Origin of humans

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Origin of humans

  1. 1. The Origin of Humans Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
  2. 2. Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist The First Humans
  3. 3. Early Discoveries
  4. 4. Stages of Early Human Development 1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE 2. 1,500,000 BCE -- 250,000 BCE 3. 250,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE Paleolithic Age : ( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE
  5. 5. The Paleolithic Age <ul><li>“ Paleolithic” --> “Old Stone” Age </li></ul><ul><li>2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>hunting ( men ) & gathering ( women )  small bands of 20-30 humans </li></ul><ul><li>NOMADIC (moving from place to place) </li></ul><ul><li>Made tools </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE <ul><li>Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Australopithecines </li></ul><ul><li>An Apposable Thumb </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stage 1 <ul><li>HOMO HABILIS ( “Man of Skills” ) </li></ul><ul><li>found in East Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>created stone tools. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Paleolithic Age <ul><li>Humans during this period found shelter in caves. </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings left behind. </li></ul>Purpose??
  9. 9. Stage 2 1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE <ul><li>HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Human Being” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology </li></ul><ul><li>First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ) </li></ul><ul><li>BIPEDALISM </li></ul>
  10. 10. Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
  11. 11. Stage 3 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Human Being” ) Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magnons ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )
  12. 12. Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS: <ul><li>Neander Valley, Germany (1856) </li></ul><ul><li>First humans to bury their dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Made clothes from animal skins. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves and tents. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS Early Hut/Tent
  14. 14. Stage 3 CRO-MAGNONs: <ul><li>Homo sapiens sapiens ( “Wise, wise human” ) </li></ul><ul><li>By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. </li></ul>WHY???
  15. 15. Homo sapiens sapiens in Europe
  16. 16. The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
  17. 17. The Neolithic Age <ul><li>“ Neolithic”  “New Stone” Age </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual shift from: </li></ul>Nomadic lifestyle  settled, stationery lifestyle. Hunting/Gathering  agricultural production and domestication of animals.
  18. 18. The Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture developed independently in different parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>SLASH-AND-BURN Farming </li></ul>Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia 8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE
  19. 19. The Agricultural Revolution Development of Agriculture ? ? ? ?
  20. 20. The Agricultural Revolution Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places?
  21. 21. The Agricultural Revolution Why do some archaeologists believe that women were the first farmers?
  22. 22. Early Settled Communities <ul><li>Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations. </li></ul><ul><li>More permanent, settled communities emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>9,000 BCE  Earliest Agricultural Settlement at JARMO ( northern Iraq )  wheat </li></ul>
  23. 23. Early Settled Communities <ul><li>8,000 BCE  Largest Early Settlement at Ç atal H ü yük ( Modern Turkey )  6,000 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in trade </li></ul><ul><li>Organized religion </li></ul><ul><li>Small military </li></ul><ul><li>12 cultivated crops </li></ul>An obsidian dagger
  24. 24. Early Settled Communities Çatal Hüyük
  25. 25. The Agricultural Revolution What role did the food supply play in shaping the nomadic life of hunter-gatherers and the settled life of the farmers?
  26. 26. Why is the &quot;Neolithic Revolution&quot; a turning point in human history??
  27. 27. What is the next step in the development of human settlements??
  28. 28. CIVILIZATIONS !! CITIES !
  29. 29. What are the characteristics of a civilization??
  30. 30. Advanced Cities CIVILIZATION Specialized Workers Complex Institutions Record- Keeping Advanced Technology

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