Coca cola dharm project

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upload this type of file a reserch report in marketing with the tltle of report various product of coca cola in delhi/ncr

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Coca cola dharm project

  1. 1. COCA COLA BEVERAGE PVT LTDCOCA COLA BEVERAGE PVT LTD A ReseARch RePORT ON “ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DISTRIBUTION PROCESS OF VARIOUS PRODUCT OF COCA COLA” submiTTed fOR The PARTiAl fulfillmeNT Of The RequiRemeNT fOR The AwARd OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SESSION 2012-2014 mANGAlmAY iNsTiTuTe Of mANAGemeNT & TechNOlOGY GReATeR NOidA Submitted To: Submitted By: Prof. Sandeep Sharma Dharmendra Kumar Faculty of Marketing MBA IInd Year 1 | P a g e
  2. 2. (MIMT) Roll-1215270019 AcKNOwledGemeNT The Research report will be incomplete without acknowledge giving my sincere, gratitude to all persons who have helped me in the preparation of this dissertation. First of all, I thank “GOD ALIMIGHTY” for the blessings showered on me throughout this project work, which has helped me in the successful completion of the Report. In the beginning, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my Institute teachers for giving me an opportunity to take the practical experience of working life. I convey my sincere thanks to Prof. Sandeep Sharma (MIMT), Gr. Noida, for providing me the proper guidance for providing me the opportunity to carry out my summer training project effectively and efficiently. I would also like to pay thanks to all my classmates and friends and my family members for co-operating with me and helping me to complete the project. . 2 | P a g e
  3. 3. declARATiON I hereby declare that I have carried out Research Report on the topic entitled “Analytical study of the effectiveness of distribution process of various product of coca-cola” at Delhi/NCR. I further declare that this Report work is based on my original work and no part of this Report has been published or submitted to anybody. Place: DHARMENDRA KUMAR DATE: ROLL NO- 1215270019 M.B.A IIND YEAR 3 | P a g e
  4. 4. PRefAce In summer the consumption of soft drinks is more due to hot weather in this time chilled weather is needed everywhere and every body irrespective of age difference. In the market peoples not only need water, but they want same taste too. Here comes the need of soft drinks: it has become an essential part of market as people like it in addition to the bottles, now day’s packages of soft drinks i.e. Tin cans. Pet packs of i.e. Litters canisters and dispensers are introduced to enhance the impact in sales. As an integral part as curriculum all M.BA a participant are required to undergo research Report in any industry for 6 to 8 week’s period. The main objective of this Report is to supplement theoretical knowledge with exposure to practical operator of an organization or industry. Candidate tale much help from this report when he get the job after completed the curriculum in this report candidate get the better opportunity to in meet the Retailer conjurer, whale sellers dealer by which candidates gain more and more information about the market. By this practical Experience candidate confident level is improved. Consequently we can say this report provide better understanding of all functional areas of management skills. 4 | P a g e
  5. 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Coca cola is a 125 years old brand which was invented in Atlanta Georgia in the year 1886 by Dr John S Pemberton. Over a period of time the drink transform itself from a drink of medicinal value to the most recognizable brand in the world today. This report has been prepared with a specific purpose in mind. It outlines the history and current scenario of the Coca-Cola Company globally and locally. The first part of the study takes us through the present state of affairs of the beverage industry and Coca-Cola Company globally. The report contains a brief introduction of Coca Cola Company and Coca-Cola India and a detailed view of the tasks, which have been undertaken to analyze the market of Coca-Cola i.e. we have performed Competitive, PESTLE and SWOT analysis of Coca-Cola Company and PESTLE and SWOT analysis of Coca-Cola India in order to identify areas of potential growth for Coca-Cola. We have also given a brief description of Trends and Forces that are affecting Coca-Cola Company globally. The main objective of this project report is to analyze and study in efficient way the current position of Coca- Cola Company. The study also aims to perform Market Analysis of Coca-Cola Company & find out different factors effecting the growth of Coca-Cola. Another objective of the study was to perform Competitive analysis between Coca-Cola and its competitors. Apart from these objectives this study is also conducted to 5 | P a g e
  6. 6. understand the Customer preferences towards various Coca-Cola products. . TAble Of cONTeNT TOPic PAGe NO. INTRODUCTION OF COCA COLA : 8-11 HISTORY : 12-14 COMPANY PROFILE : 15-27 LOGO DESIGN : 28-34 ADVERTISING : 35-41 BUSINESS SEGMENT : 42 COMPANY PROFILE IN INDIA : 43-45 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE : 46 PRODUCTION PROCESS : 47 MARKET OF SOFT DRINK IN INDIA : 48-55 MARKETING STRATEGIES : 56-63 DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL : 64-70 ANALYSIS & INTERPRATION : 71-83 GRAPH : 84-94 6 | P a g e
  7. 7. PRESELL : 95-103 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : 104-114 SWOT ANALYSIS : 115-118 Findings : 119-120 SUGGETION & CONCULATION : 121-122 RECOMMENDATION : 123 BIBLIOGRAPHY : 124-125 Annexure - Questionnaire : 126-128 7 | P a g e
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION Coca-Cola 1941-present logo Type Cola Manufacturer The Coca-Cola Company Country of origin United States Introduced 1886 Color Caramel E-150d Flavor Cola, Cola Cherry, Cola Vanilla, Cola Green Tea, Cola Lemon, Cola Lemon Lime, Cola Lime, Cola Orange and Cola Raspberry. 9 | P a g e
  10. 10. Variants See Brand portfolio section below Related products Pepsi RC Cola Cola Turka Kola Real Inca Kola Zam Cola Mecca-Cola Virgin Cola Parsi Cola Qibla Cola Evoca Cola Corsica Cola Breizh Cola Afri Cola Website www.coca-cola.com Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke (a registered trademark of The Coca-Cola Company in the United States since March 27, 1944). Originally intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton, Coca-Cola was bought out by businessman Asia Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Coke to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains to major restaurants and food service distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introduced other cola drinks under the Coke brand name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca- Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime or coffee. History of Coca cola 19th century historical origins 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. Eagle Drug and Chemical House, Columbus, Georgia John Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola Old German Coca-Cola bottle opener. Believed to be the first coupon ever, this ticket for a free glass of Coca-Cola was first distributed in 1888 to help promote the drink. By 1913, the company had redeemed 8.5 million tickets. 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. This Coca-Cola advertisement from 1943 is still displayed in the small city of Minden, Louisiana. Colonel John Pemberton was wounded in the Civil War, became addicted to morphine, and began a quest to find a substitute to the dangerous opiate. The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, originally as a coca wine. He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariana, a European coca wine. In 1885, Pemberton registered his French Wine Coca nerve tonic. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A copartner ship had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphy; C.O. Mullahy and E.H. Blood worth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asia Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca- Cola" belonged to his son, Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. More so for Candler especially, Charley's position holding exclusive control over the "Coca Cola" name continued to be a thorn in his side. Asa Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the young druggist [Asia Griggs Candler] purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. - with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. name. After the April 14th deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750 The Coca-Cola Company In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; "The Coca-Cola Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" burned in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time. After Candler had gained a better foothold of Coca-Cola in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Coke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the summer of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well. When Dr. John Stitch Pemberton suddenly died on August 16, 1888, Asia G. Candler now sought to move swiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca-Cola operation. Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asia Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was that Candler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton's funeral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40. In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th {1888}, he {Asia Candler} became sole proprietor of Coca-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy." With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Wool folk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300. In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, came forward to claim that her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley. 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. Origins of bottling The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble- skirt design of 1915 now so familiar. It was then a few years later that two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, namely; Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca- Cola bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers. The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894 in Cartersville, Georgia. Cola syrup is sold as an over-the-counter dietary supplement for upset stomach. 