INTEGRATED FISHERIESMANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY REMISHA.O FOURTH SEM ,IF SIF, CUSAT
Man’s interest in fish Fish enjoys a very special consideration and place in human civilization from times immemorial Fishing is a multiproduct industry A fishery may be defined as a system composed of the aquatic biology, aquatic habitat, and human users Fisheries and agricultural farming have evolved rather parallel in the history of civilization.
Features of fisheries Renewable natural resource Mobile Free gift of nature Common property(open access) ExternalitiesImportance of fisheries sector Source of human nutrition Source of foreign exchange Source of employment and livelihood Recreational opportunities
Major concerns in fisheries The latest FAO review of the state of world’s marine fishery resources confirms that about 50%of global resources are fully exploited, 25% are over exploited and about 25% could apparently support higher exploitation rates. The ocean ecosystem under high fisheries pressure, is suffering from pollution from sea-based and( mostly ) land based activities and coastal degradation. Critical coastal habitats, such as sea grass beds, coral reefs and mangroves, as well as estuaries and lagoons, are strongly affected by coastal developments including aquaculture and pollution Global climate change, a particularly threatening manifestation of pollution, is affecting critical resources(coral- bleaching) through excessively high temperatures and high UV radiations.
So fishery stock declines dueto; Overexploitation Marine habitat loss Changing the ecosystem balance Climate change Ocean pollution Disease and toxins
The need for fisheriesmanagement fisheries managementhow tomanage fishery.pdf The world’s population is increasing faster than total food supply. Fisheries have substantial social and economic importance. 12.5 million people are employed in activities related to fishing and the value of fish traded internationally has been estimated at US$40 billion per annum for the early nineties. The total production from capture fisheries and aquaculture during the same period reached and oscillated around 100 million tons. At present, a large proportion of the world’s exploited fish stock’s are fully exploited, over exploited, or in need of recovery and many are affected by environmental degradation, particularly in the inland and coastal areas.
Major ecological damage which may not always be reversible, and economic waste are already evident in many cases. New technological developments such as geographical positioning systems, radar, echo sounder, more powerful vessels and improved processing methods, continue to enhance the ability of fishers to exploit more living resources more intensively. A good management is needed to sustain fishing livelihood now for the future.
What is fisheries management? Fisheries management drawn on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so as to sustainable exploitation is possible Definitions of fisheries management According to FAO–”the integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, deci sion making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations on rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the resources and the accomplishment of other
The Primary ManagementMeasures Direct Impact on Fish Stocks Catch controls Effort controls Closed areas/MPAs Gear regulations Closed seasons Indirect Impacts on Fish Stocks Fishing/Access rights Incentives (positive and negative) Co-management
Approaches of fisheries managementSocio centric approaches Small Scale fisheries -Livelihood -Economic crisis -Conflicts managementScience based approaches Biology based Single and multi species management (based on MSY) Ecosystem based Differential equations for bio mass dynamics Bio-energetic models Ecosim with Ecopath, Eco space Economics based Different types of Uncertainties (ITQ, Rights etc) Institutional approaches Legal pluralism Social Ecological Systems
Limitations of fisheriesmanagement Primary reasons for failure of management due to; fisheries managementreview of fisheries management.pdf High biological and ecological uncertainty The conflict between short term economic and social objectives and the longer term sustainability objectives The lack of definition or observance of constraints imposed by a limits to production of the resources Poorly or loosely defined objectives Institutional weakness Weak and frequently inadequate capacity in fisheries administrations Inadequate monitoring, control and surveillance systems
Integrated FisheriesManagement (IFM) fisheriesmanagementintegrated fisheries.pdf Integration is the creation of complete systems of interdependent components, embodying unity, wholeness and soundness. Integrated management planning that incorporates the biological, economic, and social factors for sustainable fisheries. Integrated fisheries management includes the co- ordinated activity of all the various fisheries institutions, department, fishery community, fishermen, members and non members of international organization like FAO, various stakeholders(includes all the person related to the fishery system).
