New Directions in Social Policy:

Alternatives from and for the South
Sarah Cook
ACFID Conference ‘Development Futures’
Sy...
Key messages
• Poverty reduction does not generally occur through
policies targeted at the poor
• Social policies are esse...
UNRISD report 2010
•

What accounts for the persistence of
poverty when concern for its reduction
has been high on the pol...
Social policy in development context
Functions of ‘transformative’ social policy:






Protection: protection from in...
Principles of transformative social policy
1. Social policy based on universalism  societal
transformation
2. Expenditure...
Principles of transformative social policy
4. Universal social programmes involve both universal
entitlements and but also...
A ‘quiet revolution’
New / expanding programmes
• Cash transfers - various types:
– CCTs, social pensions, child benefits …
• Employment relate...
Social contracts and compromises
• State – society on social security
• Capital – labour on macro-economic stability
• Man...
‘New’ risks and challenges







Globalisation
Financialisation
Changing nature of work / employment
Demographic tr...
• Reconfiguration of institutions designed to
address social and economic problems
• Institutions including:
(1) Social co...
Elements of new social policies
• Address problems beyond traditional domain of social
policy (eg financialisation)
• Proa...
‘Success stories’: The role of social policy







The most significant reductions in poverty have occurred in
countr...
New research
• How well do they meet ‘needs’?
• How well do they serve development?
• How do they respond to / address new...
Follow UNRISD work on
www.unrisd.org
Sarah Cook - Rethinking social development for the 21st century
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Sarah Cook - Rethinking social development for the 21st century

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  • Note:
    Transformative social policy is the term used in the report for social policy that empowers people, enhances social cohesion, contributes to economic growth and improves the quality of institutions.
  • Ethiopia: Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP). In 2008, it covered 8.2 million people (Ellis et al. 2009)
    Ghana: Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP). It now reaches 35,000 households (Nino-Zarazua et al., 2012).
    Malawi: Mchinji Social Transfer Scheme. Started in 2006, it covered 18,180 households and over 70,000 individuals by December 2009 (Huijbregts, 2009).
    Kenya: Orphans and Vulnerable Children Program (CT-OVC).
    Zambia: five pilot social transfer schemes were introduced starting with the Kalomo District Social Cash Transfer Scheme in 2004.
    Argentina universal children allowance and pension - benefits about 2.5 million people, mostly women (ILO 2011).
    Brazil’s Bolsa Família currently covers about 13 million families. From 2011, Brasil Sem Miséria (Brazil without poverty) to reach 16 million people living on less than US$45 a month and eradicate extreme poverty by 2014.
    Cape Verde’s social pension covers more than 90% of the target population.
    South Africa’s Child Support Grant covers 7.5 million children. The Old Persons Grant covers almost 2.6 million people (ILO, 2011).
    China’s rural cooperative medical program covers 800 million people. In 2009, it launched a pilot rural pension scheme that aims to cover 700 million rural people by 2020.
    India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme reaches 52.5 million households. Recently launched social insurance scheme Rastriya Swasthya Bima Yojana provided more than 24 million smart cards by 2011.
  • Brazil spends 3.8% GDP on civil servants pensions vs. 0,5% on social pensions
    Costa Rica /
    5.6% gdp 2006 on social assistance / financed through progressive payroll taxes
    Difficult to cover groups: coverage rates:
    24% self-employed, 39% of domestic workers, 44% of peasants covered with pension insurance, 50% of poorest quintile contributed to pensoin scheme (in rest of LA between 1-25%)
  • Sarah Cook - Rethinking social development for the 21st century

    1. 1. New Directions in Social Policy: Alternatives from and for the South Sarah Cook ACFID Conference ‘Development Futures’ Sydney, 21-22 November 2013
    2. 2. Key messages • Poverty reduction does not generally occur through policies targeted at the poor • Social policies are essential components of policies for equitable development and poverty reduction • Currently (re)emerging economies are pursuing new social development policies that may provide alternative pathways to address 21st century risks and challenges
    3. 3. UNRISD report 2010 • What accounts for the persistence of poverty when concern for its reduction has been high on the policy agenda? • Why have some countries been more successful than others in reducing poverty and inequality? • How do current approaches to poverty reduction compare & contrast with the lessons of the past? • Cases: Nordic countries, East Asia, Costa Rica, Mauritius, Kerala, Botswana, Brazil • www.unrisd.orgpoverty
    4. 4. Social policy in development context Functions of ‘transformative’ social policy:     Protection: protection from income loss, costs associated with contingencies: unemployment, sickness, old age… Production / accumulation: enhance productive capacities of individuals, groups and communities; Distribution: create conditions for more equitable economic growth and redistribution Social reproduction: reduce the burden on hhs / women of social reproduction including care-related work
    5. 5. Principles of transformative social policy 1. Social policy based on universalism  societal transformation 2. Expenditures on basic social security and social services considered the costs of social progress  solidarity through burden sharing 3. Those who benefit most from the progress should pay for the costs of social welfare  redistribution
    6. 6. Principles of transformative social policy 4. Universal social programmes involve both universal entitlements and but also everybody with adequate income should pay (tax policy, formal labour markets)  Inclusive growth 5. The benefit level should be socially acceptable vs the minimum only acceptable to the poor  Politics of needs recognition Achieved through political processes
    7. 7. A ‘quiet revolution’
    8. 8. New / expanding programmes • Cash transfers - various types: – CCTs, social pensions, child benefits … • Employment related, public works • Social investment • Social insurance • Universal health care • Global social policies / social protection floor
    9. 9. Social contracts and compromises • State – society on social security • Capital – labour on macro-economic stability • Management – labour on employment security Other: inter-generational; gender; NorthSouth;
    10. 10. ‘New’ risks and challenges       Globalisation Financialisation Changing nature of work / employment Demographic trends, ageing Multi-polarity, regionalism, nationalism Climate / environmental change  Social and political consequences  Inequalities – national / transnational  Political mobilisation
    11. 11. • Reconfiguration of institutions designed to address social and economic problems • Institutions including: (1) Social contracts – explicit / implicit (2) Institutions for production / distribution (3) Institutions for welfare and redistribution
    12. 12. Elements of new social policies • Address problems beyond traditional domain of social policy (eg financialisation) • Proactive adaptation to new risks (climate) • National modes of addressing a changing global context will vary – institutions matter • Social reproduction - ageing • Complementarities and trade-offs – (eg energy, poverty, climate links) • New social contracts? Basis for universalism, solidarity, security, coverage / protection against risks
    13. 13. ‘Success stories’: The role of social policy     The most significant reductions in poverty have occurred in countries with comprehensive social policies that lean towards universal coverage. Social policies may be ‘implicit’ – functional equivalents Where poverty is widespread, targeting is unlikely to make significant and sustained inroads into poverty; it may fail to include middle income groups that are needed for funding and providing good quality services, may undermine forms of solidarity, and may condemn the poor to poor services. Social policy investments are a policy choice: Mexico vs Brazil; Costa Rica
    14. 14. New research • How well do they meet ‘needs’? • How well do they serve development? • How do they respond to / address new risks and challenges? • What new configuration of policies and institutions is effective? • What normative / ethical underpinnings? • Are new ‘social pacts’ emerging?
    15. 15. Follow UNRISD work on www.unrisd.org

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