20th century landmarks 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the soft drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Atlanta Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients. Original framed Coca-Cola artist's drawn graphic presented by The Coca-Cola Company on July 12, 1944 to Charles Howard Candler on the occasion of Coca-Cola's "1 Billionth Gallon of Coca-Cola Syrup." Claimed to be the first installation anywhere of the 1948 model "Boat Motor" styled Coca-Cola soda dispenser, Freeman’s Pharmacy, Atlanta, Georgia. The "Boat Motor" soda dispenser was introduced in the late 1930s and manufactured till the late 1950s. Photograph circa 1948. 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. The longest running commercial Coca-Cola soda fountain anywhere was Atlanta's Freeman’s Pharmacy, which first opened its doors in 1914. Jack Freeman took over the pharmacy from his father and ran it till 1995; closing it after 81 years. On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca-Cola syrup was manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955. New Coke Main article: New Coke On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi, but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula using high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar as the main sweetener, under the name Coca-Cola Classic, on July 10, 1985. 21st century On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968. In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola". The word "Classic" was removed 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two. The formula remained unchanged. In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-US-fluid-ounce (470 ml) bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image. The word "Classic" was removed from all Coca-Cola products by 2011. In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke. However, some Costco locations (such as the ones in Tucson, Arizona), sell imported Coca-Cola from Mexico. Coca-Cola introduced the 7.5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2.99. That same day, Coca- Cola announced the 12.5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16- ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1.19. In 2012, Coca-Cola would resume business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.S.-imposed investment sanctions against the country. Coca-Cola's bottling plant will be located in Yangon and is part of the company's five-year plan and $200 million investment in Myanmar. Coca-Cola with its partners is to invest USD 5 billion in its operations in India by 2020. 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. In 2013, it was announced that Coca-Cola Life would be introduced in Argentina that would contain Stevie and sugar.[44] Coke advertisement - 2013 Production Coca-Cola 375 ML cans – 24 pack (AU) Ingredients • Carbonated water 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. • Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup depending on country of origin) • Caffeine • Phosphoric acid • Caramel color (E150d) • Natural flavorings] A can of Coke (12 fl ounces/355 ml) has 39 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar, approximately 10 teaspoons), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories. Formula of natural flavorings Main article: Coca-Cola formula The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients, which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula was held in SunTrust Bank's main vault in Atlanta for 86 years. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company's initial public offering in 1919. On December 8, 2011, the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca-Cola museum in downtown Atlanta. A popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula. The truth is that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in 22 | P a g e
  23. 23. addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process. On February 11, 2011, Ira Glass revealed on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that the secret formula to Coca-Cola had been uncovered in a 1979 newspaper. The formula found basically matched the formula found in Pemberton's diary. Use of stimulants in formula An early Coca Cola advertisement. When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the 23 | P a g e
  24. 24. caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes). Brand portfolio This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles. Name Launched Discontinued Notes Coca-Cola 1886 The original version of Coca- Cola. Caffeine- Free Coca- Cola 1983 The caffeine free version of Coca- Cola. Coca-Cola Cherry 1985 Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Called "Cherry Coca- Cola (Cherry Coke)" in North America until 2006. New 1985 2002 Was still available 24 | P a g e
  25. 25. Coke/"Coca- Cola II" in Yap and American Samoa Coca-Cola with Lemon 2001 2005 Available in: Australia, American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Reunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank- Gaza Coca-Cola 2002; 2005; Available in: 25 | P a g e
  26. 26. Vanilla 2007 Austria, Australia, China, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, South- Africa, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand. Coca-Cola with Lime 2005 Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Coca-Cola Raspberry June 2005 End of 2005 Was only available in New Zealand. Currently available in the United States in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain since 2009. 26 | P a g e
  27. 27. Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla 2006 Middle of 2007 Was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007 Coca-Cola Blāk 2006 Beginning of 2008 Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Lithuania Coca-Cola Citra 2006 Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand and Japan. Coca-Cola Orange 2007 Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland it's sold under the label Mezzo Mix. Currently available in Coca- Cola Freestyle fountain outlets in the United States 27 | P a g e
  28. 28. since 2009. Coca-Cola Life 2013 Only available in Argentina. Logo design The Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spenserians script, was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period. Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs. Contour bottle design Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca- Cola bottle. 28 | P a g e
  29. 29. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Designer label for 2 liter Coca-Cola bottle The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, but known to some as the "hobble skirt" bottle, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean. In 1915, the Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize 29 | P a g e
  30. 30. even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was." Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Root gave Dean his approval. Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold- making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off. Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November, 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this 30 | P a g e
  31. 31. issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for the Coca-Cola Company. Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!". As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not immigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Tray nor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Trainer’s concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today. In 1997, Coca-Cola introduced a "contour can," similar in shape to its famous bottle, on a few test markets, including Terre Haute, Indiana. The can has never been widely released. 31 | P a g e
  32. 32. A new slim and tall can began to appear in Australia on December 20, 2006; it cost A$1.95. The cans have a resemblance to energy drink cans. The cans were commissioned by Domino's Pizza and are available exclusively at their restaurants. In January 2007, Coca-Cola Canada changed "Coca-Cola Classic" labeling, removing the "Classic" designation, leaving only "Coca- Cola." Coca-Cola stated this is merely a name change and the product remains the same. In 2007, Coca-Cola introduced an aluminum can designed to look like the original glass Coca-Cola bottles. In 2007, the company's logo on cans and bottles changed. The cans and bottles retained the red color and familiar typeface, but the design was simplified, leaving only the logo and a plain white swirl (the "dynamic ribbon"). In 2008, in some parts of the world, the plastic bottles for all Coke varieties (including the larger 1.5- and 2-liter bottles) were changed to include a new plastic screw cap and a slightly taller contoured bottle shape, designed to evoke the old glass bottles. 32 | P a g e
  33. 33. Two Chinese Coke bottles, a 200 ml glass bottle, which is becoming less common, and a 300 ml plastic bottle that is now widely available. Designer bottles Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle. A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years. In 2009, in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate 100 years of the recognizable contour bottle. Well known Italian designers Alberta Ferrety, Blumarine, Etro, Fendi, Marini, Mission, Mooching, and Versace each designed limited edition bottles. Competitors Pepsi, the flagship product of PepsiCo, The Coca-Cola Company's main rival in the soft drink industry, is usually second to Coke in sales, and outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. RC Cola, now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available. Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. 33 | P a g e
  34. 34. In Sweden, Julius outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season. In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales. In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thumps Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thumps Up in 1993. As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market- share in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola are competitors to Coca-Cola in the Middle East. In Turkey, Cola Turka, in Iran and the Middle East, Zam Cola and Parsi Cola, in some parts of China, China Cola, in Slovenia, Cockta and the inexpensive Mercator Cola, sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator, are some of the brand's competitors. Classiko Cola, made by Take Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a serious competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. Laranjada is the top- selling soft drink on Madeira. Advertising A 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th century attire. The ad is titled Drink Coca-Cola 5¢. (US). Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common. Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the 34 | P a g e
