Taxonomic procedures


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Taxonomic procedures

  1. 1. Taxonomic procedure
  2. 2. TAXONOMIC COLLECTIONS <ul><li>Biological collections are typically preserved plant or animal specimens along with specimen documentation such as labels and notations. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF COLLECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Most biological collections are either dry collections or wet collections. </li></ul><ul><li>They also may include collections preserved at low temperatures or </li></ul><ul><li>microscopy collections. </li></ul><ul><li>DRY COLLECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Dry collections consist of those specimens that are preserved in a dry state. </li></ul><ul><li>Two factors influence decisions about preserving specimens this way: </li></ul><ul><li>· Rigidity. Some specimens can be preserved naturally (starfish) or </li></ul><ul><li>artificially with sufficient rigidity to accommodate normal handling. Such specimens often are suitable for dry preservation. </li></ul><ul><li>· Specific characteristics. Drying may provide the best available means </li></ul><ul><li>to preserve natural colors (for example, butterflies) or distinguishing </li></ul><ul><li>features (such as skeletal parts or surface details). Such specimens in a </li></ul><ul><li>dry state may have great potential for interpretation and research. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>WET COLLECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Wet collections are specimens kept in a liquid preservative to prevent their </li></ul><ul><li>deterioration. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain biological specimens are preserved in a wet form due to: </li></ul><ul><li>· convenience </li></ul><ul><li>· an intent to preserve body form and soft parts for a variety of uses </li></ul><ul><li>When color preservation is not critical and dry preservation sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>qualities needed for other intended uses, fluid preservation is beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL LOW-TEMPERATURE COLLECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Specimens are maintained at low temperatures to preserve: </li></ul><ul><li>· soft parts for various biochemical analyses </li></ul><ul><li>· whole organisms in a viable (able to live and grow) state. </li></ul><ul><li>specimens preserved at low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>- Some algae,Protozoa (especially parasitic strains), Viruses, </li></ul><ul><li>Cloned viral genomes, Bacteria,Bacteriophages,Plasmids </li></ul><ul><li>· Animal tissues (dissected organs, muscles),Cell lines </li></ul><ul><li>- Blood and blood components (whole blood, serum, plasma, </li></ul><ul><li>antisera) </li></ul><ul><li>- Semen,Venom </li></ul><ul><li>- Other samples (cloned probes, isolated proteins and nucleic acids, </li></ul><ul><li>cell suspensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The largest organisms that can be preserved in a viable state are </li></ul><ul><li>some insects. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>BIOLOGICAL MICROSCOPY COLLECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists preserve certain specimens as microscope preparations to </li></ul><ul><li>preserve whole or partial organisms for: </li></ul><ul><li>· various kinds of microscopic examination </li></ul><ul><li>· some kinds of biochemical analyses, including extraction of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Specimens prepared for microscopy may be found in all biological </li></ul><ul><li>collections, but are most common in these collections: </li></ul><ul><li>· entomology </li></ul><ul><li>· mycology </li></ul><ul><li>· parasitology </li></ul><ul><li>It’s also common for microscopy collections to be ancillary to more </li></ul><ul><li>traditional collections. Examples of such ancillary collections include: </li></ul><ul><li>· histology </li></ul><ul><li>· karyology </li></ul><ul><li>· scales </li></ul><ul><li>· some gentalia </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Value of biological collections </li></ul><ul><li>Most biological collections are highly valuable for the following reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Museums are only place where extinct species are preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>specimens of special historical value. </li></ul><ul><li>specimens rarely found in any collections. </li></ul><ul><li>Many areas in world are geographically inaccessible.Material from such area are invaluable & are preserved at all costs </li></ul><ul><li>A material is of unique value if it forms the basis of published research.It may be needed again for verification of original data or for renewed study in the light of more recent knowledge or by new techniques. </li></ul>
  6. 6. METHODS OF COLLECTON Mist net Arctic tern caught in mist net
  7. 7. Attracting Nocturnal Insects With UV Light Many insects can see ultraviolet light, which has shorter wavelengths than light visible to the human eye. For this reason, a black light will attract different insects than a regular incandescent light. . The black light can be suspended in front of a white sheet, giving flying insects a surface on which to land. You can then observe the insects on the sheet, and collect any interesting specimens by hand. A black light trap is constructed by suspending a black light over a bucket or other container, usually with a funnel inside. Insects fly to the light, fall down through the funnel into the bucket, and are then trapped inside the container. Black light traps sometimes contain a killing agent, but can also be used without one to collect live specimens.
  8. 8. Malaise traps A Malaise trap is a large, tent-like structure used for trapping flies and wasps. Insects fly into the tent wall and are funnelled into a collecting vessel attached to highest point.
  9. 9. Insects are collected mainly by beating and sweeping beating sweeping
  10. 10. Plankton net Aquatic insects and other arthropods are collected by using dipnets & plankton nets Dip net
  11. 11. Trawling and dredging for collecting deepsea animals Trawling Dredging
  12. 12. Collecting net
  13. 13. Aspirator
  14. 14. Berlese funnel
  15. 15. Floatation method Used to collect arthropods,eggs and pupae of insects from soil or matted vegetation.
  16. 16. Killing bottles Cyanide bottle Killing tube POISON
  17. 17. <ul><li>RECORDING DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic locality </li></ul><ul><li>Stratiographic position(for fossils only) </li></ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul><ul><li>Stage(adult male,female or immature form) </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude or depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><li>Name of collector </li></ul>
  18. 18. Curation-preservation of collection
  19. 23. Genitalia preserved in tiny glass vial along with specimen.
  20. 24. Relaxing
  21. 25. mounting
  22. 26. Direct pinning
  23. 27. Double mounting and pointing
  24. 28. carding
  25. 29. spreading
  26. 30. Storage
  27. 34. <ul><li>Storage building should be </li></ul><ul><li>Fireproof </li></ul><ul><li>Dustproof </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Air-conditioned. </li></ul><ul><li>Special care for type specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Type specimens should not be allowed to be handled frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>They should only be examined by experts. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid their transport as far as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be stored separately from general collection. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be clearly labelled in distinct colours. </li></ul>
  28. 35. Cataloguing
  29. 36. <ul><li>Method of cataloguing is different from group to group. </li></ul><ul><li>In higher vertebrates each specimen is given separate number and catalogued separately.In case of insects this is not done due to their large number. </li></ul><ul><li>All specimens from one locality are catalogued together. </li></ul><ul><li>Only type specimens are unusually catalogued.In large museums type catalogues are bound in book in which types are serially numbered. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various ways in using filing cards of collections: </li></ul><ul><li>Some museums have elaborate card filing system which help in easy colllection of information about specimen. </li></ul><ul><li>Some large museums place all information about each specimen on separate IBM card. </li></ul>
  30. 37. Museum number Original field number Scientific name Locality Date Collector remarks