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William Hudson - Agile User Experience and UCD (workshop)
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William Hudson - Agile User Experience and UCD (workshop)

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Contribution & Benefit: This half-day course shows how to integrate User-Centered Design with Agile methods to create great user experiences. It takes an 'emotionally intelligent' approach to engaging ...

Contribution & Benefit: This half-day course shows how to integrate User-Centered Design with Agile methods to create great user experiences. It takes an 'emotionally intelligent' approach to engaging all team members in UCD.

Description: This half-day course shows how to integrate User-Centered Design with Agile methods to create great user experiences. It also addresses the new topic of Persona Stories, introduced in an Interactions article by the author in the Nov-Dec 2013 issue (available at www.personastories.com).
The course is a balanced combination of tutorials, group exercises and discussions, ensuring that participants can gain a rich understanding of the problems presented by Agile and how they can be addressed.

Origins: This is an updated half-day version of a popular one-day course that has been well-received within a major UK telecoms operator and at a number of public presentations in London, Brussels and Hamburg in 2010 and 2011. It has been part of the CHI course offerings annually since 2011. It was well-attended at CHI 2013, with 50 places booked and a waiting list.

Features:
Up-front versus Agile UCD
Empathy gap, balanced teams and embedded user experience roles
Design decision styles and minimum viable products (MVPs)
Personas and the persona myths
User Stories versus Persona Stories
Agile usability testing
Design maps

Audience: Usability, UX and UCD practitioners trying to integrate UCD activities within Agile teams. (Some familiarity with UCD techniques is required.)
Presentation: The course is approximately 60% tutorials and 40% activities or group discussions.

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    William Hudson - Agile User Experience and UCD (workshop) William Hudson - Agile User Experience and UCD (workshop) Presentation Transcript

