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Urbanization & Municipal Development in Mozambique: Urban Land Management and Low Income Housing Study 31/07/2008
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Urbanization & Municipal Development in Mozambique: Urban Land Management and Low Income Housing Study 31/07/2008

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Mozambique began a process of decentralization in 1998. Thirty-three Municipalities were created in 23 cities (cidades) and 10 towns (vilas). Most responsibility for urban planning now lies with these …

Mozambique began a process of decentralization in 1998. Thirty-three Municipalities were created in 23 cities (cidades) and 10 towns (vilas). Most responsibility for urban planning now lies with these new Municipalities. The objective of this paper is to examine how the Municipalities have dealt with urban land management and low-income housing questions in the first 10 years of their existence. The paper is the product of a short consultancy which carried out a rapid review of the growing literature about urban planning questions in Mozambique, interviews with key informants during a two week mission to Mozambique in January 2008 and a field visit to Dondo and Beira Municipalities in Sofala Province. By Development Workshop & Forjaz Associate Architects.


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  • 1. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique Urban Land Management and Low Income Housing Study for World Bank & Development Planning Unit by Development Workshop & Forjaz Associate Architects Maputo – January – February 2008 Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 2. Objectives of Study Overall Programme Objectives     to document and analyze the situation in Municipalities in Mozambique, draw lessons from past and present interventions, identify the challenges and strategic options for policy-making, identify specific support for municipal authorities to improve institutional development, municipal finance and service delivery. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 3. Urban Land and Housing Component Specific Study Objective          focus on urban land, housing and building, within the above framework. diagnosis of the current conditions and the experiences to date of urban land, housing and building issues how do the urban poor access land for housing and economic activities Identify bottlenecks in access to land policies and implementation of policies linked to these issues identify examples of good projects and services models of improved land management, and support to low-income housing how have responsibilities been transferred to Municipalities in this area how capacity has been built for these responsibilities. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 4. Report Framework 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Introduction and objectives - rapid growth of Mozambique’s urban population - two different contexts: urban and peri-urban - ten years of Municipalities - why this study Study methods - outline of literature available - interviews - field visit How urban poor access land and housing - results of studies on access mechanisms - legal framework - land markets - building How 10 years of Municipalities have impacted on access to land and housing by urban poor - responsibilities of Municipalities for land and housing - what Municipalities inherited - changes instituted by Municipalities Innovations and pilot projects - cadastre systems - land access - urban physical planning - housing Scaling-up and sustainability of innovations and pilot projects - barriers to scaling-up and sustainability - incorporating good practice into legal and institutional framework - spreading good practice in Municipalities - capacity building Conclusions and recommendations Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 5. Findings  Urban Challenges     40% of the population of Mozambique lives in urban areas (7.6 million people) With an urban growth rate is 3.5% to 4.0% it will be 50% in 10 years. will majority of this population lives in informal, peri-urban areas of the cities. 33 Municipalities are a third of the population of the country but they get only 0.8% of state budget (ie half as much per head as rural Districts) Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 6. Findings  Urban development policy not explicit      In the two PRSPs there was very little about urban issues. There isn’t a vision of how urban and peri-urban areas and issues affect poverty, how tackling these issues can be linked to poverty reduction. There is confusion between de-centralisation and de-concentration policies causing friction in some cases between Municipalities and Districts There are tensions between elected and appointed authorities. The two systems can be made compatible though this would require a concerted effort Cities Without Slums (UN-Habitat) produced a strategy document that if approved by Council of Ministers may provide policy framework for periurban development. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 7. Findings  Insufficient Coordination         Despite decentralisation, decision making is centralised through lines of dependency various different Ministries & programmes. There are now 4 programmes in 4 ministries. MAE: the Direction on Municipalities is weak, few resources and further weakened by creating a Ministério de Função Pública. Two Directorates in MAE which touch on decentralisation (Municipalities) and de-concentration (Districts) Districts now look more towards the MPD (Ministry of Planning and Development). The 128 Districts are under the PPFD: this programme involves UNDP (in the north), the World Bank (in the centre) and others. The European donors tend to support programmes in the 33 elected Municipalities. Weak coordination by GoM results in donors often taking the lead on coordination. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 8. Municipal Intervention Matrix Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 9. Findings  Participation and Development Partnerships       There was genuine enthusiasm for the decentralisation process in the mid1990s, and there was central government commitment. The first World Bank programme appears to have successfully developed models and legislation. Informants suggest the momentum has reduced and programmes have become less effective. The independent civil-society groupings of members in Assemblies in Municipalities seem to have lost their early momentum. Low participation in municipal elections (15% in first, 28% in second) Party-list voting system in Municipal elections (rather than constituency basis) means that residents of slums do not have representatives with voices in the assemblies and have little leverage or influence on decision making. