Realigning library services with e resources (ss)


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The presentation is an introduction to various challenges that librarians face in managing e-resourcses. It provides helpful pointers to guie librarians on decisions with respect to licensing,

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  • The CONTU The National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) Guidelines were drawn up in the 1970’s Guidelines were established for copying for interlibrary loan. first commercial e-book was launched by Random House in 1981 By the mid-1990s, e-books were beginning to be seen as a legitimate alternative- and also as a potential threat- to traditional print publishing. E.g. Barnes & Nobles e-book purchases continue to represent only a very small segment of the total book market. In 2003, for example, e-book purchases in the United States totaled only $10 million of the $24 billion total book market As of August 2006, 135 492 e-books were available in the American market, compared to 1 218 397 hardcover titles A survey of librarians by ebrary in 2007 indicated that 88% of respondents owned or subscribed to e-books Budapest Open Access Initiative, was prepared to provide funding for authors from developing countries to have their articles published in open access journals.
  • Technology vendors Digital Media Initiatives ePubNow! Eastgate Systems eMeta Corporation InformIT Ingenta Safari Books Online
  • Owned vs leased content A plethora of business and licensing models Licensing arrangement involves “issues of fair use, digital rights management, preservation, and perpetual ownership”. There is a difference between e-books and e-journals licensing issues. E-book licensing models - includes print, database and Open Access licensing arrangements. Standards for hardware, software, preservation and distribution not in place. Leased content puts the onus of archiving and preservation on the publishers. Librarians to evaluate acceptable and unacceptable clauses in vendor licenses. Cost for online licenses can vary a great deal from library to library. Library must honour the terms and conditions of an agreement it has signed with a publisher. Publisher embargo blocks access to recent e-journal issues.  A larger customer base does not multiply production costs as it does for print journals. More visibility and higher citation rates increase the value of the publishers journals. In order to assist librarians in demystifying licenses, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) has created LIBLICENSE.
  • Relational database is used to generate sophisticated Web-based interactive access
  • In semi automated indexing the terms thrown up by the software for every article are further reviewed by an index-editor with broad subject background of the discipline of the article. Budapest Open Access Initiative, was prepared to provide funding for authors from developing countries to have their articles published in open access journals. An attractive feature of JCCC is the facility it has provided for rights management required in an online environment. If two libraries in a consortium subscribe to the same journal, and one of them has online access rights, online links are shown to users of this library only. These links are not available to the library, which has only print subscription. This way security and license concerns of publishers are taken care of by JCCC.
  • Available products include A-Z lists for full-text database titles, including holdings and regular updates, MARC records ready for batch loads, title and subject search engines on Web pages, and other e-journal management related services. TDNet, Serials Solutions, and EBSCO host Electronic Journals Service etc.
  • Copyright - Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws to the authors DRM – access control technologies (restriction on the use or copying of files), protect files from unauthorised use. including copyrights , trademarks , patents IPR - Legal protection given to the creators of new intellectual works
  • Calculate in ‘median’ than the ‘average’ to mitigate the effect of outliers.
  • Realigning library services with e resources (ss)

    1. 1. Re-aligning Library Services With E-Resources University of Mumbai, Refresher Course, Jan 2009 Dr. Dhanashree A. Date Mumbai December 28, 2010
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction to E-resources </li></ul><ul><li>Re-definition of library service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Future Trends </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT of e-resources </li></ul><ul><li>Our approach – What should it be? </li></ul>Lap to Laptop
    3. 3. E-resources Timeline 94-98 IPR / DRM, consortia, aggregated jnls OAI Multipurpose channels PDA, E—bks, MP3 2008 1990 electronic version of a print journal 1991 (ARL) published the first directory of ejournals 2006 J-Gate, Hybrid jnl programs Text E-bk marketing Threat to pbks 1994- CONFU 1995 – e-com 1990- PDF manuals e-book devices 1991 CONTU, Prj Gutenberg 1970-71 2000 – Stephen King, Napster 2004 -Google Books E-Jnls E-Bks 1993 Presence on www, Acceptance of e-jnls by Academia 1997 – Slashdot (1 st blog) 2001 – Wikipedia 2002- Budapest OAI
    4. 4. Electronic Resources <ul><li>Any library or information resources that can be accessed electronically, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scholarly databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hybrid digital collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet gateways and search engines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free or fee-based access </li></ul><ul><li>(e-books, e-jnls, e-databases, e-others - stds, </li></ul>E-Resources <ul><li>E-Journal Formats </li></ul><ul><li>Full-text/whole journal available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic version of print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial full-text/selected articles only </li></ul><ul><li>- TOCs/ citations/ abstracts only </li></ul><ul><li>- Citations only </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia-based journals </li></ul><ul><li>Types of E-Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refereed journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-academic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Impact of E-Resources <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts & Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use </li></ul><ul><li>ROI </li></ul><ul><li>Usage vs.cost </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloguing </li></ul><ul><li>Access control </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Open standards </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>E-marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Access, Search & Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Lending </li></ul><ul><li>CAS/SDI/ Ref. Services </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul>E-Resources
