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2013 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty: Participatory Inclusive Land Readjustment in Huambo, Angola
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2013 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty: Participatory Inclusive Land Readjustment in Huambo, Angola

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This powerpoint, authored by Allan Cain, Beat Weber and Moises Festo, was presented by Development Workshop's director Allan Cain at the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty which took …

This powerpoint, authored by Allan Cain, Beat Weber and Moises Festo, was presented by Development Workshop's director Allan Cain at the Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty which took place from April 8 to 11, 2013 in Washington DC.

Despite a rather challenging environment, land readjustment in Angola has the potential to become an important tool for urban planning. The presentation shows that, while there is still no legal framework for land readjustment and a very limited culture of participation in urban planning processes, growing land markets and strong private sector partners can make land readjustment a viable option for local governments.


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  • 1. SISTEMA NACIONAL DEINFORMAÇÃO TERRITORIALPresented byAllan CainDevelopment Workshop AngolaTo theWorld BankLand and Poverty ConferenceWashington, D.C. 8th to 11th April 2013Participatory & InclusiveLand Readjustmentthe case of Huambo, Angola
  • 2. Post Conflict Urban Challenges• Forced migration duringthe war, provoked theurbanisation of Angola.• Massive destruction ofsocial and physicalinfrastructure.• Rapid urban growth,largely due to the warcontinues even afterconflict ended.• 60% are under 18.• More than 80% ofthe population live in areaswithout legal land tenurenor access to basicservices.
  • 3. Urban Poverty• Over 75% of urbanpopulations live in slums“musseques” (Kimbunduword for sandy soil) Thepoor survive by trading inthe informal marketsector.• Difficult to secureeconomic livelihoods• High unemployment &underemployment• Almost 50% of familiesdepend on the informalsector for employmentSelf Employment(informal)43%Unpaid Family (informal)16%Public Administration10%State Company5%Private Sector19%Other1%Business (informal)6%
  • 4. Challenges• A major constraint to the implementation of urbanplans remains the poor management of land by thegovernment and consequently the poor security oftenure of the urban population• Despite the affirmation of the government to the controlof land, a vibrant real estate market exists for theland occupied both formally and informally• A better understanding of the dynamics and formal andinformal regulations that govern the urban land marketsare key factors in the process of urbanization
  • 5. Legal Environment• Angola has inherited their legal framework from thePortuguese Civil Code which did not easily accommodateitself to African land tenure practice.• Large areas of land were appropriated for Portuguesesettlement and incorporated into the colonial cadastre.• The post independence constitution affirmed the State to bethe owner and manager of land.• Land Laws of 1991 and 2004 affirmed that colonial cadastreas the basis of land titling therefore weakening traditionalland claims.• The concept of Customary tenure was incorporated into the2004 Law but this has not yet been regulated.
  • 6. Legal Environment• The 2004 Law removed all protection that the Civil Codehad provided for ‘occupation in good-faith’ or user rights.• Thanks to Civil Society advocacy, a window was given forinformal occupants of land to regularise their land claimsand apply for legal titles.• Provincial and municipal administrations had little capacityto administer and approve land claims.• Full titles for urban land are only issued in fully urbanisedplanned areas.• The 2007 Decentralisation Law made domestic scale landmanagement (up to 1000 m2) a municipal responsibility.• By-Laws for the regularisation of peri-urban land have stillnot been published.
  • 7. Current Oportunities• In 2008 the Angolan Government has adopted an ambitiouspolicy that promotes the construction of one million housesin four years.• Through this programme the Government aimsto eliminate most slum settlements known as Musseques.• In this process the Government intends to facilitate self-helpconstruction of 685,000 homes• The Land Law of 2004 reaffirms the authority of the stateas the primary manager and owner of all land resources• DW responded to a request for help from the HuamboProvincial Government who was under pressure strugglingto respond to the high number of requests for housing sites.
  • 8. Huambo - Piloting Land Readjustment (Pooling)Land Readjustment provides a market mechanism toregularize peri-urban settlements, providing sustainableinfrastructure and access to services while at the same timestrengthening the rights of tenure and protection of assets ofthe poor. It also provides local government an opportunity tocapture some of the added land value as cities grow.
  • 9. Two case studies• two pilot land readjustment projects were implemented inthe Province of Huambo.• the projects were implemented in 2006 – 2008 during thedecade after the end of the civil war• at a time when important decentralisation reforms wereunderway through the creation of municipaladministrations that were assigned new powers formanaging land.• the first case study was completed before the reforms,when provincial urban planning officers still had authority• the second was implemented after the publication of the“decentralisation reform law”. Municipal administratorshad been given the responsibility of managing land
  • 10. • The site for the first project “Bairro Fátima” was selected ina peripheral area of one of Huambo’s informal settlements.• The project concept and proposal was jointly prepared byDW staff and local government participants• field visits were conducted and a basic topographic surveyprepared.• DW was chosen as the leading technical agent, coordinatingthe implementation of the project.• a team of DW staff participated in an intensive training onplanning and land readjustment at CEHS in UK in October2005Land Readjustment Strategy
  • 11. Huambo LandReadjustmentSites 1 & 212