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 10. Findings  Land    The formal process of obtaining land accounts for only a small proportion of land plots occupied. Formal titling is highly complex, time consuming and expensive. Land in urban areas is accessed by:         customary mechanisms, spontaneous occupation and by a growing market in land (the law does not recognise the land market) The 1997 Land Law was followed quite quickly by a Regulation for land in rural areas. 10 years past before a Regulation for Urban Areas was published. Urban Land Regulation said to be developed with less consultation Urban Land Regulation weakens informal occupants tenure rights. Only recognises areas with an urban plan. Informal areas are thus likely to be unrecognised. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 11. Findings  Land Cadastre     Cadastres are out of date and the system for registering land is cumbersome. In most Municipalities there is no clear visual record of what land has been allocated. When they exist, cadastres are almost never made public and promote nontransparent practice and lead to corruption. There are vested interests in maintaining opaque, complicated cadastres and land allocation systems. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 12. Findings  Physical Planning       The question of urban planning spans the areas of competence of various Ministries (MEA, Ministry of Agriculture, MICOA, MOPH). There is no real champion for slum upgrading. Urban planning is needed when there are environmental constraints (flooding, erosion) and pressures from new economic development (tourism in several coastal municipalities). Expensive structure plans have been produced using outside consultants yet the results have not been implemented in some municipalities (Nampula) The capacity rarely exists in Municipalities to do planning systematically. When plans have been produced, decisions are often taken that contradict structure plans. There is a lack of capacity, or willingness, to enforce what is on structure plans, to create a “spatial discipline”. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 13. Findings  Housing – the growth of slums  Three-quarters of urban habitation is inadequate.     Inadequate access to basic services Sites on marginal land susceptible to environmental problems (flooding, erosion) Almost all housing in these areas has been built by the people living in it. Formally-built housing is a very small proportion of housing stock Formal land acquisition processes are being ignored leading to largescale informal settlements. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 14. Findings  Housing Costs   State supported housing through the Housing Credit Fund FFH is very few and is likely to benefit middleincome families or state functionaries. Building construction costs are higher as traditional caniço is becoming inaccessible (in the south) and the demand for bricks and cement is increasing. Wood & Zinc Cement & Brick Adobe Caniço Stick and Render Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 15. Recommendations  Identify Good Practices     Since the early years of Independence there have been some good examples of pilot projects of urban upgrading that can provide models for improved urban planning. (Maxequenne upgrading in Maputo 1979 and Nacala throughout the 1980s and 1990s). The last 10 years of Municipalization has produced to a number of successful pilot projects. Good practices need to be recorded and publicised. Lessons need to be synthesised and transformed into training and didactic manuals and guidelines. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 16. Recommendations  Low-Cost Mapping and Cadastre Building   There have been attempts at improving and simplifying cadastre systems (Beirra, Dondo) recent technology improvements make low-cost “good enough” mapping possible using satellite imagery. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 17. Recommendations  Improve tenure security through land delineation and titling  A cadastre can improve tenure security and eventually provide a basis for municipal financial sustainability through building a taxbase. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 18. Recommendations  Scaling-up and Replication    While innovative pilot and demonstration projects should continue and expand it is time to move beyond pilots and scale-up and replicate good-practices. Slum “requalificação” and “reordenamento” of informal settlements and participatory planning have become part of a planners’ tools and need to be recognized as normal planning practice. Legislation, should incorporate these practices into urban regulations and municipal bye-laws (posturas). Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 19. Recommendations  Institutional Mainstreaming    While there is no central government institution focused solely on these decentralisation a sector-wide strategy needs to be promoted. Adequate budget support needs to be mobilised in cooperation between donors and Government. Key actors and decision makers including Mayors and elected municipal assembly members and their staffs need information and training through:      exchange visit experiences short courses developing training material Understanding applicable legislation and its implementation Dispute resolution and mitigation Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique
  • 20. Recomendations  Professional Expertise Pools    Technical support structure for physical planning, mapping and legal issues should be developed on a regional basis. Professional roster or pool of qualified national professionals should be established in each region of the country. Intermediate level planning technicians should be trained to serve in each of the municipal administrations to manage local cadastres and implement municipal structure plans. Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cabo Delgado Gaza Inhambane Manica Maputo City Maputo Nampula Niassa Sofala Tete Zambezia
  • 21. Obrigado Urbanization and municipal development in Mozambique