  35. 35. modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915. Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman. 1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola". In 1971 a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing", produced by Billy Davis, became a hit single. Coca-Cola sales booth on the Cape Verde island of Fogo in 2004. Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born. Some Coca-Cola television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes and popular singers. 35 | P a g e
  36. 36. Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads. During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi." Statisticians pointed out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, the taste tests showed that in blind tests, most people cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca- Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke's ads compared the so- called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market. Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 till the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. In 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca- Cola issued special Selena coke bottles. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989. Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes," 36 | P a g e
  37. 37. "I'd like to buy the world a Coke," and "Coke is it" (see Coca-Cola slogans). In 2006, Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards, a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries. In Australia in 2011, Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names. Coca-Cola used the 150 most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. The campaign was paired with a website page, Facebook page and an online "share a virtual Coke". The same campaign was introduced to Coca-Cola, Diet Coke & Coke Zero bottles and cans in the UK in 2013. Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine. In mass media 37 | P a g e
  38. 38. Coca Cola advertised on a Volkswagen T2 in Maringa, Parana, Brazil. Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs. Since its creation, it remains as one of the most important elements of the popular culture. It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy among many others. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel Syrup by Maxx Barry. And in music, in The Beatles' song, "Come Together", the lyrics said, "He shoot Coca-Cola, he say...". The Beach Boys also referenced Coca-Cola in their 1964 song "All Summer Long" (i.e. 'Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse?) Also, the best selling artist of all time and worldwide cultural icon, Elvis Presley, promoted Coca-Cola during his last tour of 1977. The Coca-Cola Company used Elvis' image to promote the product. For example, the company used a song performed by Presley, A Little Less Conversation, in a Japanese Coca-Cola commercial. Other artists that promoted Coca-Cola include The Beatles, David Bowie, George Michael, Elton John and Whitney Houston, who appeared in the Diet Coca-Cola commercial, among many others. Not all musical references to Coca-Cola went well. A line in "Lola" by The Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola." When the British Broadcasting Corporation refused to play the song because of the commercial reference, lead singer Ray Davies was forced to fly from New York to London and re-record the lyric as "it tastes just like cherry cola" to get airplay for the song. Criticism Main article: Criticism of Coca-Cola Coca-Cola has been criticized for alleged adverse health effects, its aggressive marketing to children, exploitative labor practices, 38 | P a g e
  39. 39. high levels of pesticides in its products, building plants in Nazi Germany which employed slave labor, environmental destruction, monopolistic business practices, and hiring paramilitary units to murder trade union leaders. In October 2009, in an effort to improve their image, Coca-Cola partnered with the American Academy of Family Physicians, providing a $500,000 grant to help promote healthy-lifestyle education; the partnership spawned sharp criticism of both Coca-Cola and the AAFP by physicians and nutritionists. Bolivia has been reported to consider banning Coca-Cola prior to January 2013. Use as political and corporate symbol Coca-Cola advertising in High Atlas mountains of Morocco 39 | P a g e
  40. 40. A mock-up of the Coke dispenser flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1996 (US) Coca-Cola has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America. During World War II, this gave rise to brief production of the White Coke as a neutral brand. The identification with the spread of American culture has led to the pun "Coca-Colonization". The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca-Cola Company. There are some consumer boycotts of Coca-Cola in Arab countries due to Coke's early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel). Mecca Cola and Pepsi have been successful alternatives in the Middle East 40 | P a g e
  41. 41. A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Misprocessing Apparatus-2 or FGBA-2) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation. The unit flew in 1996 aboard STS-77 and held 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke. PepsiCo’s success is the result of superior products, high standards of performance, distinctive competitive strategies and the high integrity of our people. Mission of the Company: Continuously excel to achieve and maintain leadership position in the chosen businesses; and delight all stakeholders by making economic value additions in all corporate functions. Coca-Cola bottling plant opens in 1950 in New Delhi, operated by pure drinks Ltd. In 1951 Bombay plant opens, also operated by pure drinks Ltd. In 1953 and 1954 Calcutta & Kanpur bottling plant opens cont. 1973 was the time when 22 bottling plant operated in 13 States. In 1978 Coca-Cola withdraws Indian operations. In 1992 KO resumes business operation in India in joint venture with JMRPCO. After that KO acquires Parleys brands (Thumps up, Limca, Maaza, Gold spot, Cintra, Rimzim.) 1994-Plants open in Bombay, Calcutta and New Delhi. In 1996 Can, PET plant started in pune. 1998-First Greenfield plant opens in Ahmadabad. 41 | P a g e
  42. 42. Coca-Cola buys a no. of bottlers in India. Integration of all bottling units into 1 pans India Company bottler, HCCBPL in 1997- 1999. In july 2005 HCCBPL becomes a separate bottling entity (CBO) reporting in bottling investment group (BIG), Atlanta. BUSINESS SEGMENTS The KO Group is divided into three-business segments- Beverage, Food and Education. It has a leading market position in each of its three business segments. Our balanced portfolio produced a solid business performance. Products and services, which look to the future, ensure that we will be well placed in growth markets. 42 | P a g e
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e
  44. 44. COCA-COLA ENTRY IN INDIA Coca-Cola bottling plant opens in 1950 in New Delhi, operated by pure drinks Ltd. In 1951 Bombay plant opens, also operated by pure drinks Ltd. In 1953 and 1954 Calcutta & Kanpur bottling plant opens cont. 1973 was the time when 22 bottling plant operated in 13States. In 1978 Coca-Cola withdraws Indian operations. In 1992 KO resumes business operation in India in joint venture with JMRPCO. After that KO acquires Parles brands (Thumps up, Limca, Maaza, Gold spot, Cintra, Rimzim.) 1994- Plants open in Bombay, Calcutta and New Delhi. In 1996 Can, PET plant started in Pune. 1998-First Greenfield plant opens in Ahmadabad. Coca-Cola buys a no. of bottlers in India. Integration of all bottling units into 1 pans India Company bottler, HCCBPL in 1997-1999. In July 2005 HCCBPL becomes a separate bottling entity 44 | P a g e
  45. 45. THE PRESENT POSITION OF COKE IN INDIA Coke is a house holds name and is the lips of every one. In present time every person knows the name of coca cola since India is one of biggest market and sultry summer from March the end of October and huge population has immensely helped in the sales the sales of coke in India and its making it more economical. Last years, the market share of Coca Cola was not specific. In this year company’s top management adopted new policy and decreased the rate of all brands of coke. By this decision top management determined the rate of 300 ml / 7Rs. And they made a new brand of 200 ml determine the rate of this brand 5Rs. By which medium size family and lower level family can be taken the enjoy of coke. By this decision company’s marketing share has been increased. In present time coke is captured approximate 70% market share in cold Dinks line. Now coke has defeated all the soft drinks company. According to service and according to advertising coke has appropriate position. It has now emerged as the winner and has a good image in the market. Coke has even sponsored the wills cricket world cup 96 at an estimated cost of 26 corers. 45 | P a g e
  46. 46. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE COCA-COLA HINDUSTAN BEVERAGE LTD. 46 | P a g e
  47. 47. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF SOFT DRINK The production process is highly mechanical is and automatic the raw material required for soft drink are concrete sugar syrup and treated bottled the entire process take in the following steps. The first step in the production involves conversion of hard water in the soft water. The next step is the preparation of sugar syrup in the plant itself the content of the syrup various according to the brand prepared the syrup at most can be stored for 4 hours. Then the bottle is cleaned thoroughly before is done with steam water jets and caustic soda. Bottles are then moved on a conveyor belt in a line and are closely examined in case some impurity is left. It the impurity the concentrate coke is not a now product for the Indian it was there in India till 1977 but had to leave India on mass demonstration led against it, instigated by the local brands it was leaded by Mr. George Fernandez in Agrain UP so when the program of re- launching was made, it was again (where it was made o leave the country), on the 24th October 1993 in order to a strong hold in the Indian market, it signed a pact with Mr. Ramesh Chauhan of Parle exports. Thumps Up, Limca, Gold Spot, Citra, Maaza, Bisleri Club Soda etc. at a cost of $40 million by doing so they gripped the Indian market of soft drinks and captured 65% of the entire soft drinks much that the competition was tougher and commodities was of the same standard. So the going was tougher, but still it has managed to gain and keep in. 47 | P a g e
