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Country Report Part One: Brazil
 

Country Report Part One: Brazil

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by Devin Koppel

by Devin Koppel

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    Country Report Part One: Brazil Country Report Part One: Brazil Presentation Transcript

    • Brazil: The Land, People, & History Report by Devin Koppel History 141 Online
    • Brazil: The Largest Country in South Americ a
      • Brazil covers nearly half of the South American Continent – extending 2,965 miles North to South, and 2,691 miles East to West
      • Brazil borders every nation on South America except for Chile and Ecuador
      • This vast amount of land is home to the Amazon Rainforest and the Amazon River - a system that carries the most water to the ocean of any other river system in the world
      • The basin occupies more than sixty percent of the entire country
      • Rio De Janeiro holds one of the most famous mountains in the world, the Corcovado
      • Weather: Almost all of the country is humid with a tropical climate, and the rainy season occurs during summer
      • The basin receives more than eighty inches of rain a year
      • While most of brazil is tropical, it is temperate in the South
    • Brazil's Diverse Topography
      • Brazil's topography an be divided into the Brazilian Highlands, (the Southern plateau), and the Amazon River Basin (Northern)
      • The Amazon river drains over a third of Brazil with over 200 tributaries, and provides a navigable force for travel and shipping
      • The remaining areas of Brazil in the South are drained by the Planta system – The Paraguay, Uruguay, and Paraná rivers
      • The Brazilian Highlands and plateaus are on average less than 4000 feet, but in contrast, the highest point in Brazil is Pico de Neblina at 9888 feet
      • Extensive uplands lie in the South East that come to a sudden drop at the Atlantic Coast
      • Much of the coast is composed of a wall like structure known as the Great Escarpment
    • Brazil: Rich in Natural Resources
      • Brazil is rich in many natural resources, including a large iron and aluminium ore reserve
      • Other natural resources include tin, gold, phosphate, platinum, uranium, manganese, copper, bauxite, nickel, petroleom, timber, and coal
      • The most common agricultural exports include coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, cocoa, citrus, beef, and the ever popular Brazilian sugar cane
      • Along with the positive aspects of natural resources, there are also the negative aspects of natural disasters
      • Eastern Brazil suffers from regular drought. There is little seismic or volcanic activity due to Brazil's position near the center of the South American Plate.
      • Another negative aspect to consider is the alarming rate at which the Amazonian rainforest is being depleted, losting about 52,000 square miles every year
    • People: The Population
      • Brazil has 13 cities with over one million residents with ethnic groups including: 54% European, 39% mixed European-African, 6% Africa, 1% other
      • The official language is Portuguese, but the people also speak Spanish, English, and French
      • Sixty-five million people in Brazil are of mixed European, African, and Amerindian descent - there are less than 300,000 indigenous people living in Brazil today
      • A majority are Roman Catholic, 74%, and although Brazil has the world's largest Roman Catholic population, the birth rate has significantly decreased over the last 20 years
      • This has caused a decrease in population growth, which is believed to be due to an increase in contraceptive use and economic stagnation
    • Brazil's Thriving Economy
      • Brazil has a thriving economy – the 9 th largest in the world
      • This provides an excellent reflection of the diversity of the country and its population
      • The people of Brazil have invested in such things as banking, wheat, coffee, diamonds, aircraft, mineral resources and mining, petrochemicals, cattle, computers, and automobile
      • The 2006 estimate shows that the labor force is 96.34 million workers strong
      • The economic geography of Brazil places an emphasis on the state of Sao Paulo, which is responsible for half of the GDP of Brazil as well as two-thirds of manufacturing
      • The natural resources of the country lead to the thriving economy, as Brazil is a global leader in production and agricultural exports
    • People: Politics and Law
      • Brazil is divided into 26 states and a Federal District, and the capital city of Brazil is Brasilia (built in the late 1950's)
      • Brazil is governed with a president at the head in charge of running a Federal Republican Government as head of state and head of government, as well as being the commander-in-chief for the Brazilian Armed Forces
      • The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 established the responsibilities and powers of the president, as well as the term of office and method of election.
      • The president is voted for by four main political parties: the Workers' Party, the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, and the Democrats
      • Together these four parties control absolute majority of seats in the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies
    • History: The Beginnings
      • Thousands of years ago, the first indigenous peoples arrived in what is now Brazil by crossing the Bering land bridge into Alaska and from there continuing South
      • Portugal was experiencing a great amount of profit through commerce with India, China, and Indonesia, and until 1530 they did not have any interest in Brazil
      • Although there is much debate as to who was the first European explorer to set foot on the country, it wasn't claimed for Portugal until the arrival of a man named Pedro Álvares Cabral
      • Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed the territory in 1500 for Portugal and it was made into a royal colony in 1549
      • An unsuccessful attempt was made to occupy by the land known as the Hereditary Captaincies system, and only two “lots” were successfully occupied
    • Territorial Expansion
      • Despite initial failure, colonists were attracted by the untapped natural resources and land as they continued to settle while competing with other various European powers
      • In 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas granted Brazil to Portugal, and it is important to note that Brazil is the only country in South America that inherits it's dominant language and culture from Portugal
      • Although the treaty granted the Spanish territory in Brazil, the Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed in the same year and granted Portuguese the right to territorial expansion
      • Colonization had effectively begun in 1534 with the division of the territory and exchanges of power
      • Some native tribes were assimilated, and others were exterminated and enslaved in long violent wars and massive death tolls due to European diseases
    • Forming an Independent Republic
      • The natives that were forced into slavery and made to work in the plantations were not freed until Prince Pedro gave the cry for independence in 1822
      • Brazil won its independence in a bloodless revolution due to the weakened state of Portugal from a recent war with France
      • It wasn't until September 7th, 1822, that Brazil declared its independence from Portugal and converted to a constitutional monarchy
      • Since then, Brazil had six constitutions, two dictatorships, and three democratic periods
      • It would remain a monarchy for some time until it became a republic
      • The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military victory against Emperor Pedro II
      • In November 1989, Brazilians had gained the right to elect a president by popular vote
    • Sources http://geography.about.com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/geographyofbraz.htm http://geography.about.com/od/brazilmaps/a/brazilfacts.htm http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Brazi http://www.celebratebrazil.com/brazil-economy.html http://www.mapsofworld.com/country-profile/brazil.html http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/americas/tordesillas.html