    • syntagm Agile User Experience and UCD William Hudson User Experience Strategist william.hudson@syntagm.co.uk
    • syntagmsyntagm Guerrilla UCD – The Series • Getting Started – 0. Free Overview – 1. Guerrilla UCD Boot Camp • Strategy Webinars – 2. Visual Design for Usability – 3. Navigation & Menu Design – 4. Designing for SEO & Accessibility – 5. Human Error, Messages & Feedback – 6. Usability Evaluation • Tactics Webinars – 7. User-Centred IA with Card Sorting – 8. Dynamic Web Pages: Effective Use of Ajax – 9. Writing Effective Web & Intranet Content – 10. Designing for Advanced Users – 11. Persuasion, Trust and Seduction William Hudson 2
    • syntagmsyntagm Guerrilla UCD – The Series • Lean & Agile Webinars – 12. Making the Case for UCD in Agile – 13. Integrating UCD & Agile – 14. Agile UX: Users, Personas & Design Maps – 15. Agile UX: Use Cases, Stories & Scenarios – 16. Agile UX: Conceptual Models • This course touches on many topics in GUCD sessions 12-16 (each of those is 90 minutes) • See www.guerrillaucd.com for more details William Hudson 3
    • syntagmsyntagm Topics • Basic characteristics of Agile development • Primary differences between waterfall and Agile user experience • Empathy gap, balanced teams and embedded user experience roles • Empathetic design • Design decision styles and minimum viable products (MVPs) • Personas and the persona myths • User and persona stories • Integrating usability evaluation • Persuasive facilitation • Design maps Agile UX & UCD 4
    • syntagm Understanding Agile UCD
    • syntagmAgile UX & UCD 6
    • syntagmsyntagm The Need for User-centred Design • Experience has shown that we cannot establish user requirements just by asking users what they need. Users… – are not designers – may not see the big picture – may not be aware of what it possible – may not be aware of what is changing – are not necessarily familiar with organizational needs • Instead, what is required for interactive systems is a design approach focussed on users 7Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm The Case for User-Centred Design • User-Centred Design aims to research and understand the real needs of users and to produce designs that meet those needs, with the following benefits – Less frustration – Improved user experience – Better data quality – Fewer support calls – Lower development costs – Fewer legal concerns (Disability Discrimination Act) – Bridging the mass-market chasm... 8Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm The Case for User-Centred Design Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards The technology chasm (Adapted from Geoffrey Moore’s Crossing the Chasm and Everett Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation) 9Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm Key Features of User-Centred Design • Direct engagement with users: observation, research and evaluation • Investigation and understanding of contexts of use, for example – Point of sale system for a pub versus a supermarket – Returns system for a dusty, noisy warehouse rather than a clean and comfortable office • Main focus of UCD is suitability of solution for real users Agile UX & UCD 10
    • syntagmsyntagmAgile UX & UCD 11
    • syntagmsyntagm Origins of Agile • Based on the working practices at the Lockheed Skunk Works™ (see bit.ly/agile-skunkworks) • Small teams • Close quarters • Low process overheads • No ‘big design up front’ • Focus on team motivation and working code Agile UX & UCD 12
    • syntagmsyntagmhttp://bit.ly/big-pizza Small Teams?
    • syntagm p communication paths for n nodes: p = n∙(n – 1) / 2 (or p = (n2 – n) / 2) Small Teams Agile UX & UCD 14
    • 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Paths Nodes For a team of 5 there are 10 paths of communication But there are 105 for a team of 15! Agile UX & UCD 15
    • syntagmsyntagm The Agile Manifesto • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools • Working software over comprehensive documentation • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation • Responding to change over following a plan Agile UX & UCD (The manifesto and its related 12 principles can be found at www.agilemanifesto.org) 16
    • syntagmsyntagm The Agile Team Customer / Owner / User Rep Users? Agile UX & UCD 17
    • syntagmsyntagm The Agile-to-User Relationship • eXtreme Programming (XP) was the first new approach to be called Agile • Various suggestions were made about how to address user requirements – ‘Expert’ user on team (this was done in practice for the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System, the first XP project, but one team member wrote of the burnout of this particular user) – In Extreme Programming eXplained a product owner or customer would make all user-related decisions Agile UX & UCD 18
    • syntagmsyntagm Typical Agile Approach (Scrum) Agile UX & UCD (www.mountaingoatsoftware.com) 19
    • (Image from www.buzzle.com/articles/waterfall-model-diagram.html) Software development method proposed by Winston Royce – projects would pass through most phases at least twice The origins of the ‘waterfall model’ Agile UX & UCD 20
    • Software development method as desired by project managers, coined ‘waterfall’ The origins of the ‘waterfall model’ Agile UX & UCD 21
    • Origins of Scrum
    • syntagmsyntagm Origins of Scrum • A 1986 article in the influential Harvard Business Revue talked about product development in terms of Rugby and ‘moving the scrum downfield’ – The New New Product Development Game • Keys to success were seen as – moving from sequential (waterfall) working to overlapping (iterative) approaches – giving interdisciplinary (cross/multi-functional) teams autonomy: this is the scrum Agile UX & UCD 23
    • syntagm The New New Product Development Game Agile UX & UCD 24
    • syntagm Overlapping phases promoted in the New New Product Development G (the authors were Japanese)
    • syntagmsyntagm Overlapping Phases • Overlapping phases can be seen in the iterative software development approach in use since the 1960’s and which was becoming more popular during the 1990’s Agile UX & UCD 26 Iterative development model from the Rational Unified Process, developed in the 1990’s (now owned by IBM)