    6. 6. Acquisition - <ul><li>Owned vs leased content </li></ul><ul><li>Permissions vary (ILL/DD) </li></ul><ul><li>A plethora of models. </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing involves “issues of fair use, DRM, preservation, and perpetual ownership”. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of licenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Costs can vary. </li></ul><ul><li>Honour terms / conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher embargoes. </li></ul><ul><li>More visibility and higher citation rates increase the value of the publishers journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Content should be inside the firewall. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost variations? </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic renewals </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple year agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Counter compliant? </li></ul><ul><li>The restrictions? </li></ul><ul><li>Breach of license terms & </li></ul><ul><li>penalties? </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to create </li></ul><ul><li>formats </li></ul><ul><li>The preservation / </li></ul><ul><li>migration of e-books </li></ul><ul><li>The DRM expiry </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Does it support distance </li></ul><ul><li>education and web-based </li></ul><ul><li>instruction?  </li></ul><ul><li>Search features </li></ul><ul><li>Is the content more current </li></ul><ul><li>than print publications?  </li></ul><ul><li>Content granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for demos, involve </li></ul><ul><li>users and IT staff </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect funds </li></ul><ul><li>Present links to free e- </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Back issues of many high </li></ul><ul><li>quality journals are freely </li></ul><ul><li>available on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Your serials agent can </li></ul><ul><li>send you a list of your </li></ul><ul><li>subscriptions that include </li></ul><ul><li>free online access. </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC's Electronic </li></ul><ul><li>Collections Online (ECO) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Publisher and Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Info&quot; list to identify </li></ul><ul><li>publishers that provide </li></ul><ul><li>free online access with </li></ul><ul><li>print subscriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>In negotiating with </li></ul><ul><li>publishers, explain your </li></ul><ul><li>library's finances. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy part content where </li></ul><ul><li>possible. </li></ul>What To Know What to Ask How to Begin
    7. 7. Processing <ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added fields to record e-data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic A-Z listing with URLs (856 tag of MARC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>title and subject search engines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage dates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License and/or terms and conditions (ILL, printing, forwarding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-contact person/department, technical support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platform provider – ingenta, Atypon, Metapress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training Info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost & renewal details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-contact person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP address and domain address, simultaneous users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade defaults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tier levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activation instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Different approaches to provide access </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies and categorisation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Many aggregators provide downloadable data files in MARC </li></ul><ul><li>Providers serve libraries with a comprehensive data file of library’s electronic holdings (e.g. serialssolutions & TDNet) </li></ul>What To Know How to Begin
    8. 8. Processing <ul><li>Two-database approach of cataloguing </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet program such as Excel or a database program such as Access is converted into Web page . </li></ul><ul><li>It is good first attempt, but drawbacks are - not updated, not consistent and eliminates the single-record possibility. </li></ul><ul><li>One-database approach of cataloguing </li></ul><ul><li>In this model, e-journal data is extracted from the online catalog to generate Web pages on the fly. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts down staff time, is consistent across multiple access points, and is updated. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally single-database approach must be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal cataloging may be considered for less &quot;stable&quot; titles </li></ul><ul><li>Print counterpart of an e-journal title, &quot;single-record&quot; or &quot;separate-record“? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Access - 23 ways to access NY Times !!! <ul><li>Print (preferably with coffee and croissants) </li></ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile website (for phones and PDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Archive (NYT and third party) </li></ul><ul><li>Online aggregators </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic (download) </li></ul><ul><li>NYT Reader (software platform) </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>SMS texting </li></ul><ul><li>Avantgo </li></ul><ul><li>Chumby </li></ul><ul><li>Opera Mini </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Vindigo </li></ul><ul><li>iPhone app </li></ul><ul><li>Kindle </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>LinkedIn </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul>
