Bondan Priyambodo Dairyacinde. M Dewi Natalia Hana Hanifah Iqbal Adnan Selly AlfiantiRirisma Tarulianna. S
Victoria, daughter of the Duke of Kent, one of the sons of George III, succeeded her uncle, William IV, in 1837 when she was a girl of eighteen. She was not a clever woman like the great Elizabeth I and was limited in her tastes and outlook, but she had character, a great sense of public duty and resposibility, and was perhaps the best possible monarch for nineteenth-century Britain. She marries the Prince Consort, Albert of Saxe-Coburg, a minor German prince, her first cousin. Her reign lasted almost 64 years, making her the longest reigning monarch in the history of England.
The Victorian Age was a period of great expansion for the British Empire. Britain acted as the police force throughout the world taking parts in many major wars such as: - Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871) - Crimean war (1854-1856) As the result of Crimean War, bringing some influence in culture such as the cigarette smoking habit and keeping a beard as a fashionable style for men also about the great idea that come from Florence Nightingale (the improvement of nursing service for soldiers on the Crimean war)
The material progress of these years was tremendous.The country was covered with an intricate network ofrailroads. Industrial cities and towns grew likemushrooms. With factories being built everywhere,plenty of employment, and some attention at last topublic health, the population figures went leaping up.And there was progress on other that material fronts. Steam engine Steamboats Shipbuilding Trains Iron industry
Print technology Telegraph and other forms of telecommunication Textile manufacture
Michael Faraday (1791-1867), who experimented successfully with electricity. Charles Darwin (1809-1882), whose researches biology, was popular because of the evolution theory.
The typical Victorian outlook is well expressed in the essays of Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-59), the most popular historian of the mid-Victorian period, and in the kind of verse that Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92) wrote in his official capacity as Victoria’s Poet Laureate. Macaulay was a Whig who believed that the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688, which created a constitutional monarchy, and the Reform Bill of 1832, which increased the number of voters, were the greatest political triumphs of the human race.
With such examples of wisdom to follow, together with all the material improvements that the age, led by Britain, was devising, the world had only to be sensible to assure itself forever of peace, prosperity, and progress. Macaulay’s influence was enormous and, in spite of all the catastrophes of the present century, there are still people who believe more or less that Macaulay was right.
The thought expressed in Tennyson’s official verse, actually his weakest verse though it rarely fails in craftsmanship, follows the same patterns as Macaulay’s. Everything, with Britain serving as a shining example, is surely, if slowly, getting better and better. In this official verse Tennyson seems to be forcing himself to be almost as insensitively and blindly optimistic as Macaulay.
But the real Tennyson, a magnificent poet, breaks through in finer works—those of a belated Romantic. This poetry is steeped in longing and regret and dreamy melancholy, often expressed in lines of the most exquisite and haunting beauty. It is not when he is celebrating Victoria as Queen- Empress or offering Britain’s “broadening freedom” as an example to the world that Tennyson is a magical poet. His magical appeal shines through when he is writing about the aging Ulysses or the lotus eaters or the dark sorrows of Guinevere and Lancelot.
Victorian literature as a whole represents a protest and rebellion against the Victorianism of Macaulay and Tennyson in his official mood, against all that is characteristic of the self- confidence, complacency, and optimism of the age.
A country is not a commercial firm, to be judged by the amount of trade it does or by its balance sheets and profits. A country is the home of thousands of people. Industrial England was so horrible that more than one foreign visitor compared it to hell.
The middle class consisted of bankers, merchants, ship-owners, smaller factory owners, mine owners, barristers, solicitors, engineers, architects and all but the most successful doctors. The industrial revolution not only helped the upper classes rise, but also helped the middle classes by providing opportunities for shopkeepers and merchants to sell the products of the factories. Clerks and managers were needed to run the growing economy and the expanded cities. The government also expanded, creating new jobs for the middle class.
The Victorian middle-class is largely associated with the growth of cities and the expansion of the economy. The term was used from around the mid-eighteenth century to describe those people below the aristocracy but above the workers. As a social category, the middling sort always referred to a broad band of the population, but this diversity increased in the nineteenth century. Alongside the businessmen associated with the growth of manufacturing, the period saw the increased numbers of small entrepreneurs. Shopkeepers and merchants who undertook to transport and retail the fruits of industry and empire.
The increased scale of industry and oversees trade, together with the expansion of empire fuelled the proliferation of commerce and finance such as banks, insurance companies, shipping and railways. This system needed administrating by clerks, managers and salaried professionals. The expansion of cities, towns and the economy produced new spaces that needing regulating and running. The Victorian period witnessed the massive expansion of local government and the centralised state, providing occupations for a vast strata of civil servants, teachers, doctors, lawyers and government officials as well as the clerks and assistants which helped these institutions and services to operate. At that time the middle class family In England often portrayed by novelist in Victorian age as a family that live in a good condition and didn’t care about the fact that they live their happy live above the head of low class family that have to work hard for a small wages to barely kept them alive.
Such diversity makes a satisfactory definition of the middle-class impossible. There is no clear relationship to the means of production. Although there were some individuals that accumulated spectacular wealth in the nineteenth century through entrepreneurial activity, there were many more businessmen who scraped a living and many who worked for wages as public servants, managers or clerks. The economic boundary of the middle-class was not clear. Some members of the middle-class used their wealth to buy land and stately homes, becoming as rich, if not richer than the aristocracy. At the same time, many members of the skilled working class could earn as much if not more than some members of the lower middle-class.
Education reform, factory reform and the New Poor Law emphasised progress and civility through work, thrift and rationality. But, perhaps more significantly, local voluntary societies such as Mechanics Institutes and temperance societies promoted improvement cross class communication and rational recreation. Personal narratives of success were an important part of this culture. Records of achievement were popularised and promoted in books like Self Help as examples of how all individuals could and should improve.