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3...history of operation management

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  • 1. PRESENTED TO,Dr. Mini SekheranPRESENTED BY, Swarup saha
  • 2.  Ancient times and before 1700 the production system was a “ Cottege system”. In 1700’s the Industrial Revolution begins. The human power was replaced by the machine power and the “Factory System” developed. James Watt (1764) invented steam engine- gathering of the workers became easy.
  • 3.  Adam Smith(1776) published “ The Wealth of Nations” touted the economic benefits of “Division of Labor”. In 1790, Eli Whitney invented the concept of “Interchangeable parts”. By the mid 1800’s the old “ Cottage System” changed as the “Factory System”.
  • 4.  The post-civil war period set the stage for the great expansion of the production capacity. The abolition of slave labor, exodus of farm laborers to the cities and the massive influx of the immigrants during 1865-1900 ease the work of production. The “ Joint Stock Company” prevails- the capitalist got seperated from employer.
  • 5.  The need to develop the great production machine to satisfy the massive market of that day gave birth a new philosophy called “Scientific Management”. Frederick Winslow Taylor, known as the “Father of Scientific Management” invented new scientific procedure to improve the production efficiency.
  • 6.  Later he invented the “ Shop System”. The implementation of this system increased the efficiency of the workers. Henry Ford(1863- 1947) popularized the concept of “Assembly Lines” by implementing it in his own company. He published the book “ Today and Tomorrow” in 1926.
  • 7.  Frank B. Gilbreth(1868-1934) contrebuted Motion Study, Construction contracting, consulting. Lilian M. Gilbreth(1878-1973) contrebuted Fatigue study, Human factor at work. Henry L. Gantt(1861-1919) contributed Gantt charts, Incentive pay system. Carl G. Barth(1860-1939) contributed Mathematical analysis, Slide rule.
  • 8.  Harrington Emerson(1885-1931) contributed Principals of efficiency , Methods of control. Morris L. Cooke(1872-1960) contributed scientific management application to education and government.
  • 9.  During 1800 and 1900’s the legacy of rigid control prevailed over the company. Between World War-1 and World War-2 , a philosophy emerged in United States that the workers also needs to be treated with dignity. The “Human Relation Movement” began by Elton Mayo, F. J. Roethlisberger, T. N. Whitehead at Hawthorne, Illinois.
  • 10.  The “Hawthorne Studies” show that psychologiacal and sociological factors affected not only human motivation and attitude but production as well. The work of the behaviouralists A. Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor, Peter Druckker forced the employers of the companies to think about the human relations in company.
  • 11.  European campaign at the time of world war- 2 used enormous quantities of manpower. Because of the chaos situation the companies experienced more complexed situation than the previous times . As a result of the need for the proper operational strategy the concept of “Operatio Research” arrive.
  • 12.  The mushroomed growth of the services in the U.S. economy made the service revolution. Different offices mushroomed in U.S.A. More than two third of the U.S. workforce is employed in services. More than two third of the GDP is produced by services.
  • 13.  The computer revolution helps in the Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP). Softwares like SAP, Peoplesoft, Oracle helps the managers to get real time news about the different section of the company. The improvement in the communication system- e-mail, internet technology also influenced the operations management.
  • 14.  (1776-1900) - Division of labor,I.R. (1900-1920) - S.Mgmt. ,Time&Motion S. (1920-1940) - Hawthorn study, S.P.C. (1940-1960) - Operations research (1960-1980) - M.R.P. , Just-in-Time (1980-2000) - Total Quality Management
  • 15. THANK YOU

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