Dimensions of integrating fisherysystem Horizontal integration across different participants(eg. International institution, organization states and stakeholders) Vertical integration local-regional-international continuum(range) Spatial integration ocean threads, biodiversity loss Sustainable development integration of ecological/environmental and social and economic interests into the shared objective, through effective integrated decision making and reporting Mainstreaming wide spread threats across a range of issues (like climate change with ocean and fishery)
Objectives of integrated fisheriesmanagement fisheries managementintegratedfisheries managent 2.pdf Integrated fisheries management is a government initiative aimed at making sure that fisheries continue to be managed in a sustainable way in the future. Integrated fisheries management aims at the present and future needs of the nation. The resource should be utilized in the sustainable ways so that there won’t be over exploitation and that resource would be available for the future generation
Activities in the IFM For each resource addressed through IFM a report must be prepared to provide information on at least the following aspects of the resources and associated fishing activity the current management practices within the industry Historical of catch levels, or estimates of catch by each sector The biology of fish species involved The sustainable harvest level of the
Integrated fisheries management plansManagement actions of fishery will be determined in collaboration with stakeholders using the new integrated fisheries management plan template, which incorporate the following An overview of the fishery The stock assessment and status, including ecosystem interactions, available information on precautionary approach ;and stock trends Management issues including depleted species concerns Access and allocation elements, including any sharing arrangements Short and long term sustainable fisheries objectives for stock conservation, the ecosystem, shared stewardship and collaboration, socio-economic factors and compliance. A compliance plan A performance review of management objectives
Ecosystem based fisheriesmanagement fisheries managementhow tomanage fishery.pdf Ecosystem approach is an integrated or holistic approach to resource management That aims to maintain the entire ecosystem in a healthy, productive and resilient condition. An ecosystem approach to fisheries is a response to the identified shortcomings in traditional fisheries management, which has been based on a single-species perspective and model
To sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support: Reduce by catch Marine reserves Monitoring of population characteristics Catch share programs Ecologically sustainable yield Methods of by catch reduction Fishery closures Improve selectivity of fishing methods
Principles of ecosystem basedfisheries management Conserve ecosystem structure and functioning in order to maintain ecosystem services Manage ecosystems within the limits of their functioning Ecosystem based solution attempt to sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support The future of marine fisheries is dependent upon an integration of traditional market based and ecosystem based management strategies.
Community based integratedcoastal management fisheriesmanagementreview of community based integrated.pdfCommunity based fisheries and habitat management Is where a group of people guides the use of a fishery resource system and associated ecological structures with a minor role played by government Coastal fishery stocks are either already over exploited or near the maximum sustainable level.
The tools of sustainable management include Rights Transparent, participatory management Support to science, planning and enforcement Benefit distribution Integrated policy Precautionary approach Capacity building Market incentives community based integrated coastal management implies the integration of coastal resource management and fisheries management
Co-management fisheriesmanagementCO-MANAGEMENT.pdfCo management is the sharing of responsibility and authority for the management of resources between government and stakeholders. orA partnership among government, community of fishery resource users, external agents(NGOs, researchers, academics) and other stakeholders(boat owners, fish traders, tourism interest etc) share responsibility and authority for decision-making in managing a fishery. Co-management is a critical part of the integrated coastal management.
Some possible costs of co-management Requires initial financial investment Time requirements for participation May result in smaller share of resources May result in less and shared power Information has to be communicated May take long to reach joint decision Requires skills such as facilitation May cause demand in other areas
Some possible benefits of co-management Improves information flows Promotes conservation Help to sustain livelihoods Encourages self reliance Reduce many conflicts Facilitates compliance Lowers long run costs Increase empowerment.
What is a Marine ProtectedArea? Marine protected areas can help conserve the plants, mammals and fish that live within them. However, harmful human activities must be restricted. Activities that are not harmful – such as sustainable fishing and tourism activities - are usually allowed.