    • syntagmsyntagm Scrum • Scrum and Scrum-like approaches are now the most popular in Agile working • But the Agile emphasis on ‘no big design up front’ has frustrated UX & UC design since they have traditionally been front-heavy • ‘Up-front UXD’ is a natural, but unfortunate consequence Agile UX & UCD 27
    • Up-front UXD as often implemented Up-front UXD UX Agile Stuff User Testing Agile UX & UCD 28
    • syntagmsyntagm Shortcomings of UF-UXD • Assumption of ‘right-first-time’ – Prototyping, mock-ups and user testing can help to address this, but limited relative to live system • Little or no engagement with Agile team – No learning (in either direction) – No appreciation for UX activities – No involvement of UX during development • The UX step can look like waste from a lean perspective (especially if organization has low UX maturity – customer value needs to be proven) Agile UX & UCD 29
    • syntagmsyntagm Activity 1 • Organize into small groups with someone to take notes • Await further instructions! Agile UX & UCD 30
    • syntagm The Empathy Gap
    • syntagmsyntagm Scrum Roles • Roles in Agile vary according to the approach, but in Scrum there are only three: – Scrum master – Product owner – Team • Scrum master provides project management and oversight • Product owner represents the stakeholders • Team does the work! Agile UX & UCD 32
    • syntagmsyntagm Product Owner Role Product Owner Stakeholders 33Agile UX & UCD Team Scrum Master
    • syntagmsyntagm The Agile-to-User Relationship • Two main problems: 1. No one person in isolation can represent or fully understand the needs of users • Consider this actual user quotation: “What do you want to talk about, what we really do or what we’re supposed to do?” 2. Some team members can find it hard to appreciate – and sometimes to understand – problems that users have (the empathy gap) Agile UX & UCD 34
    • syntagmsyntagm The Empathy Gap: Empathizing/Systemizing Theory • Large-scale study of 450 IT workers (see Hudson, William, 2009, Reduced Empathizing Skills Increase Challenges for User-Centered Design, CHI 2009 Conference, Boston and British HCI Group Conference, Cambridge) Agile UX & UCD 35
    • syntagm Empathizers
    • syntagmsyntagm Systemizers
    • RTFM Agile UX & UCD 38 (A symptom of the empathy gap)
    • syntagmsyntagm Technologists can have strong systemizing but reduced empathizing skills Agile UX & UCD 39
    • syntagmsyntagmAgile UX & UCD (There is a small effect for the few female technologists, but no ‘crossover’) 40
    • syntagmsyntagm Men Women Systemizing Empathizing Empathizing Systemizing
    • syntagmsyntagm Impediments to UX Maturity • Low empathy • Technology focus • Cost concerns • Featuritis • Time scales • Narrow scope Agile UX & UCD “I don’t want it good, I want it Tuesday” - Jack Warner 42
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile UCD Challenges • UCD needs to be adapted to fit into an Agile framework – Fewer ‘up-front’ activities – Short cycles – Reactive (particularly in teams with low UX maturity) • UCD practitioners also need to represent and explain users’ needs effectively – Empathetic design – Persuasive facilitation Agile UX & UCD 43
    • syntagmsyntagm Empathetic Design • Research has found that empathy is related to specific components of the brain called mirror neurons • They are activated when performing a task but also when seeing the same task performed by others • To promote empathy we should rely on the adage ‘seeing is believing’ Agile UX & UCD 44
    • syntagmsyntagm Field Research (Image from Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design)
    • syntagmsyntagm Personas Agile UX & UCD 46
    • syntagmsyntagm Usability Testing Agile UX & UCD Techsmith’s Morae (and similar) allow remote observation of usability tests 47
    • syntagmsyntagm Empathy-Assistive Technology
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation • Beware that empathetic techniques are not always going to be the most persuasive – Quantitative evidence will be more effective in some cases – Persuasive facilitation requires knowing what evidence to present to whom and when (more on this later) Agile UX & UCD 49
    • syntagmsyntagm Activity 2 • Organize into small groups with someone to take notes • Await further instructions! Agile UX & UCD 50
    • syntagm Integrating Agile and UXD 51
    • syntagmsyntagm UCD Versus Agile Methods • There are some fundamental differences in the nature of traditional versus Agile methods • Traditional methods tend to be problem-oriented while Agile methods are solution-oriented – Problem-oriented approaches to design focus on understanding the problem in the abstract – Solution-oriented approaches focus on concrete solutions Agile UX & UCD 52 Problem Solution Solution-oriented approaches Problem-oriented approaches
    • syntagmsyntagm The Problem-Solution Continuum • In traditional Object-Oriented development much effort is devoted to software design and modeling Agile UX & UCD 53 Traditional OO Development Problem Solution Use Case Models Object Models Other UML Models Implementation Functional Testing
    • syntagmsyntagm The Problem-Solution Continuum • In Agile methods, the approach to design can be better described as ‘just in time’ Agile UX & UCD 54 Problem Solution Agile Development User Stories Design, Implementation & Unit Testing Functional Testing This gap can spell trouble for users
    • syntagmsyntagm User Interface Design Issues • Focus is primarily on architectural modeling and/or programming • Very little (if any) conceptual design – how the service or product will be understood by users • No explicit user interface design • No specific user involvement • Evaluation is mostly in terms of functional testing (does the system do what we said is was going to?) • Usability is not a consideration Agile UX & UCD 55
    • syntagmsyntagm Introducing User-Centred Design • The principles of ISO 9241-210 require: – Investigation of the contexts of use – Active involvement of users – Multidisciplinary design – Prototyping – Evaluation of solutions • For good user interface/interaction design we also need: – Early UI design – Focus (what the product or service is and is not) – A clear conceptual model, explained through the UI – Consistency – Empathy (developers → users) Agile UX & UCD 56