  48. 48. 48 | P a g e
  49. 49. MARKET OF SOFT DRINK IN INDIA Today India is one of the most potential markets, with population of around 900 million people, the Indian soft drinks market was only of 200 cases per year. This was very low even compared to Pakistan and Philippines. Population and potential market are two major reasons for major multinational companies of entering India. They feel that a huge population coupled with low consumption can only lead to an increase in the soft drink market. Another increase in the sale of soft drinks in the scorching heat and the climate of India, which is suitable for high sale of soft drinks. All these factors together have contributed to a 30% growth in the soft drinks industry. If the demand continues growing at the same rate, within two years the volume could touch 1 billion cases. All these factors are the reasons for the entry two giant of the soft drink industry of the world to enter the Indian market. These two giants Pepsi and Coca-Cola, Themselves share 96% of the soft drink market share. Rest is shared by Cadbury’s Schweppes, Campa Cola and other soft drink brands. But was the scene same 20 years ago? The answer is No. 1970 was the year of pure soft drinks Campa cola and Parle people (Thumps up and Limca). Soft drink consists of a flavor base, sweetener and carbonated water. In general terms non-alcoholic drinks are considered as soft 49 | P a g e
  50. 50. drinks this name soft drink was given by Americans as against hard which is mainly alcoholic. The major participants involved in the production and distribution of soft drink are concentrate and syrup producers, bottlers and Retail channel. Concentrate producers manufacture basic soft drink flavors and retail channel refers to business location that tells or serves the products directly to consumers. Soft drink is not a product, which a person plans to buy before hand, but is an impulse purchase. Lots of sale depends upon the strength of merchandizing done at the point of sale. It all begin in 1977, a change in government at the center led the exit of coca-cola which preferred to quit rather to dilute its equity to 40% in compliance with the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). The first national cola drink to pop up was double seven. In the meantime, Pure Drinks, Delhi on coke’s exit, switched over to Campa Cola. The beginning of 1980’s saw the birth of another cola drink, Thumps up, Parle the Gold spot people, launched it in 1978-79, as “Refreshing Cola”. By the mid-eighties Mc Dowels launched Thrill, and by the late eighties there was Double Cola, which entered in India market, as a NRO-run out fit with its plant in Nasik { Maharashtra }, in 1978 Parle, Indian soft drink’s market (share 50 | P a g e
  51. 51. 33%) with its gold spot and Limca brands. Later Thumps Up also started Thumps Up. At the same time the threat to the Indian soft drinks was that of fruit drinks. In 1988, fruit drinks market was valued at Rs. 40 corers and grew at the rate 20%. Coca-Cola entered Indian by buying up to 69% of the 1,800 corer soft drink market { i.e. 5 Parle Export brands of Thumps Up’s Limca Gold spot, Citra & Maaza }.Today the scene has changed making it a direct battle between two giant Coca-Cola and Pepsi. The picture will become clearer by looking at the India market shares in the beverage industry. One of the strongest weapons in Coke armory is the flexibility it has empowered its people with. In Coke every employee, may he be a manager or salesman, have an authority to take whatever steps he or she feels will make the consumers aware of the brand and increase its consumption. Thus Coke believes in establishing and nurturing creditability of the salesman and making commitment to grow business in accounts. All these factors together led to a high growth in the Indian market and constantly increasing market share. 51 | P a g e
  52. 52. COMPETITIVE AREA The soft drink market all over the world has been witnessing a neck to neck battle between the two major players, Coca-Cola and Pepsi since the very beginning. The thirst quenchers are trying hard to have the major chunk of the pie of carbonated soft drink market. Both the players are spending their energies in building capacity, infrastructure, promotional activities etc. Coca-Cola being 11 years older than Pepsi has dominated the scene in most of the soft drink markets in the world and enjoying leadership in terms of market share. But the Coca-Cola people are finding it hard to keep away Pepsi, which has been narrowing the gaps regularly. The two are posing threats to each other in every nook and corner of the world. While Coca-Cola has been earning most of its bread and butter through beverage sales, Pepsi has a multi products portfolio with some portion from the same business. The two warriors are face to face once again here in India with different strategies and tactics to attack the rival. Coca-cola is focusing upon the joint ventures with the existing bottlers {fobo } franchise owned bottling operations to enhance its control on manufacturing and marketing of its products range and attain the quality standards of its class. 52 | P a g e
  53. 53. Countering it Pepsi has taken the battle in its own hands by floating as investment of $ 95 billion to set Pepsi Company. India holdings, as subsidiary for {cobo} company owned bottling Operations. Both the companies are following different path to reach the same destiny i.e. to fetch the bigger portion of aerated soft drink market. Both consider India a huge potential market, as per capita consumption here is a mere 3 serving annually against the world average of 80. Therefore, they are putting in their best efforts to woo the Indian consumer who has to work for 1.5 hours to buy a bottle of soft drink. In comparison to the international norms minutes, a major hurdle to cross over for both the athletes for getting no.1 position comparison to the inter. Coca-cola is well set with its 53 bottling sites through out the country giving it an edge over competition by processing a well-built bottling and distribution set-up. On the other hand, Pepsi, with two more years in India, has been able to set an image of a winner in India and has been able to get the pulse of the India soft drink market. The 53 | P a g e
  54. 54. soft drink giants are leaving on stone unturned and her for the long terms. Coca-cola has been penetrating the market through its wide product range with a determination to change consumption pattern of soft drink in India. Firstly, they upgraded the whole industry by introduction 300 ml bottles, which in turn had given the industry a Booming growth of 20% as compared to the earlier 5%. They want to develop a coca culture here and are working on a strategy to offer soft drink in every possible package. In coca-cola camp, the idea of competition has not come from Pepsi, but from the other beverages such as tea, coffee, nimbu pani, water etc. Pepsi is quite aggressive in its approach to Indian consumer. They are desperately working on the strategy to be winners in the hot cola war between two big barons. According to Pepsi philosophy, it’s the madness that encourages executive to think, to conjure up those creative tactics to knock the fizz out their competition. Pepsi had plumbed a large on the visibility of its blue red and white logo. They have been going with aggressive marketing by putting Amir Khan, Akshay Kumar and their advertisement to endorse their brand, the role models for its targeted consumer the teenagers. 54 | P a g e
  55. 55. They have increased the fizz in the market place by introducing the dispensers called fountain Pepsi and has been enjoying a lead over its rival there. Coca-cola on the other hand, has been working on the saying slow and steady wins the race’s side by retailing to every more of its competitor. They have procured the shield of thumps up with a handsome market share in Indian soft drink market. Countering Pepsi’s international commercial that used two chimpanzees to cock a snoop at coke, thumps up come with the ad line, don’t be Bandar, and taste the thunder. Also thumps up has been positioned now very near to that young image of Pepsi and giving it a though time. These cool merchants have put everything on fire. It coke got the status of the official drink of wills. World cup, Pepsi blushed as nothing official about it. As thumps up projected as ‘saaree jahan se achcha’ Pepsi was passionate enough with ‘freedom to be’ and now the “yeh dil mange more” when thumps up came with thunder blast, the other offered ‘Pepsi stuff card’. If red is meant for coke, Pepsi has chosen to be blue. 55 | P a g e
  56. 56. COKE’S MARKETING STRATEGIES Coke decides on its marketing strategies at a national level and lends them a local flavor. For example, while festival mood plays a strong role in marketing, it is activated for Durga Puja in Calcutta; Dandily in Gujarat, etc., Coke has its focus on the youth market in India. As a first step toward catching the attention of the youth, coke signed on cricket heroes Saurav Ganguly and Javagal Srinath. It slowly started talking about youth passions like cricket, films, festivals and food. Soon the advertisements started giving the message, “Eat Cricket, Sleep Cricket, Drink only Coca-Cola” And now it has started modifying film hits to frame catch lines that appeal to the youth. This particular strategy has worked well for coke. Coke is focused on distribution to ensure that its products are within customer’s reach. And it saves its focus has begun to pay it dividends. As per mid-1998 figures coke is selling as many bottles in the hinterland of Punjab as it does the four metros. 56 | P a g e
  57. 57. THE FUTURE OF COCA COLA While doing business overseas offers coke wonderful growth opportunities it also has its own disadvantages. The economic slowdown in various overseas markets and the strong dollar had their impact on coca-cola revenues and bottom line in 1998. But the company optimistic about the future. M Douglas Investor, the Chief Executive Officer of the Coca-Cola Company says, “This past year 1998 has been a challenging period for the Coca-Cola Company as economic environment became more uncertain in the later part of 1998, we strongly believe that our fundamental opportunities for long term growth have not changed”. As long as maximization of share holder wealth remain Coke’s focus for its future is assured Goizueta had stated and proven to the world that focus on shareholder wealth does more good to the company than focus on revenues and it is not that coke does not enjoy volumes for it is world’s No.1 soft drink manufacture. It is not content with this title and is aiming at higher volumes year after year. Surely coke will continue to grow. Point on Roberto had reduced the company basically to its trademark and the returns are so astronomical as to be off the boards. It just absolutely added a jet engine to their performance. 57 | P a g e
