“Failing organizations are usually over managed and under-led” Warren.G.BennisAn effective leader is capable of inspiring and motivating even themost inefficient employees to strive towards attaining the goals of the organization. “Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goaL”
LEADERSHIP THEORIES .
There are mainly 3 theories1. Personality Trait Theories [leaders possess some personality traits that non leaders do not possess at all, or possess only to small extent.]2. Behavior theories [behavior characteristics of the leaders.]3. Contingency Theories [leadership in different situations]
TRAIT THEORY .
. Earlier researchers believed that there werecertain unique characteristics in people that madethem leaders . According to them , a person must possess certain unique personality traits that are essential for effective leadership. One of the trait theories is the “Great Person “ theory which emphasized that leaders might notbe born with the desired leadership traits but can be acquired by learning and experience. Researchers also tried to study the relationship between physical traits and leadership, but were unsuccessful to establish a valid relationship.
behavioral theorists concentrated on the unique behavioral aspects found in leaders that enabled them to attain effective leadership1.The Ohio State studies2.Universities of Michigan studies3.The Managerial Grid4.Scandinavian studies
THE OHIO STATE STUDIES .
In 1945 researchers from. various fields conducted studies on leadership at Ohio State university. The research was based on a questionnaire called ‘Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire’.They narrowed down to two independent dimensionsalong which an individual’s leadership behavior could be studied. 1. Initiating Structure – Individual’s ability to define his own task as well as the subordinates tasks and also accomplish them in time. People who score high in this dimension put pressure on subordinates to meet deadlines and maintain certain level of performance.
. 2 .Consideration – This refers to the extent to which a leader cares for his subordinate, respects their ideas and feelings and establishes work relations which are characterized by mutual trust and respect.The studies revealed that the people who scored high on both the dimensions were able to achieve higher performance as well as job satisfaction.
UNIVERSITIES OFMICHIGAN STUDIES .
.A research was conducted at the Survey Research Centre at the University of Michigan. The research was conducted ontwelve pairs of sections ,each section consisted on one high producing section and one low producing section. During the study , researchers also interviewed 24 supervisors and 400 workers. And following was observed. 1. Employee-oriented dimension 2. Production-oriented dimension Researchers concluded that leaders with an inclination towards employee-oriented dimension resulted in higher job satisfaction and greater productivity.
THE MANAGERIAL GRID .
.The Managerial Grid graphic below is a very simple framework that elegantly defines FIVE basic styles that characterize workplace behaviour and the resulting relationships. The FIVE managerial Grid styles are based on how two fundamental concerns (concern for people and concern for results) are manifested at varying levels whenever people interact.
.The concept distinguishes 5 different leadershipstyles, based on the concern for people and theconcern for production:Impoverished style (Low Production / LowPeople) (1:1) Description: A delegate-and-disappear management style. A basically lazy approach. Characteristics: The manager shows a low concern for both people and production. He (or she) avoids to get into trouble. His main concern is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. Results in: Disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony due to lack of effective leadership.
.Country Club style (Low Production / HighPeople)(1:9) Description: One-sided, thoughtful attention to the needs of employees. Characteristics: The relationship-oriented manager has a high concern for people, but a low concern for production. He pays much attention to the security and comfort of the employees. He hopes that this will increase performance. He is almost incapable of employing the more punitive, coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. Results in: A usually friendly atmosphere, but not necessarily very productive.
.Produce or Perish style OR Authoritarian style (High Production / Low People)(9:1) Description: Authoritarian or compliance leader. Characteristics: The task-oriented manager isautocratic, has a high concern for production, anda low concern for people. He finds employeeneeds unimportant and simply a means to an end.He provides his employees with money andexpects performance back. There is little or noallowance for cooperation or collaboration. Hepressures his employees through rules andpunishments to achieve the company goals.Heavily task-oriented people are very strong onschedules. They are intolerant of what they see asdissent (it may just be someones creativity).
.Results in: Whilst high output is achievable in the shortterm, much will be lost through an inevitable high labourturnover.Middle-of-the-road style (Medium Production /Medium People). (5:5) Description: The manager tries to balance between the competing goals of the company and the needs of the workers. Characteristics: The manager gives some concern to both people and production, hoping to achieve acceptable performance. He believes this is the most anyone can do. Results in: Compromises in which neither the production nor the people needs are fully met.