    10. 10. Access <ul><li>Plan access rights and level accesses (students, faculty, alumni, members, institutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide seamless access </li></ul><ul><li>Option of outsourcing. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for article level indexing of library subscribed e & p-journals (e.g JCC) </li></ul><ul><li>All applications used must draw data from the same knowledge-base. </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>Access rights (restricted/unrestricted) </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-links. Library catalogue searches will not be all comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries may lack access to facilitate publication in an open access networked venue. </li></ul><ul><li>OAI-compliant archives are all interoperable, are harvestable and searchable by cross-archive search engines such as: ARC and cite-base as if they were in one global virtual archive. </li></ul><ul><li>Rights management required in an online environment. (e.g. JCCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Titles may vary disrupting continuous access </li></ul><ul><li>The “Appropriate Copy” Problem. </li></ul>What To Know How to Begin
    11. 11. Access Library catalogue + linked sources + ERMS + federated search Contract renewal Access rights Permissions Subscriptions ILL Modes of delivery
    12. 12. Search Web search engines Journals: online Databases Books: printed Journals: printed Conference papers E-print archives Reference: online Reference: printed Newspapers: online Newspapers: printed Manuscripts & archives Official publications Microfilm/microfiche External Libraries Web 2.0 sources Open access Intranet portal with intranet search Content management system Document management system
    13. 13. Search For complex searches, dig the user What To Know <ul><li>Search and Browse </li></ul><ul><li>Individual title search in OPAC, simple A-Z listing, aggregated database search, OpenURL </li></ul><ul><li>OpenURL can connect reference citations in index databases. Have a local OpenURL resolver and select OpenURL-enabled resources before providing this type of context-sensitive reference linking service. </li></ul><ul><li>OpenURL connects to one or more full-text sources, searching the library catalog, searching a regional or national database, initiating an interlibrary loan (ILL) request, asking a librarian, or searching for related information on the author(s) and journals Know Google Searching (Basic and advanced) </li></ul><ul><li>Know the subject databases, and ready reckoners </li></ul><ul><li>Explore .gov, (for statistical data),.edu (for training, continuing education info), .org (for business and professional institutes, .info sites for KM and knowledge repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy federated searches, OpenURLs, and customised search engines (CSE) Add open access URLs to CSE) </li></ul><ul><li>Explore contacts – professionals, peers, competitors, academia, Web-based. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand internal / institutional repositories & consortia services very well. </li></ul>
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Delivery <ul><li>Info regarding permitted and prohibited use such as document delivery, ILL, printing, downloading, VLE, archival rights etc. should be clearly available to the user online. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate as many sources possible under one search interface </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help deliveries to be explored </li></ul><ul><li>For every asset, the choice of available formats (e.g. PDF, HTML, on e-mail, i-pod, MP3 player) to be offered and made known to the user. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging modes of information deliveries </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging technologies that enhance deliveries </li></ul><ul><li>How traditional library functions like CAS-SDI, Reference Desk still remain the essential functions and how technologies leverage to enhance them. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of keywords, tags, indexing and search engines beyond third party e-resources </li></ul><ul><li>Working closely with Open access projects </li></ul>What To Know How to Begin
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Support <ul><li>Study the needs </li></ul><ul><li>Plan stage-wise and scale up slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Use test-beds and trials </li></ul><ul><li>Inquire with current users for up-time, user interface, search and other instructions in small fonts </li></ul><ul><li>E- publishers are not taking on the responsibility of archiving, preservation and continued access. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in technology may render old material inaccessible & may require a periodic refreshing of the archives </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of equipments is an added responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination between content providers and the organisation’s IT support is necessary from the initial stages </li></ul><ul><li>Uninterrupted service / high uptime must be ensured </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of links and accesses </li></ul><ul><li>Regular data updation on portals, web-sites </li></ul><ul><li>Data backup in place and web-site roll-overs should be possible. </li></ul><ul><li>CCC </li></ul>What To Know How to Begin
    18. 18. CCC – Copyright Clearance Center
    19. 19. ROI – The Hard Facts <ul><li>University Grants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of citations drawn from library resources, the success rate for proposals, the average grant award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time saved by library users, (can be calculated on manhour cost of the user) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money saved by library users, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revenue generated when the library was used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of items circulated multiplied by the average cost* of the items. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: If your library circulated 25,00 items (books, movies, audiobooks) and you multiplied that by Rs. 250* you've theoretically saved the people of your community Rs. 625000 </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If your program attendance for the year equals 500 and you multiply that by the cost of a Rs 50.00 movie ticket you've saved Rs. 25000 of entertainment costs for the people of your community. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of people who use your public access computers in a year multiplied by the cost of using the same equipment and connectivity through a local business. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: A cyber café charges Rs.20 an hour, use that figure and multiply it by the number of people who used your </li></ul><ul><li>computers last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Scorecards </li></ul><ul><li>More pointers on </li></ul><ul><li>;col1 </li></ul>
    20. 20. COUNTER
    21. 21.