  58. 58. COCA COLA GLOBALIZATION STRATEGIES The coca-cola company is global player and approximately 70 % of its volume and 80 % of its profit come from outside the United States of America. Although it was perceived as a standardized brand across the world, coca-cola had been quietly fine turning its international marketing strategies to suit the needs of individual national markets. Only the brand coca-cola, sprite and fanta were marketed globally. In Latin America and Europe, where a heavy consumer preference existed for lemon lime and orange sodas. Coke had developed a wide range of formulations and flavors to cater the needs of different countries. In the Salvador and Venezuela, a version of fanta called fanta kolita a cream soda type of drink became extremely popular. Similarly, in Indonesia coke had been selling pineapple and banana limca, maaza and thumps up in 1993. 58 | P a g e
  59. 59. A 100 YEARS OF THE CURVY GLASS BOTTLE OF COCA COLA Coca-Cola Company marks a mile stone on Wednesday, 24th March 1899 Chattanooga; Tenn. where its first bottling plant was started 100 year ago by two men struck one of the most lucrative business deals in US history. Joseph whitehead and Benjamin Thomas offered coca-cola company owner Asia Candler a dollar for the right to bottle soft drinks in 1899. Today 1 billion soft drinks are sold each day in more than 200 countries around the world. Candler had purchase what would become the cola company for $2,300 eight years earlier from john pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist who astonished the world. Candler though the bottling venture would never succeed, but he signed the contract with white head and Thomas any way, “and the rest is history”, bob Lovell, vice president of marketing for coca- cola bottling company. United inc., said in telephone interview from Chattanooga. 59 | P a g e
  60. 60. Lovell said Thomas had seen Cuban fields hand drinking pine friar a pineapple beverages, from bottles while he was Stationed in Cuba during Spanish American war. When he returned to Chattanooga, he decided to pitch the idea of bottle soft drinks to coke, which was then sold only as a fountain beverage. “It occurred to him that coca-cola in bottles would be very popular”, Lovell said, “Mr. Candler did not see any future in it because the containers were not sound, but that’s how it all came about. “Thomas and whitehead promised to pay one dollar for the right to bottle coca-cola, but legend has it that no money changed hands. 60 | P a g e
  61. 61. COKE’S BOTTLING STRATEGIES In the soft drink business the bottlers are responsible significant extent for ensuring the availability of the products. Bottlers are supplied with concentrate to which they add aerated water and bother ingredients before packing and sealing either cans or bottles. Bottlers play a strategic role in the success of soft drinks companies and this was not far from Goizueta’s mind. In 1986 the company merged some of its company owned bottling operations with two large ownership groups that had been put up for sale. All these bottling activities were combined to from its own subsidiary Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) to handle bottling operations. The Coca-Cola Company took 49 percent equity stake in Coca-Cola Enterprises enabling it to retain its own balance sheet. 61 | P a g e
  62. 62. PROMOTION: THE COCA-COLA WAY GOAL FOR THE 90’S “TO PLACE COCA-COLA WITHIN AN ARM’S REACH OF DESIRE. CONSUMER ACTIVITY CLUSTERS:- • Grocery shopping • Other shopping & services • Eating and drinking • Entertainment / Recreation / Leisure • Travel / Transportation / Hospitality • Educational • At Work THE 3A’S:- The strategy for reaching in creasing numbers of consumers in India is based on the belief that consumers will buy our products it they are Available, Affordable and Acceptable. STRATEGIES FOR THE 3A’S • Focus on the consumer and customer. • To provide quality customer services, and caring about the quality of performance in respective jobs. • Caring enough about what we do, to it the best we know how. 62 | P a g e
  63. 63. The 3A’s is Coca-Cola underlying strategy for meeting its goal to reach increasing numbers of consumer’s. How does coke position its limited resources to help meet its good? Let us explore the Specific ways in which the Coca-Cola system addresses each of the 3A’s:- AVAILABILITY Some of the ways in which the Coca-Cola Company hopes to increase availability of its product include improved or innovative packaging, dispensing systems, distributions system and marketing. AFFORDABILITY The ways to address affordability include pricing decisions, as well as resource management. To make its product available at a price affordable to the consumer. Continually processes more efficient and therefore more cost-effective. ACCEPTABILITY Making coca-cola brand products the beverage choice for any occasions depends on a variety of strategies to reach the target audience. The common strategies adapted to effect acceptability were though sponsorships, promotion youth market activities, community programs, and other activates. 63 | P a g e
  64. 64. 64 | P a g e
  65. 65. DISTRIbuTION ChANNEl Distribution means supply of goods from company to its ultimate user. After manufacturing the product the important work for the is to provide its goods to its ultimate user at the right time and when manufacturing process has been over. Than marketing work will be start by the marketing Department adopt the policy for providing goods to the consumer at the right time and place. Distribution means the way be which the product reach to the hand of consumer these all process comes under the Distribution of Network. Good distribution network is essential for more sailing and customer satisfaction. If customer or retailer is not satisfy of your distribution net work. It reflects that company’s Distribution is not good and something is wrong any when. The Distribution of Coca Cola of best. Company doesn’t want to take any type of risk so they have made the distributor in different 2 areas. Distributor take the flavors from the company and deposit all the payment in advance by this process company get all the money at the right time. Distributors establish all the goods in bare house company are appointed 2 or 3 executive for marketing. Executives are getting the salary from company. But sales man helper, loader, appointed by the Distributor. Distributor is liable to give the salary to the sales man helper; loader and clerk the sales man do the work under the pressure of Executive. 65 | P a g e
  66. 66. From the bare house company launch the flavors in the market. The flavor reaches in the market to the retailer by two medium. 1) By the company vehicle 2) Dealer Company vehicle and dealers both provided the flavors to the Retailer. Retailer sales the flavor to the consumer. This is the good marketing strategy. FLOW OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL 66 | P a g e Plant Direct route Indirect route Warehouse DistributorMarket Market
  67. 67. DISTRIBUTION IN THE COCA-COLA SYSTEM GETTING PRODUCTS TO MARKET One of the values of the coca-cola system is presence that coca- cola should exist everywhere. In the words of former CEO-India operations – Richard Nicholas, “Our goal is to have coke available within an arm’s reached of desire”. To fulfill this goal, coca-cola not only produces products, but also has an effective system to distribute them all over India. DISTRIBUTION Distribution sales + delivery + merchandising + local account management. Distribution of Coke’s products includes the activities of sales, delivery merchandizing and local accounts management. These are two major types of distribution systems:- (i) Direct and Indirect In direct distribution, the bottler partner direct control over the activities of sales, delivery, merchandizing and local account management. In indirect distribution, an organization which is not a part of the coca-cola system has control of one or more of the distribution elements (sales, merchandizing and local accounts managements). 67 | P a g e
  68. 68. With direct distribution there are two types of sales:- Advanced sales and conventional sales. In conventional sales, all the distribution activities (Sales, Delivery, Merchandizing and Local Accounts Management) are performed by the same persons. In advanced sales, sales and delivery are performed by different people within the coca-cola system. Difference between a customer and a consumer. • a consumer is some one who drinks coca-cola products. • A customer is a business location which sells or serves coca- cola products to consumers. MERCHANDIZING One the products are delivered to the customer’s they are promoted at the point-of-purchase to maximize the company’s sales opportunities, merchandizing involves looking at the presentation of the products through the eyes of the consumers. It is an on-going process that help the company present its products properly to the consumers in the market place for instance, is the display attractive? Are the product neatly organized. PRESENTING THE PRODUCTS Coca-cola presents its products for sale in four different ways. They are as follows:- • Secondary display • Coolers • Vending machines • Post mix / pre mix 68 | P a g e
  69. 69. INDIA’S RELATIONSHIP WITH COCA-COLA Just after independence, the maharaja of Patiala oversaw his coca-cola hoarding from his huge, ornate palace, coca-cola export representative frank Harold, was awed by the maharaja’s opulent life style. In 1993 after coca-cola returned to India after a 16 year absence (George Fernandez threw the company out of the country in 1977 on the pre text that it had refuse to divulge its formula to Indian officials), ceo of the coca-cola company, robes to biretta “salivated over a virtually untapped market of 840 million people”. 69 | P a g e
  70. 70. CHANNEL OF DISTRIBUTION OUT LINE DIAGRAM OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL OF COCA COLA Company Manufacturing goods Depote Distributor Company Vehicle Retailer Retailer Consumer Consumer Area List 70 | P a g e
  71. 71. 71 | P a g e