. Team Management style (High Production / High People).(9:9) Description: The ultimate. The manager pays highconcern to both people and production. Motivation ishigh. Characteristics: The manager encourages teamworkand commitment among employees. This styleemphasizes making employees feel part of thecompany-family, and involving them in understandingorganizational purpose and determining productionneeds. Results in: Team environment based on trust andrespect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivationand, as a result, high production
SCANDINAVIAN STUDIES .
The previous three behavior.theories did not take intoaccount the dynamics, or even chaotic environments thatinfluence the modern organizations. Some Finnish and Swedish theorists began reviewingearlier theories to find new dimensions that couldincorporate the dynamics of the environment. The new dimension found was called as ‘development–oriented behavior’. According to this dimension leaders were ready toexperiment with new ideas and practices and embracechange. Leaders who were inclined towards this dimension werefound to be more efficient by the subordinates.
CONTINGENCY THEORIES .
“How leader changes his style according to changing situations”1. Fiedler’s Contingency Model2. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory3. Leader-member exchange theory4. Leadership-participation model5. Path Goal Theory
FIEDLER’SCONTINGENCY THEORY .
, The Fiedler contingency model is a leadership theory ofindustrial and organizational psychology developed by Fred Fiedler Fiedler (1967), differentiated situation from contingency. He emphasised the fact that differing roles, traits and behaviours of leaders did not just require an specific understanding of interactions with subordinate, it also required favourable conditions. Fiedlers model assumes that group performance dependson: Leadership style, described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation.
.Situational favourableness, determined by three factors:1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leaderis accepted and supported by the group members.2. Task structure - Extent to which the task isstructured and defined, with clear goals and procedures.3. Position power or the leader’s position - The abilityof a leader to control subordinates through reward andpunishment.High levels of these three factors give the mostfavourable situation, low levels, the least favourable.Relationship-motivated leaders are most effective inmoderately favourable situations. Task-motivated leadersare most effective at either end of the scale.Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders tochange their situation to achieve effectiveness, ratherthan change their leadership style.
HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’SSITUATIONAL THEORY .
. The situational leadership model focuses on the fit of leadership style and followers maturity . In contrast to Fiedler’s contingency leadershipmodel and its underlying assumption that leadership style is hard to change, the Hersey-Blanchardsituational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles. The situational leadership model views leaders as varying their emphasis on task and relationshipbehaviors to best deal with different levels of follower maturity. The two-by-two matrix shown in the figure indicates that four leadership styles are possible.
. Telling Style — giving specific task directions and closelysupervising work; this is a high-task, low-relationship style. Selling Style —explaining task directions in asupportive and persuasive way; this is a high-task, high-relationship style. Participating Style —emphasizing shared ideas andparticipative decisions on task directions; this is a low-task,high-relationship style. Delegating Style —allowing the group to takeresponsibility for task decisions; this is a low-task, low-relationship style.
LEADER-MEMBEREXCHANGE THEORY .
According to this theory, .leaders often behavedifferently with different subordinates. They establishclose relationships with a small group of subordinatesearly in their interactions.In – Group :Good relation with leaders and highfrequency of interactions.Out-Group: Formal relation with leader and lessfrequency of interaction compared to in-group.The theory suggests that the leaders givepromotions to the in-group employees quickly andalso that employee turnover rate in such groups islow.
LEADERSHIP-PARTICIPATION MODEL .
.In 1973 Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton came up with the leadership-participation model that tried to establish relation between leadership behavior and the decision making style.As per them leaders are required to adapt their behavior to suit changes in the situations. The model proposed a sequential set of rulesthat could help the managers in taking decisions in different situations.
. The model had 12 contingencies also called as ‘problem attributes’ and 5 alternative leadership styles. The Problem Attributes were categorized into decision-quality and employee acceptance.1. decision-quality – cost considerations, information availability, nature of problem structure. 2. employee acceptance – need for commitment, their prior approval, congruence of their goals
PATH GOAL THEORY .