    22. 22. ROI – The Hard Facts
    23. 23. Challenges of COUNTER
    24. 24. SUSHI (Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative)
    25. 25.
    26. 26. Ways to Increase ROI <ul><li>Integrated seamless access </li></ul><ul><li>E-books that allow choosing and deleting collection </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent access, not IP-based (if, for limited seats) </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate with vendors for free one-off needs </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced deliveries by RSS feeds, Widgets, federated searches </li></ul>
    27. 27. Technology <ul><li>Open standards – Content format std (to describe content in device and resolution independent manner), File format std (defined by device manufacturers, DRM std (to cater to social, technical, legal and business aspects of rights), Distribution std (protocol for sale, transfer and lending of books), Product Information Std (collaboration between publishers and e-commerce vendors) </li></ul><ul><li>ERM systems (extension to LMS or stand-alone) include - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holdings Information (A-Z information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue Notification (new issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing Criteria – ONIX Publisher License Format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription details, title lists and pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum integration of applications with the LMS </li></ul><ul><li>What’s latest, what is being upgraded, what is long lasting, what befits </li></ul><ul><li>What to choose, how to justify and how to position </li></ul>Explore, Innovate, Create
    28. 28. The Future
    29. 29. Web 2.0 : Our Emerging Service Model? <ul><li>Web 2.0 as a concept – </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>creative </li></ul><ul><li>participative </li></ul><ul><li>conversational </li></ul><ul><li>developmental </li></ul>RSS Feeds Web Trackers Blogs Twitter Chats Flickr YouTube LinkedIn
    30. 30.
    31. 31. E-Marketing Library Services <ul><li>Photo-sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>show what the library is really about </li></ul><ul><li>library's interior and exterior (photo tour) </li></ul><ul><li>staff & customers </li></ul><ul><li>new services and resources </li></ul><ul><li>anything you can think of! </li></ul><ul><li>calling cards, sticker books, note cards, etc. posters, books, photo cubes </li></ul><ul><li>calendars, keychains, back-up discs </li></ul><ul><li>shirts, bags, mousepads, mugs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>print photos on canvas </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting / Videocasting </li></ul><ul><li>audio library tours </li></ul><ul><li>database and catalog searching tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>kids songs and rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>Library recorded events </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking/collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Library blogs and Widgets </li></ul><ul><li>Library Events Calendar with online registration </li></ul><ul><li>Google Maps mashup for library locations </li></ul><ul><li>Library contact form </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Custom web-enable databases </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Chats </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>LinkedIn </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul>Low-cost, wide coverage marketing !!
    32. 32. SWOT Opportunities Weaknesses Threats Organisational skills Access to premium content ILS and ERMS Anytime Anywhere services ROI Distancing from the user Disintermediation Invisibility of the e-resources Publisher dependencies Integration of Web 2.0 Cross domain mingling E-Marketing of services Low learning curve High impact / visibility Convincing the management Lack of awareness on business models Disintegrated technologies Cost Strengths
    33. 33. New Roles and Avenues
    34. 34. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire/evaluate/license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize electronic resources, through cataloging, electronic resource management system or on Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage/maintain/ troubleshoot electronic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection development of print resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility for serials, both electronic and print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog, print resources or special formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor trends in electronic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform library instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide reference service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide virtual reference specifically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as a liaison or perform outreach to an external department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web authoring/Web management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain computer hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate/supervise computing in library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor trends in technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as a liaison with the campus information technology department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management/Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork/collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies and procedures/ documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate communication between departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate a commitment to customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement in professional associations and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scholarly activity </li></ul>
    35. 35. Thank You December 28, 2010