  • 12. Land readjustment Metodology – Case 11. Creation of multi-stakeholder managementgroup with Provincial Govt, traditional leaders,local administration & NGO2. Mobilizing community support explaining theobjectives of the project first to the local leadersand then to the population in general.Overcoming resistance by land owners warningthat people risked losing their land withoutcompensation if consensus was not found.3. Base line study to create a household census& community diagnostic. Revealed localtraditional governance structures and existinginfrastructure. Participatory methods deepenedcommunity mobilization process and provided abasis for the future (readjustment) plan.
  • 13. Use of Geographic Information SystemsParticipativeMappingRemotesensing:Applied thetools of GIS tourbaninformationgathering usingaerialphotographsand satelliteimages.
  • 14. 4. Registry of existing land owners and boundariesmapped using a hand held GPS and GIS software.Meeting with all land owners on a bairro by bairro basiswith adjacent neighbors present. Very few cases ofoverlapping or conflicting claims were found.5. Development of a physical readjustment plan by DWarchitect/planners, the management group & localadministrator presented to a group of local residents.30% of the land reserved for infrastructure & roads35% for redistribution to local land owners35% for public plot sale with income to cover basicinfra-structure costs6. Definition of rights was granted by ProvincialGovernment. New and old land owners received‘occupation licenses’ & entered land registry/cadastrebeing developed by the Huambo administrationLand readjustment Metodology
  • 15. Land readjustment Metodology7. Implementation of layout marking the new propertyboundaries with wooden pegs using only opticalinstruments & measuring tape. Plots numbered.8. Redistribution of parcels with titles in proportion toprevious size of land ownership and sale ofremaining 152 parcels. Half of all land ownersreceived only one parcel. The remainder receivedbetween two and six. A total of 225 plots werereleased onto the market.9. Implementation of basic infra-structure.With thefunds acquired by the sale of the public land parcels,boreholes and water-points were installed and theroad and service lines were cleared.10. Advocacy - results of the readjustment project havebeen presented in workshops, seminars and trainingevents across Angola.
  • 16. Impact on the Local Land Market• The plot price for land distributed by the publicadministration was USD 500. This allowed access to 152families on the public waiting list, mainly young people ofthe lower middle class .• Informal market land prices in Huambo´s peri-urban areasrange from USD 700 to USD 7000, depending on plotlocation. The previous occupiers who became new privateland owners benefited by these raising land prices.• The project changed the land market dynamics in theneighbourhoods close to the project sites.• By giving secure land tenure, much more value was givento land in these previously neglected bairros.
  • 17. Case Study 2• New legislation on decentralization in 2007 took local land managementauthority out of the hands of Provincial Governments and transferred itto the Municipal Administration.• The Municipal Administrations were comparatively weak andinexperienced in managing their new responsibilities.• Municipal authorities had no incentive to create surpluses becauseincome from local sources reverted to the State Central Budget.• The management committee, now lacking the authority of the ProvincialGovernment, could no longer control the sale of the parcels,• The Municipal Administration distributed the parcels for free toindividuals who were on the Administrations long waiting list for land forhousing.• Without cost-recovery there were no funds to invest in basicinfrastructure.• The management committee in the absence of funds tried to pay forservices in-kind (the bull dozer owner was compensated with 2 parcelsof land)• No other infrastructure has been implemented in the area to date.
  • 18. Findings• The first case study demonstrated how the landreadjustment model could reduce land-conflicts and byregularising tenure status. It showed how marketmechanisms created land value that benefited formeroccupants, new owner-builders, financial intermediariesand the State. It also demonstrated the crucial role ofsocial mobilisation (by the NGO) and the need forGovernment buy-in to secure the success of the project.• The second case study demonstrated that by losing theessential ingredient of the financial control and theopportunity to use the land market to “create value” theproject did not generate sufficient resources to sustainitself.
  • 19. Conclusions• While the authors are strong proponents of Angola’sadministrative decentralisation programme, they conclude:• that a major effort must be invested in building thecapacities of municipalities in managing land and otherresponsibilities that they must now assume such as thesupply of basic services like water & sanitation.• Municipalities must be given the possibility to generate theirown financial resources through transaction fees and taxes.• Income from the regularisation of land tenure may be one ofthe ways that municipalities can sustain themselves in thefuture.
  • 20. Potential for Replication in Angola• Despite a rather challenging environment, landreadjustment in Angola has the potential to develop intoan important tool for urban planning.• Angola inherited a limited culture of participation in urbanplanning practice and weak local governance• However, growing land markets and strong private sectorinterest can make land readjustment a viable option forunder-resourced local governments.• Need to develop a legal framework for land readjustmentand the promotion of land markets that benefit the poorincorporating local lessons and international good practice.
  • 21. DW was commissioned bythe Ministry of Urbanism toprepare a Draft Decree forthe legalization of tenure inperi-urban areas that waspresented to the Council ofMinisters for approval.The aim is to bring Angolan landlegislation into closer alignmentwith international good practiceand to improve the land tenurerights of citizens living in peri-urban districts who risk losing theirassets under the existing law.Outcomes on Influencing Legislation
  • 22. KixiCasaMicro-Credit is be offered to clients for landpurchase and building incremental phased up-gradable houses over several loan cycles.
  • 23. SISTEMA NACIONAL DEINFORMAÇÃO TERRITORIALObrigado