Open ReSource Development Solutions: Agriculture Framework

317 views

Published on

As part of an Open ReSource initiative to make available tools and frameworks necessary for development practitioners, the following document contains strategic framework of agriculture sector.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
317
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Open ReSource Development Solutions: Agriculture Framework

  1. 1. AGRICULTURE<br />Open ReSource Development Solutions<br />ORDS.PBWORKS.COM<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />
  3. 3. SYSTEM VIEW<br />
  4. 4. Food Security Framework<br />The following framework is useful for a comprehensive assessment or understanding of food security issues and determinants in a region:<br />
  5. 5. Soil and Land Resources<br />Soil Assessment Framework<br />
  6. 6. Soil and Land Resources<br />Low Soil Fertility Cause Identification<br /><ul><li>Low Cation Exchange Capacity
  7. 7. Low Organic Matter
  8. 8. Low Water Holding Capacity
  9. 9. Unfavorable pH
  10. 10. Nutrient Toxicities
  11. 11. Leaching
  12. 12. Nutrients Mining
  13. 13. Nutrients Fixation</li></ul>LOW INHERENT FERTILITY<br />NUTRIENT DEPLETION<br />Low Soil Fertility<br /><ul><li>Traditional Strategies
  14. 14. Increased Pressure on Land
  15. 15. Lack of Labor
  16. 16. Inadequate Finances
  17. 17. Low Prices
  18. 18. Poor Infrastructures
  19. 19. Lack of Information
  20. 20. Weak Market
  21. 21. Unfavorable Policy Environment</li></ul>WEAKENED ABILITY TO MAINTAIN FERTILITY<br />LOW RETURNS ON INVESTMENT<br />Adapted from Murwira, 2003<br />
  22. 22. Soil and Land Resources<br />Soil and Land Management Options<br />
  23. 23. Water Resources<br />Agricultural Water Management<br />Irrigated<br />Rainfed<br />Ground Water Irrigation<br />Field Conservation Practices<br />Supplemental Irrigation<br /><ul><li>Conservation agricultural (reduced tillage)
  24. 24. Better adapted crop varieties (drought resistant)
  25. 25. Strategic fertilizer application
  26. 26. Treadle pump use</li></ul>Water Harvesting<br />Surface Water Irrigation<br /><ul><li>Land management :
  27. 27. Reduced Tillage
  28. 28. Improved Leveling
  29. 29. Drip irrigation
  30. 30. Better adapted crop varieties
  31. 31. Canals and irrigation channels
  32. 32. Scheduled Irrigation
  33. 33. Rainwater Harvesting
  34. 34. On-farm water storage</li></ul>Drainage<br />
  35. 35. Genetic Resources<br />Genetic Strategies<br />Increase in harvest index (% biomass in the grain)<br /><ul><li>Short stiff straw
  36. 36. Responsive to fertilizer
  37. 37. Earlier maturity to allow multiple cropping
  38. 38. Yield Stability
  39. 39. Resistance to pests and Diseases
  40. 40. Tolerance to abiotic stresses
  41. 41. Better eating quality</li></ul>Plant Breeding<br />Bio-fortification (% increase in nutrients availability)<br /><ul><li>Direct addition: The HarvestPlus Strategyenriches stable crops in Fe, Zn and Beta-carotene density
  42. 42. Indirect promotion: An alternative strategy is to breed for plant-synthesized substances that promote absorption and decrease inhibitors of absorption of Fe, Zn and beta-carotene. Some promoters include Vitamin A & C, sulfur amino acids, insulin, resistant starch. Some inhibitors include tannins and polyphenols</li></li></ul><li>RICE FARMING<br />RICE VALUE CHAIN<br />Managing Water<br />Managing Soil Fertility<br />Preparing the Land<br />Planting the Seed<br /><ul><li>Transplanting
  43. 43. Direct Seeding
  44. 44. Plowing
  45. 45. Tillage
  46. 46. Flooding
  47. 47. Fertilizers
  48. 48. Integrated Nutrient Management
  49. 49. Determining N needs by assessing leaf color</li></ul>Controlling weeds<br />Threshing and Winnowing<br />Controlling pests/diseases<br />Harvesting<br /><ul><li>Integrated Pest Management (IPM)</li></ul>Marketing<br />Storing<br />Milling<br />Consuming<br />Determinants of Rice Farming Systems<br /><ul><li>Soil
  50. 50. Landscape
  51. 51. Water
  52. 52. Varieties
  53. 53. Temperature
  54. 54. Culture
  55. 55. Labor
  56. 56. Technology
  57. 57. Market
  58. 58. Government Policy</li></li></ul><li>NUTRITION INSECURITY<br />The Main Drivers of Nutrition Insecurity<br />INTERVENTIONS<br /><ul><li>Iron and Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women
  59. 59. Universal salt iodization
  60. 60. Vitamin A supplementation and fortification for children
  61. 61. Zinc supplementation in the treatment of diarrhea
  62. 62. Micronutrient powders
  63. 63. Exclusive breastfeeding < 6mnths
  64. 64. Improved complement food 6 – 24 months
  65. 65. Treatment of acute malnutrition
  66. 66. Hand washing and hygiene
  67. 67. Deworming
  68. 68. Iron fortified staple foods</li></li></ul><li>NUTRITION INSECURITY<br />Food & Nutrition Systems<br />Resources<br />Intervention Options<br />Health care<br /><ul><li>Soil and land resources
  69. 69. Water resources
  70. 70. Genetic resources
  71. 71. Livestock resources
  72. 72. Human resources
  73. 73. Knowledge and skills
  74. 74. Science and Technology
  75. 75. Culture and Practices
  76. 76. Environment
  77. 77. Crop mix
  78. 78. Home gardens
  79. 79. Animal rearing
  80. 80. Aquaculture
  81. 81. Bio-fortified crops
  82. 82. Fortification
  83. 83. Mobile technology use
  84. 84. Fuel efficient cook-stoves
  85. 85. Pest and disease management
  86. 86. Post harvest storage
  87. 87. Financial services access
  88. 88. Education and Awareness
  89. 89. Direct and indirect support services</li></ul>Nutritional Outcomes<br />Markets and Business Enterprises<br />Education and Information Flow<br />Sanitation and Hygiene<br />Cultural Beliefs and Practices<br />
  90. 90. Climate Change & Agric.<br />Climate Risk Management Approach<br /><ul><li>Index-based insurance
  91. 91. Credit
  92. 92. Early Warning Systems (EWS)
  93. 93. Water holding capacity
  94. 94. Diversification
  95. 95. Drought resistance</li></ul>Adapted from International Research Institute for Climate and Society “Four Pillars of CRM Approach”<br />

×