. This theory was developed by Robert House.Here the leader provides the necessary support and guidance to his followers and help them achieve organizational goals. Leader defines the individual(or groups) goals and help them achieve them. As per the theory – Leaders are accepted by the subordinates when They find that the satisfaction of their needs depend upon their effective performance
. They are provided with guidance ,support, and rewards needed for effective performance.Robert House suggested 4 types of leadership by this model 1. Directive leadership 2. Supportive leadership 3. Participative leadership4. Achievement-oriented leadership
Leadership Styles .
. 1. Authoritarian or autocratic 2. Participative or democratic3. Delegate or Free Reign
Authoritarian (autocratic) .
I want both .of you to. . . This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want to do and how theywant it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers.Some people tend to think of this style as a vehiclefor yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power
Lets work together to solve this. . . . This style involves the leader including one or moreemployees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leadermaintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions
Delegative(free reign) .
You two take care of the problem while I go. . . the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.This is not a style to use so that you can blame otherswhen things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
. A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involvedbetween the followers, the leader, and the situation. Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the jobusing a participative style with a team of workers who know their job Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than
10 Characters of leaders .
. Leaders know what their mission is. They know why the organization exists. A superior leader has a well thought out (often written) mission describing thepurpose of the organization. That purposeneed not be esoteric or abstract, but rather descriptive, clear and understandable. Every employee should be able to identify with the mission and strive to achieve it.
.Where do you want your organization to go? A vision needs to be abstract enough to encourage people to imagine it but concrete enough for followers to see it, understand it andbe willing to climb onboard to fulfill it.
You must be seen. by your advisors,stakeholders, employees, and the public asbeing an expert in your field or an expert in leadership. Unless your constituents see you as highly credentialed--either by academic degree or with specialized experience--and capable of leading your company to success, it will be more difficult for you to be as respected, admired, or followed.
A STRONG TEAM .
. Realistically, few executives possess all of the skills and abilities necessary to demonstrate total mastery of every requisite area within the organization. Tocomplement the areas of weakness, a wise leader assembles effective teams of experienced, credentialed, and capableindividuals who can supplement any voids in the leaders skill set. This ability is what sets leaders apart from others.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS .
. It does little good to have a strong mission, vision, and goals--and even a solid budget--if the executive cannot easily and effectively convey his ideas to the stakeholders inside and outside of the organization. He must regularly be in touch with key individuals, by email, v- mail, meetings, or other forms of correspondence. Of course, the best way toensure other people receive and understand the message is with face-to-face interactions
. How is the organization going to achieve its mission and vision and how will you measure your progress? Like a vision, goals need to beoperational; that is specific and measurable. If your output and results cant be readilymeasured, then it will be difficult to know if you have achieved your purpose. You may have wasted important resources (time, money,people, and equipment) pursuing a strategy or plan without knowing if it truly succeeded.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS .
.Successful entrepreneurs are comfortablerelating to other people; they easily create rapport and are at least more extroverted than they are introverted. These factorshelp leaders seem approachable, likeable, and comfortable in their position. Those qualities contribute to staff wanting to interact with their leader. They also help motivate employees to do a better job.
A "can do, get it done" attitude .
Nothing builds a picture of success more than achievement, and achievement is the number . one factor that motivates just about everyone across all cultures. When employees see thattheir boss can lead and direct, has a clear vision and attainable goals, and actually gains results in a timely manner, then that persons credibility increases throughout the organization. Entrepreneurs must modestly demonstrate their skills to give their constituents valid reasons to appreciate and value their efforts.
. Quite often, employees need someone to look up to for direction, guidance, andmotivation. The entrepreneur needs to be that person. Hopefully, Human Resources has hired self-motivated individuals.Nevertheless, there are times, when many employees need the boss to inspire them by word or action. Employees needsomeone to look up to, admire, and follow.
Resting on your laurels. is bad for employee morale and entrepreneurial credibility. Employees need to be constantly striving for improvement and success; and they need to see the same and more in theirleaders. When the boss is seen as someone who works to attain increasingly higher goals, employees will be impressed and more willing to mirror that behavior.