^ 42. ^ MCM retrospective on Sidney :« on peut dire aujourdhui que Sidney est le papa du hip-hop français. Concepteur de lémission H.I.P.H.O.P. en 1984 (1ère émission rap au monde diffusée à lépoque le dimanche à 14h00 avant Starsky &Hutch), ce Dj/rappeur/breakeur extravagant fait découvrir cette nouvelle tendance américaine aux
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