Why Do We Need MarineProtected Areas? We need MPAs because: ◦ They are proactive and precautionary; ◦ They contribute to an ecosystem-based approach; ◦ They provide a cornerstone for marine conservation, education, and research. MPAs are needed to conserve and protect: ◦ commercial and non-commercial resources and supporting habitats; ◦ endangered or threatened species and supporting habitats; ◦ unique habitats; ◦ areas of high biodiversity or productivity;
Objectives of marine protectedareas Marine reserves promote rapid and substantial recovery of exploited stocks They promote habitat recovery and increase biodiversity Effective marine reserves can be designed for any habitat that is exploited Protect nursery area with high juvenile catch Protect migration routes and bottlenecks Protect spawning aggregation sites Monitoring ecosystem processes and services Conservation Sustaining fisheries
The role of marine protected areas in sustaining fisheries fisheries managementmarineprotectedareas.pdf To achieve the level of protection required we must fully integrate conservation and fisheries management After world war second, there was much optimism that fisheries could feed the world But on the beginning of the twenty first century, we are not sure Long term studies in New Zealand, Philippines, Florida and many countries show strong responses to reserve protection Fish in reserves do live longer, grow larger and produce more eggs Fisher’s now fish for less time and catch more than before reserve were set up Egg production from protected fish stocks increase by much more than stock biomass
Marine protected areas providinga future for fish and people It helps the depleted fish stocks to recover Provides services to local communities who depend upon the sea and it’s resources Increasing food security, and reducing poverty Benefit-local people by opening new opportunities to gain income. In Newfoundland and Labrador, marine protected areas could play an important role in reviving and safeguarding the future health of the marine environment, the fishery, and coastal communities. MPAs can provide a foundation for additional benefits, including economic development, marine tourism, scientific research, and the satisfaction of knowing that a part of the ocean is protected, and relatively safe from harm.
Marine protected areas in the worldMilford sound, New Zealand is a strict marinereserve area
The Chargos Archipelago was declaredthe world’s largest marine reserve in April2010 with an area of 250,000 squaremiles
Asinara, Italy is listed by WDPA as both anational park, and as such could be labelled‘multiple-use’
Bunaken marine park, Indonesia isofficially listed as both a marine reserveand a national marine park
The Prickly pear cays are a protected area,they are about six miles from Road Bay,Anguilla, in the Leward islands of theCarribean
Integrated coastal zone management fisheries managementintegrated coastal zone mgmt.pdf With fisheries declining, coral reefs battered, mangrove forests under threat, pollution levels rising, and coastal communities experiencing increased poverty, Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) or Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability. Integrated coastal management can be defined as a continuous and dynamic process by which decisions are made for the sustainable use, development, and protection of coastal and
The coastal zone management act Passed in 1972 to encourages coastal states to develop and implement coastal zone management plans(CZMPs) This act was established as national policy to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, restore or enhance, the resources of the nation’s coastal zone such as wet land, floodplains, estuaries, coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife using those habitats for this and succeeding generations.
Objectives of coastal zonemanagement To achieve sustainable development of coastal and marine areas Reduce vulnerability of coastal areas and their inhabitants to natural hazards Maintain essential ecological processes, life support systems, and biological diversity in coastal and marine areas.
Functions of integrated coastalmanagement Area planning Promotion of economic development Stewardship of resources Conflict resolution Protection of public safety Proprietorship of public submerged lands and waters
Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) is an internationally accepted approach for achieving sustainable development of the coasts and oceans. Most coastal communities, especially the fishing communities in countries such as Cambodia, Korea, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam are still living below the poverty line. Many of them do not have access to clean drinking water, sanitation facilities, shelters, or sufficient food to meet the minimum dietary requirements. These coastal communities, particularly the women and children, are vulnerable to the adverse impacts of pollution, natural hazards, as
fisheries managementtransational &coastal.pdf Transnational changes in emerging Asian countries, particularly the experiences of China and India, have been one of the favorite themes of international academic research in the recent past The pollution is going to cause the destruction of the marine life on which millions of fisher folk in the country are dependent for their livelihoods The marine protected areas and reef systems will be badly affected causing biodiversity losses at the global level The sheltered mouths of rivers are especially suitable for building ports at a low investment, but once these ports are built these will adversely affect the natural movement of river water in such a way that the areas situated upstream of the river will get completely inundated, causing the ruin of the farmers and fisher folk living on river banks. On the other hand the establishment of ports will destroy the ecosystems of the delta areas, as has happened in the case of the Dharma port of the Tatas in Orissa.