  72. 72. ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OBSERVE THE PROBLEM Under this investigate by own observation without interview is the respondent. This also adopted by me by observation data can be collecting more correct. It is depend upon ability of investigator. COLLECT THE PROBLEM After collecting the data I considered that what the problem is for the company and when company ants to know his weakness. ANALYSING THE PROBLEM After collecting the problem I analysis the problem such as how many problems are general and how many are different from others and how many problem is considerable and solvable. TAKE SOLUTION After analyzing the problem I sow that 90% problem was general and I found 20% problem personal and I was found 10% problem as Genuine which is considerable and soluble. General solution solve the journal problem remaining 10% problems solution we found and then after we implement the solution. APPLICATION OF SOLUTION After founding the solution we apply the solution and satisfy the customer & consumer. 72 | P a g e
  73. 73. GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONNAIRE / SCHEDULE The researcher must pay attention to the following points in constructing an appropriate and effective questionnaire or a schedule: (1) The researcher must keep in view the problem he is to study for it provides the starting point for developing the Questionnaire / Schedule. He must be clear about the various aspects of his research problem to be dealt with in the course of his research project. (2) Appropriate from of questions depends on the nature of information sought, the sampled respondents and the kind of analysis intended. The researcher must decide whether to use closed or open-ended questions. Questions should be simple and must be constructed with a view to their forming a logical part of a well thought out tabulation plan. The units of enumeration should also be defined precisely so that they can ensure accurate and full information. (3) Rough draft of the Questionnaire / Schedule be prepared, giving due thought to the appropriate sequence of putting questions. Questionnaire or schedules pervasively drafted (if available) may as well be looked into at this stage. (4) Researcher must invariably re-examine, and in case of need may revise the rough draft for a better one. Technical defects must be minutely scrutinized and removed. 73 | P a g e
  74. 74. MAAZA “YAARI-DOSTI TAAZA MAAZA”. WITH THE REAL FRUIT TASTE KIDS LOVE, PLUS ADDED CALCIUM, MAAZA’S TAGLINE, “YAARI-DOSTI TAAZA MAAZA” MEANS “FRIENDSHIP MOMENTS WITH FRESH MAAZA” IN HINDI. MAAZA WAS INTRODUCED IN INDIA IN 1984 AS A NON- CARBONATED MANGO FRUIT DRINK. IT WAS ACQUIRED BY THE COCA-COLA COMPANY IN 1993 AND IS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE IN THREE FLAVORS, MANGO, PINEAPPLE AND ORANGE, PLUS ADDED CALCIUM. MAAZA MANUFACTURING UNIT IS LOCATED IN NAJIBABAD WHICH IS DELIVERING IN ALL OVER WESTERN AND EAST U.P. THROUGH THAT NAJIBABAD MANUFACTURING UNIT BECOME MAAZA IS A FIFTH LARGEST SELLING BRAND OF COCA-COLA. MAAZA HAS MANGO FRUIT TEST ITS FLAVOUR INTRODUCING BEFORE SLIECE PEPSI COPY ITS. 74 | P a g e
  75. 75. SPRITE CLEAR, CRISP, REFRESHING INTRODUCED IN 1960, SPRITE IS THE WORLD’S LEADING LEMON-LIME FLAVORED SOFT DRINK. SPRITE IS SOLD IN MORE THAN 190 COUNTRIES AND RANKS AS THE NO. 4 SOFT DRINK WORLDWIDE, WITH A STRONG APPEAL TO YOUNG PEOPLE. MILLIONS OF PEOPLE ENJOY SPRITE BECAUSE OF ITS CRISP, CLEAN TASTE THAT REALLY QUENCHES YOUR THIRST. BUT SPRITE ALSO HAS AN HONEST, STRAIGHTFORWARD ATTITUDE ABOUT THINGS THAT SETS IT APART FROM OTHER SOFT DRINKS. SPRITE ENCOURAGES YOU TO BE TRUE TO WHO YOU ARE AND TO OBEY YOUR THIRST. ACCORDING TO SURVEY FOR IT HAS FOUND OUT THAT SPRITE IS A LEMON-LIME FLAVORED SOFT DRINK. I ASKED ABOUT SPRITE BRAND THEN I FOUND OUT THAT WHEN NOT AVAILABLE LIMCA BRAND OF RETAIL OUTLET THEN CUSTOMER OR CONSUMER DEMAND TO SPRITE BRAND THROUGH ALL OVER REGION SURVEY GONE ON STATEMENT SPRITE IS FOURTH LARGEST SELLING BRAND OF COCA-COLA IN GHAZIABAD. 75 | P a g e
  76. 76. THUMS UP STRONG COLA TASTE, ExCITING PERSONALITY A THUMP UP IS A LEADING CARBONATED SOFT DRINK AND MOST TRUSTED BRAND IN INDIA. ORIGINALLY INTRODUCED IN 1977, THUMPS UP WAS ACQUIRED BY THE COCA-COLA COMPANY IN 1993. THUMS UP IS KNOWN FOR ITS STRONG, FIZZY TASTE AND CONFIDENT, MATURE AND UNIQUELY MASCULINE ATTITUDE. THIS BRAND CLEARLY SEEKS TO SEPARATE THE MEN FROM THE BOYS. ITS TAG LINE SAYS IT ALL: “THUMPS UP, I WANT MY THUNDER”. THUMPS UP IS A NUMBER ONE LARGEST SELLING BRAND OF COCA-COLA IN GHAZIABAD REGION URBAN AREA ONLY IN GHAZIABAD RURAL AND SEMI-URBAN AREAS ARE SECOND LARGEST SELLING BRAND AFTER PEPSI BECAUSE THEY ARE AWARE THUMPS UP BRAND THAT WHAT HAS EXTRA ENTITY IN THUMPS UP. 76 | P a g e
  77. 77. 77 | P a g e
  78. 78. DIET COkE wAS bORN IN 1982 AND QUICkLY bECAME THE NO. 1 SUGAR-FREE DRINK IN DIET-CONSCIOUS AMERICA. KNOWN AS DIET COKE IN THE U.S., CANADA, AUSTRALIA AND GREAT BRITAIN, AND AS COCA-COLA LIGHT IN OTHER COUNTRIES, IT’S NOW THE NO. 3 SOFT DRINK IN THE WORLD. IT’S THE DRINK FOR PEOPLE WHO WANT NO CALORIES, BUT PLENTY OF TASTE. AD CAMPAIGNS AROUND THE WORLD FOR DIET COKE SHARE A PLAYFUL, SOPHISTICATED AND SEXY ATTITUDE. VISIT OUR AUDIO/VIDEO CENTER TO WITNESS HOW THE DIET COKE NORTH AMERICAN AD CAMPAIGN CELEBRATES THE REAL AND HUMAN ATTRIBUTES THAT MAKE PEOPLE ALLURING IN THE EYES OF OTHERS. 78 | P a g e
  79. 79. COCA-COLA COCA-COLA IS THE MOST POPULAR AND BIGGEST- SELLING SOFT DRINK IN HISTORY, AS WELL AS THE BEST-KNOWN PRODUCT IN THE WORLD. CREATED IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA BY DR. JOHN S. PEMBERTON, COCA-COLA WAS FIRST OFFERED AS A FOUNTAIN BEVERAGE BY MIXING COCA-COLA SYRUP WITH CARBONATED WATER. COCA-COLA WAS REGISTERED AS A TRADEMARK IN 1887 AND BY 1895 COCA-COLA WAS BEING SOLD IN EVERY STATE AND TERRITORY IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 1899, THE COMPANY BEGAN FRANCHISED BOTTLING OPERATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. TODAY, YOU CAN FIND COCA-COLA IN VIRTUALLY EVERY PART OF THE WORLD. THE COCA-COLA COMPANY HAS NEARLY 400 BEVERAGES IN ITS PORTFOLIO. 79 | P a g e
  80. 80. TODAY YOU CAN FIND COCA-COLA IN EACH AND EVERY AREA OF GHAZIABAD REGION EARLY BECAUSE COCA-COLA IS A LARGEST NUMBER ONE BRAND AMONG ALL SOFT DRINK BRAND SO ITS KNOWN AS THAT THUNDA MATLAB COCA-COLA THAT IF I WOULD LIKE DRINK THUNDA ONLY COCA-COLA. 80 | P a g e
  81. 81. FANTA A FAVORITE IN EUROPE SINCE THE 1940S, FANTA WAS ACQUIRED BY THE COCA-COLA COMPANY IN 1960. FANTA ORANGE IS THE CORE FLAVOR, REPRESENTING ABOUT 70% OF SALES, BUT OTHER CITRUS AND FRUIT FLAVORS HAVE THEIR OWN SOLID FAN BASE. CONSUMERS AROUND THE WORLD, PARTICULARLY TEENS, FONDLY ASSOCIATE FANTA WITH HAPPINESS AND SPECIAL TIMES WITH FRIENDS AND FAMILY. THIS POSITIVE IMAGERY IS DRIVEN BY THE BRAND’S FUN, PLAYFUL PERSONALITY, WHICH GOES HAND IN HAND WITH THE BRIGHT COLOR (PARTICULARLY ORANGE), BOLD FRUIT TASTE, AND TINGLY CARBONATION. FANTA SELLS BEST IN BRAZIL, GERMANY, SPAIN, JAPAN, ITALY AND ARGENTINA. FANTA DISTRIBUTION WAS INCREASED IN THE U.S. IN 2001 WITH THE RETURN OF FOUR FLAVORS: ORANGE, STRAWBERRY, PINEAPPLE AND GRAPE. ORANGE, THE BIGGEST SELLER, IS NOW AVAILABLE IN MOST OF THE COUNTRY. 81 | P a g e
  82. 82. DIET COkE THE EXTENSION OF COCA-COLA NAME BEGAN IN 1982 WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF DIET COKE (ALSO CALLED COCA-COLA LIGHT IN SOME COUNTRIES). DIET COKE QUICKLY BECAME THE NUMBER ONE SELLING LOW-CALORIES SOFT DRINK. LIMCA THIS IS THIRST-QUENCHING BEVERAGE FEATURES A FRESH AND LIGHT LEMON-LIME TASTE AND LIGHTHEARTED ATTITUTE. THE LIMCA BRAND WAS INTRODUCED IN 1971 AND ACQUIRED BY THE COCA-COLA COMPANY IN 1993. 82 | P a g e
  83. 83. kINLEY wATER THIS IS THIRST-QUENCHING BEVERAGE FEATURES FRESH THE FRESH WATER WITH THE SATURATED OXYGEN LEVEL. SUNFILL THIS IS THIRST-QUENCHING BEVERAGE FEATURES A FRESH AND LIGHT ORANGE TASTE AND LIGHTHEARTED ATTITUDE. 83 | P a g e
  84. 84. vANILA IT IS AN ICE CREAM IN TASTE.LAUNCHED IN 2004. MMPO IT IS THE ORAGE JUICE FLAVOUR. IT WAS LAUNCHED IN 2008. IN THIS YEAR IT REACHES ITS HIGHEST SALE. 84 | P a g e
  85. 85. THE MOST PREFERRED bRAND OF COkE LIkE bY CUSTOMER DURING THE SURVEY I ASKED THE CUSTOMER ABOUT THE BRAND PREFERENCE AND I FOUND THAT MAXIMUM NUMBER OF RETAILERS PREFER THUMPSUP GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL INTERVIEWING REASON FOR HIGH DEMAND FREQUENCY RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE PRICE 33 35% TEST 20 21% AVAILABILITY 25 26% PACKAGING 06 6% OTHERS 11 12% 85 | P a g e TYPE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE THUMPSUP 42 65% LIMCA 07 10% COKE 11 17% MAAZA 05 8%
  86. 86. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Price Test Availability Packaging Others REASON FOR HIGH DEMAND OF COKE Interviewing is an art and one learns it by experience. However, the following points may be kept in view by an interviewer for eliciting the desired information: (1) Interviewer must plan in advance and should fully know the problem under consideration. He must choose a suitable time and place so that the interviewee may be at ease during the interview period. For this purpose some knowledge of the daily routine of the interviewee is essential. (2) Interviewer’s approach must be friendly and informal. Initially friendly greetings in accordance with the cultural pattern of the interviewee should be exchanged and then the purpose of the interview should be explained. (3) All possible effort should be made to establish proper rapport with the interviewee; people are motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is favorable. 86 | P a g e
  87. 87. (4) Interviewer must now that ability to listen with understudying respect and curiosity is the gateway to communication, and hence must act accordingly during the interview. For all this, the interviews must be intelligent and must be a man with self-restraint and self discipline. (5) To the extent possible there should be a free-flowing interview and the questions must be well phrased in order to have full cooperation of the interviewee. But the interviewer must control the course of the interview in accordance with the objective of the study. (6) In case of big enquiries, where the task of collating information is to be accomplished by several interviewers, there should be an interview guide to be observed by all so to ensure reasonable uniformity in respect of all salient points in the study. 87 | P a g e
  88. 88. AGE GROUP & GENDER: From Fig, we can comprehend that 90% of total respondents belong to the age group of 20-30. This is because most of the consumers that prefer or consume Coca-Cola products belong to this age group. About 6% belong to age group below 20 and 3% belong to age group of 30-40.Form Fig, we come to know that the gender ratio of the total respondents is almost 2:1 (male: female). 88 | P a g e
  89. 89. SOFT DRINK CONSUMPTION & EXPENDITURE: From Fig, we interpret that about 48% of the total respondents consume soft drinks rarely or once a week. About 35% respondents consume soft drinks twice or thrice a week and only 18% consumes soft drinks every day. From Fig, we interpret that about 81% of the respondents spend only Rs. 50-100 a week on Coca-Cola products, which is very low as compared to the global scenario. This creates a potential growth market for Coca-Cola India. About 12% spends from 100- 150 a week & 7% spend above 150 89 | P a g e
  90. 90. PURCHASING PORTAL PREFERENCE: FROM THE ABOVE DATA, WE HAVE ASCERTAINED THAT PREFERRED PORTAL FOR PURCHASE OF COCA-COLA PRODUCTS IS THE RETAIL SHOPS I.E. 58%. THIS IS PROBABLY BECAUSE NOT ALL COMMUNITIES IN INDIA HAVE SUPERMARKETS AND OTHER PURCHASING CHANNELS PRESENT NEARBY, WHEREAS, WE CAN FIND RETAIL SHOPS IN EVERY CORNER.19% PREFER TO PURCHASE FROM SUPERMARKETS AND VENDOR MACHINES. 23% PREFER TO PURCHASE FROM PUBS, RESTAURANTS AND MULTIPLEXES REASON FOR CONSUMPTION: From this graph, we infer that there is no specific occasion why people purchase Coca-Cola products. Although some of the advertising campaigns target special occasion or festivals. From Fig 2.9 it is concluded that 59% respondents purchase Coca-Cola without any specific reason. About 23% purchase for the purpose of parties, 15% purchase while watching movies in the cinemas 90 | P a g e
  91. 91. and only about 4% purchase during festivals and for picnic purposes SOFT DRINK PREFERENCE: From the above graph we interpret that about 70% of the respondents, prefer consuming Coca-Cola product over Pepsi and other drinks. This clearly states why Coca-Cola is market leader with almost 60% of market share. 23% prefer Pepsi Products and only 75 prefer other drinks. 91 | P a g e
  92. 92. OPINION ABOUT COCA-COLA PRODUCTS & PRODUCTS EXPECTED BY CONSUMERS: From Fig, we infer that though the respondents are more than satisfied by the Coca-Cola product range they would still like the company to introduce new drinks. From Fig 2.12, we conclude that about 40% would like to see a new fruit drink being added to the product basket, 26% want energy drinks, 20% alcoholic drinks and only 14% want another fizzy drink. Majority of the people wanting to see a fruit drink is mainly because people are more health conscious now and want to manage their calorie intake 92 | P a g e
  93. 93. From Fig, we infer that about 47% of respondents prefer to purchase PET bottle of Coca-Cola Products. About 27% prefer to purchase glass bottles, 19% prefer Can of 300ml and only 8% prefer 1 & 2 liter bottles of Coca-Cola. BRANDING & PRICING: From Fig, it is concluded that respondents find Coca-Cola products better than that of Pepsi products. About 62% respondents said that they find Coca-cola products better than Pepsi and only 38% supported Pepsi products. From Fig , we infer that about 62% of the respondent considers the pricing of Coca-Cola much more reliable than that of Pepsi. About 38% respondents think that Pepsi have better pricing than that of Coca-Cola. 93 | P a g e
  94. 94. QUALITY & TASTE: From Fig , it’s clear that Coca-Cola products have better taste and quality than that of Pepsi. About 73% respondents consider that Coca-Cola products have very good quality and taste. 27% respondents consider Pepsi products have better taste and quality. 94 | P a g e
  95. 95. AVAILABILITY & SATISFACTION: From Fig, it’s clear that there is slight difference between the availability of products of Coca-Cola and Pepsi. About 51% respondents think that Coca-Cola products are much easily available in the market.49% consider that availability of Pepsi products is more in the market. About 70% of respondents are satisfied with the Coca-Cola products while as 30% respondents are satisfied with the Pepsi products as shown in Fig. 95 | P a g e
  96. 96. SALESMEN Conventional Route Salesmen carries ready stocks in vehicles and sells it to retailers on his route. Characteristics of conventional routes: • Salesman visits the outlets without a proper PJP • Has the responsibility of driving which includes following traffic rules , finding place to place to park in congested market places , sell the products And collect cash & glass. • Communicates schemes and handles cash himself which given him the opportunity to manipulates with discounts. • Salesman is un-educated, with his primary qualification being a ‘driving license’. • Very low vehicles capacity utilization. • Company’s span of control till distributor • SKU’s loaded on truck is only an estimate leading to shortage in brand/packs in the market. 96 | P a g e
  97. 97. WHAT IS PRE-SELL? Pre-sell a selling technology in which the selling process has two distinct parts: Generating order selling the order and delivering the pre-sold order .It segregates the front-end and back-end process of selling. • Works on a proper beat with a defined PJP. • A pre-seller focuses on taking orders in advance after activating the outlet .Therefore eh has dedicated time for effectively selling schemes and promotions and Carrying out his executing an outlet responsibility. • Back-end activities like invoicing, delivering stocks, collecting cash & glass are carried out by others. • Delivery vehicles are loaded as per the orders, leading to very high capacity utilization & negligible shortage of brand/pack to the retailer. • Company gets control over retailer. • Retailer is sure that he’s getting the complete discount. • Higher Distribution ROI. 97 | P a g e
  98. 98. WHY PRE-SELL? • Improved execution • Reduced manpower through better utilization of MD resources • Increased vehicle utilization (90%+) • Reduced costs • Improved BPPC Control-Focus on profitable packs and right BPPC . PRE-REQUISITES FOR LAUNCHING PRE- SELL 1. DAS operation is a ‘must’. 98 | P a g e
  99. 99. 2. EDS/outlet list by current route/salesman to be prepared with RED outlets marked. PRINCIPLES 1. Pre-Seller can be a current ‘Route’ salesman or a market developer. 2. All pre-sellers are hired by HCCB & paid through a 3rd party. 3. Pre-seller will be responsible for: • RED outlets = Execution + Volume. • Non RED outlets =Volumes 4. Depending on the town/area/locality, pre-seller will be allocated two/three beats each, with a frequency of 3x/2x per outlet. 5. Will cover 30 outlets in one beat using Beat Planning Format 6. Pre-billed orders leave the depot/distributor go down. 7. Pre-sell to work on specific geography rather than specific outlets. 99 | P a g e
  100. 100. IMPLEMENTING PRE-SELL METHODOLOGY RE-ORGANIZING THE ROUTES 1. List all outlets. The listing will provide all the necessary information. 2. Identify outlets that should be on Pre-sell beats & form geographical clusters. 3. Convert these clusters into ”Pre-sell beats” , using the beat planning format 4. Prepare walking order Route Plan for Pre-sellers for the beats assigned to him. 5. And Remember to ensure: • One Pre-sell beat should have 30-35 outlets. • Check available time through the beat planning format. ASSIGNING MANPOWER For Pre-sell we need the following: 1. Pre-Seller for generating the order and market execution. • There will be only one cadre called “PRE- SSELLER” which is either salesman or MD converted to this role. 2. Drivers (delivery salesman) & helpers for supplying orders. 3. MD’s for executing RED outlets on conventional routes. 100 | P a g e
  101. 101. 4. For DSD one person at depot to take orders from Pre-sellers and billing. 101 | P a g e
  102. 102. BUILDING BACK-END SUPPORT 1. DELIEVERY PROCESS • 1 cluster of 3-4 pre-sellers. • Volume & no. of outlets for every cluster will be derived. 2. VEHICLES • Collect and analyses data related to vehicles utilization over a period of 6-8 months after Pre-sell is launched. • Re-align the fleets as per the analysis. TRAINING OF PRE-SELLERS • Training for MD, Pre-sellers must cover how to take order, and suggestive selling after executing the outlet. • Training for salesman Pre-sellers must include how to execute an outlet before taking orders through suggestive selling. • Training will be first organized for MD converted Pre-seller’s. The Salesman converted Pre-sellers will be trained later on. 102 | P a g e
  103. 103. PHASING OUT THE ROUTES/DISTRIBUTORS FOR LAUNCH • Communicating about Pre-sell in the RIGHT. • Do not encourage Pre-sellers to initiate talk about Pre-sell with retailers because they not be able to handle queries well. • STL’s/Strainers / ASM’s / ACDM MUST accompany Pre-sellers during the launch. • This should be the way forward for at least all important markets / retailers to reduce chances of resistance from the trade. • Plan the phasing as per the number of STL’s / trainers you have. MEASURING PRE-SELLER’S PERFORMANCE Performance to be measured on following parameters: • RED scores of pre-sellers, Pre-pre-sell & Post-pre-sell. This needs to be checked to ensure that in course of pursuing volume targets; market execution is not left out which is very important key to our business. • Volume achievements & growths vs. targets. • Productivity. 103 | P a g e
  104. 104. No. of bills cut in a week vs. potential Formula-Actual bills cut per week/ (No. of retailers X3) CAUTION 1. There might be cases where in some retailers return stock due to various reasons :- • Does not have money. • Father gave the order but son present at shop during delivery of stocks. • Estimated the order wrongly now wants to change the stock. But the world of caution is that please don’t move back to conventional route 2. Make deliveries through clubbed orders and do not allocate a vehicle for every MD. Even if that is done in the beginning, swap the salesman. VISION • The long term vision of Coca-Cola in India is to provide exceptional strategic lead to the Coca-Cola in India. • Through Coca-Cola system resulting in consumer & customer preference and loyalty through Coca-cola is commitment to them and in a highly profitable Coca-Cola Corporate branded beverage system. 104 | P a g e
  105. 105. MISSION The mission of Coca-Cola in India is: • Increase in shareholder’s value over time. • To achieve the above by working with business partners to deliver satisfaction and value to customers through world wide system of superior brand and services thus increasing the brand equity. • To achieve the mission the company seeks the contribution from each of the given areas:- 1. People working in the company. 2. Commitment of the company. 3. Goals & objectives of the company. 4. Environmental polices. 5. Internal control. 105 | P a g e