ICZM in India Throughout India’s history, coastal and ocean area played important role in maintenance of economy. India ‘s coastline is characterized by three different types of bio physical features Western coast of Indian subcontinent consists of a narrow coastal strip with rocky cliffs; it experiences very little flooding and sedimentation But a few areas on the Gulf of Kutch(north western) are marked by low, wide intertidal mudflats dominated by mangroves. The eastern coast is characterized primarily by low, wide, and flat areas. Urbanization, port development, and major coastal economic activities have taken place more rapidly in this coastal zone
India have extensive coral reef communities and vegetation in the tropical island between the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. India’s huge population and rapid growth have overstrained coastal resources and coastal ecosystems. Coastal urbanization and rapid industrialization along the coastline have given rise to coastal environment concerns Intensive development in the western Ghalies coastal area, such as fertilizer plants, nuclear power plants, refineries, and steel manufactures ,have threatened the area’s ecology.
Mangrove habitat are converted into paddy fields or coconut plantations Numerous mangrove forests have been cut down by coastal residents for fire wood and building materials. Many people considers mangrove habitat as useless areas, and treat them as waste dumping sites or sewage treatment facilities. Coastal fish species depend on mangrove estuarine complexes- so maintenance of mangrove areas in India is critical to coastal fisheries production. India does not yet have a comprehensive , integrated coastal zone management legislation or policy. India has difficulties in implementing the ICM concept of coastal management because the lack of Govt. conceptualization of the ICM strategy.
Is Integrated CoastalManagement Sustainable? ICM is a broad and dynamic process that . . . requires the active and sustained involvement of the interested public and many stakeholders with interests in how coastal resources are allocated and conflicts are mediated. The ICM process provides a means by which concerns at local, regional and national levels are discussed and future directions are negotiated. Major constraints of ICZM are mostly institutional, rather than technological.
The Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) appears to be a key element for the sustainable development . However this recent notion may not be adapted to all cases. The natural disasters Sumatra earthquake and the Indian Ocean tsunami have made a lot of impact on the coastal environment and also the stakeholders perception on mitigation and management of coastal hazards. Successful implementation is still a major challenge to the idea of ICZM
Our response must be manage our fisheries better – to ensure that fish stocks are sustainable and to ensure that people who depend on fish for food and livelihoods continue to get these important benefits………………
Reference Fisheries management A review of fisheries management past and present and some future perspectives for the third millennium-J.F. Caddy, K.L. Cochrane.referencereview of fisheries management.pdf How to manage a fishery- a simple guide to writing a fishery management plan-James Hindson, Daniel D. Hoggarth, Mohan Krishna, Christopher C. Mees, Catherine O’ Neill.referencehow to manage fishery.pdf Fisheries management-progress towards sustainability- Tim Mc Clanhan and Juan Carlos Castilla. Fishery manager’s guide book-Kevern L.cochrane and Serge M. Garcia. Fishery management focus area report July-2008- Government of Canada fisheries and oceans. ReferenceFisheriesFAR_Canada.pdf
Integrated fisheries management Integrated environment assessment of fisheries management; Sweedish Nephros trawl fisheries evaluated using a life cycle approach-Sarahornborg Per Nilsson, Daniel Valentinsson, Friederike Ziegler.referenceintegrated environmental assessment.pdf Integrated fisheries management report Abalone resource – fisheries management paper No.204- prepared by department of fisheries-168 st.george terrace.referenceintegrated fisheries managent report.pdfIntegrated coastal zone management Integrated coastal zone management in Philippine Local Governance: evolution and benefits-Alan white, Evelyn Deguit ,Nillaim Jatulan and liza Eisma Osorio.referenceintegrated management in philippine.pdf Integrated coastal and ocean management- concepts and practices-Bilana Cicin-Sain and Robert W. Knecht State policies, transational adaptations and development future of coastal commons-Kaleekal ThomasThomson Prof. school of industrial fisheries, CUSAT, Cochin.referencestate policies, transational adaptations.pdf
Community based coastal management Review of community based integrated coastal management-best practices and lessons learned in the Bay of Bengal, South Asia-Dr. J.I Samarakoon.referencereview of community based integrated coastal.pdfMarine protected areas Role of marine protected areas in sustaining fisheries- Callum Roberts –university of york, UK.referencerole of marine protected areas.pdf Marine protected areas- providing a future for fish and people-WWFreferencemarineprotectedareas.pdf