  106. 106. COCA-COLA BEVERAGE PVT. LTD In the network of the Coca-Cola system, Coca-Cola has either of the two bottling operation done for the company. 1. COBO (Company Owned & Operated Bottling Operation). 2. FOBO (Franchise Owned & Operated Bottling Operation). After 1993, when Coca-Cola re-enters India market, done a lot of changes in existing system of soft drink market prevailing in India, by acquiring the major brands and the bottling operations from Parle. After this company founded some of its own bottling operation in India. In year 1997, company did a major investment of $700 million in India by purchasing other bottling operations, all around India and introduces new technology in them. These bottling plants are called Company Owned and Operation Bottling Operation. Company has full ownership and operational right for these types of operations. The other type of bottling operation for the company are called Franchise Owned and Operated Bottling Operation, to these, the company has given the right to produce the product for the company and to supply with the territory assigned by the company. Company has no ownership or operational right/ control over these. 106 | P a g e
  107. 107. . 107 | P a g e
  108. 108. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH:  The main objective of the project is to analyze and study in efficient way the current position of Coca- Cola Company.  To perform PESTLE and SWOT analysis of Coca-cola globally as well as locally. This would help us identify areas of potential growth.  The study was aimed to perform Market Analysis of Coca- Cola Company & find out different factors effecting the growth of Coca-Cola.  Another objective of the study was to perform Competitive analysis between Coca-Cola and its competitors.  To understand the reasons behind the purchase of Coca- Cola products. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:- This study basically tries to discover the current position of Coca-cola in the market. It also tries to discover the preferences of the customers when posed with a choice between Coca-Cola and Pepsi. It is primarily directed to the general public but was done only in New Delhi, Noida and Greater Noida 108 | P a g e
  109. 109. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the needed information. It is overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source by what procedure. There are three types of objectives in a marketing research project:- • Exploratory Research. • Descriptive Research. • Casual Research. 1. Exploratory Research:- The objective of exploratory research is to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypothesis. 2. Descriptive Research:- The objective of descriptive research is to describe things, such as the market potential for a product or the demographics and attitudes of consumers who buy the product. 3. Casual Research:- The objective of casual research is to test hypothesis about casual and effect relationships. Based on the above definitions it can be established that this study is a Descriptive Research as the attitudes of the customers who 109 | P a g e
  110. 110. buy the products have been stated. Through this study we are trying to analyze the various factors that may be responsible for the preference of Coca-Cola products. Use of research methodology Without using research methodology to find new fact and knowledge is not possible. First of all question is arises what is research - “Research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact research is an art of scientific investigation” . Method adopting in the research PRIMARY METHOD Adopted the personnel personal interview method in this method we made a questioner with this questioner we used to go in the market and see the customer one by one. First of all we used to give the introduction with smile enthusiastic and with proper eye contact and demand to give 2 or 3 minute to fulfill his questioner and then after we started to put the questioner at the retailer and completed the questioner. (i) Questionnaire Method (ii) Personal Interview 110 | P a g e
  111. 111. SECONDARY METHOD This method is most appropriate method for collecting the data. By this method researcher get the actual report RESEARCH MEASURING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES The primary tool for the data collection used in this study is the respondent’s response to the questionnaire given to them. The various research measuring tools used are:-  Questionnaire.  Personal interview.  Tables.  Percentages.  Pie-charts.  Bar-charts.  Column charts. SAMPLING DESIGN An integral component of a research design is the sampling plan. Especially it addresses three questions: Whom to survey (sample Unit), how many to survey (Sample Size) and how to select them (sampling Procedure). Making the census study of the entire universe will be impossible on the account of limitations of time and money. Hence sampling becomes inevitable. A sample is only 111 | P a g e
  112. 112. his portion of population. Properly done, sampling produces representative data of the entire population. SAMPLE SIZE:- i. Through questionnaire – 150 respondents. ii. Through personal interview – 27 respondents. SAMPLING TOOL:- Questionnaire was used as a main tool for the collection of data, mainly because it gives the chance for timely feedback from respondents. Moreover respondents feel free to disclose all necessary detail while filling up a questionnaire. Respondents seeking any clarification can easily be sorted out through tool. TECHNIQUE INVOLVED IN DEFINING PROBLEM 1) Observation the problem 2) Collect the Problem 3) Analyzing the Problem 4) Take Solution 5) Application the Problem 6) Solving the Problem  OBSERVE THE PROBLEM 112 | P a g e
  113. 113. Under this investigate by own observation without interview is the respondent. This also adopted by me by observation data can be collect more correct. It is depend upon ability of investigator.  COLLECT THE PROBLEM After collecting the data I considered that what the problem is for the company and when company wants to know his weakness.  ANALYSING THE PROBLEM After collecting the problem I analysis the problem such as how many problems are general and how many are different from others and how many problem is considerable and solvable.  TAKE SOLUTION After analyzing the problem I sow that 90% problem was general and I found 20% problem personal and I was found 10% problem as Genuine which is considerable and soluble. General solution solve the journal problem remaining 10% problems solution we found and then after we implement the solution. FIELD WORK:- The study was conducted in New Delhi, Noida and Greater Noida.  The questionnaires were given to the respondents to fill in order to get their feedback. 113 | P a g e
  114. 114.  Questions were read out to the respondents and the answers were noted. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:- The main purpose of this study is get idea about the preference of the customers towards various Coca-Cola products. But there are certain factors which affects this study they are as follow:  Since the sampling procedure was judgmental, the sample selected may not be true representative of the population.  Economic and market conditions are very unpredictable (Present and future).  The project duration is limited to 4 weeks so it limits the area of study.  The study was confined to New Delhi, Noida and Greater Noida due to which the result cannot be applied universally. TECHNIQUES FOR SALES PROMOTION 1) Product availability 2) 100% rich 3) Good relation 4) Warm display 5) Cold display 6) Proper singer 7) Rich at one time 114 | P a g e
  115. 115. 8) Fulfill your commitment 1) Product availability It means all the flavors of coca cola should be available at one time. By which customer can able to give any flavors to the consumer and can give the satisfaction. 2) 100% rich - it means. Company top management always should always worry about the quality of all the brands. If any organization wants to service in the market and wants to better image then quality play a very integral role so for sales promotion quality should by 100% good. 3) Good relation – company’s executive, sales man should make good relation from dealer, whole seller and retailer. There is only 20% brand loyal person. Remaining 80% impulse selling is going on. It means in India in cold drinks line which ever brand consumer see first of all that brand will demanded by user. The selling is high that particular brand. So i want to say that if. The Executive relations will goods from dealer, whole seller retailer. Then he will arrange coke brands on front of shop by which coke selling will improve. 4) Worm display 5) Cold display 115 | P a g e
  116. 116. 6) Proper shin age - proper shin age also play a key roll in more selling. 7) Fulfill our commitment – if executive promise to the customer of any type. Then executive shovel fulfill his promise, such as. Executive say that to the retailer if you will sell 1000 carrot in this month then i will give you a coke fridge. If retailer has sold out 1000 carrot in the a month then executive should fulfill is commitment. By this manner selling will also improve. 116 | P a g e
  117. 117. MARKET SHARE OF COCA COLA IN THE MARKET In Present situation of Coca Cola is very good in the market. The company have good market share app. 67% and remain 33% market share covered by his close competitor Pepsi in this Area. Last years situation was not that. Last years market share of coca cola and pepsi was app. Same in the market but in this year company adopted new strategy and provided good service and provide more and more customer satisfaction company top management have taken a good decision in this year. Decision was that all the flavor’s rate should be decreased by which lower level people can be taken the enjoy of coke and the company provided a new flavor of 200 ml in the birth rupees of 5. This brand have got good position in middle level and lower level family so by the virtue of good strategy company have got good market share app. 67% right now coke position is much more strong. Comparison to Pepsi. 117 | P a g e
  118. 118. Coke Pepsi Cola Cola (Pepsi) Coca Cola Thumsup Orange (Fanta) Orange (Mirinda) Fanta Orange Fanta Green Apple Fanta Water Malon Clear lemon Clear Lemon (Sprite) (7UP) Cloudy lemon Cloudy Lemon (Limca) (Lemon Mirinda) Fruit Fruit (Maaza) (Slice) MAAZA ORANGE Pulpy orange Pineapple Soda Soda (Lehar Evervess) (Kinley) Kinley Water Kinley Water (Kinley) Aquafina 118 | P a g e
  119. 119. 119 | P a g e

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