    • syntagmsyntagm UCD Techniques vs Deliverables Agile UX & UCD 57 User Research X X X X Personas X X X X Paper Prototyping X X X X Usability Evaluation X X X X Conceptual & UI Design X X X Style Guide X X UCD Technique Deliverables ISO 9241-210 UI Design
    • syntagmsyntagm Development Activities Agile UX & UCD 58 User Stories Design, Implementation & Unit Testing Functional Testing Problem Use Case Models Object Models Other UML Models Programming Functional Testing OO Agile User Research Personas Paper Prototyping Conceptual & UI Design (not to scale) Usability Evaluation Style Guide Goal-oriented User Stories UCD Problem SolutionSolution Traditionally, these activities are performed up front
    • syntagmsyntagm ‘Up Front’ UX Approach User Research Personas User Stories* UX Cycle 1Dev Cycle n... Usability Testing Agile UX & UCD ? ? * Including wireframes and prototypes if used 59
    • syntagmsyntagm ‘Up Front’ UX Approach • The up front approach presents several challenges – Excessive lead time – Big design up front is not Agile – Potentially wasted developer resources – No developer engagement with UX Agile UX & UCD 60
    • syntagmsyntagm Usability Testing Agile UX Approach Agile UX & UCD 61 0 0 1 UX Dev ...Cycle 0 2 1 n2 3 3 1 2 4 UX is always once cycle ahead and one cycle behind development Pre- release ... ... User Research Scenarios, Wireframes & Prototypes Personas & User Stories
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile UX Approach (Close Up) Agile UX & UCD 62 1 2 3 3 1 UX Dev Functionality for usability testing Designs for Implementation Evaluation Design Implementation
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile UX Approach • Cycle 0 much shorter than ‘up front’ UX since some personas and user stories developed later • Developers involved with UX – Observers in user research – Collaborators in personas and user stories • Embedded UX role within development team Agile UX & UCD 63
    • syntagm Balanced Teams
    • syntagm Typical Agile Approach Original diagram from Leffingwell, Dean (2011), Agile Software Requirements, Addison-Wesley UI/UX Agile UX & UCD 65
    • syntagmsyntagm Embedded UX Role • At least one full-time UX role should be included in every team – Adapting/tailoring organizational UI/UX guidelines for project at hand – Part of the inception/elaboration/construction processes – Primary collaborator on user/persona stories – Responsible for usability evaluation (possibly through central or external resource) – Focal point for UX questions/issues/training/events (possibly through central or external resource) Agile UX & UCD 66
    • syntagm Central UX Resource Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Each project has at least one embedded UX resource Agile UX & UCD 67
    • syntagmsyntagm Central UX Resource • Shared by project teams, provides services to embedded UX roles: – User research – User recruitment – Usability evaluation – UX training & events • Also responsible for – Organization style guides and UX standards – UX recruitment Agile UX & UCD 68
    • syntagmsyntagm User Research • In UCD we are primarily interested in what real users do and the contexts in which they do it: – Goals and tasks – Artefacts (things they work with) – Environment (physical and organizational) • Primary means of recording is note-taking, but… – Photocopy or photograph all artefacts – Consider audio or audio/video recording of observation sessions – Get prior permission to take screenshots if necessary (See Beyer and Holtzblatt’s Contextual Design) 69Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm Real Users – Interviews and Focus Groups • We are also interested in what users have to say but beware of potential problems • People… – Describe what they should do rather than what they actually do – Omit important detail, especially where it has become second nature or if they believe it is not relevant – Provide too much detail, obscuring larger issues – Are reluctant to raise unpopular issues – Sometimes want to promote controversy – Over-generalize – Focus too narrowly on the specific issues being raised by the interviewer’s questions • In focus groups, group dynamics also play a factor Agile UX & UCD 70
    • syntagmsyntagm Users in Design • We need to identify who we are designing for (and who we will be doing usability testing with) • While we could build profiles, we also need to get our team thinking like and identifying with users (empathy) • We must also design for what users really need and do (descriptive models) rather than what we think they should need and do (normative models) • Otherwise, our user stories are works of fiction 71Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm User Research Outcomes • Doing user research gives us data for... – Personas – Terminology – Conceptual models Agile UX & UCD 72
    • syntagmsyntagm Conceptual Models Basket Account Departments Search Amazon.co.uk Homepage (c. 2002) 73Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm Conceptual Models Amazon.co.uk Homepage (c. 2009) Basket Account Departments Search 74Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm Conceptual Models Conceptual model for Amazon.co.uk (UML class model notation) Department Products Basket Checkout Order History Selected Products Ordered Products Order Account Delivery Address Address Book Payment Settings Payment DetailsSearch Product Descriptions 75Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagm Design Styles & Minimum Viable Products
    • syntagmsyntagm UIE’s 5 Design Decision Styles 1. Unintended – No design: can result in very poor usability and UX 2. Self design – Designed by team for team – Difficult for other audiences to understand/use 3. Genius design – Works well with experience teams – Does require solid practical experience of users Agile UX & UCD 77
    • syntagm Genius design can work – but not very often
    • syntagmsyntagm UIE’s 5 Design Decision Styles 4. Activity-focussed – Research based on users’ activities – Effective but narrow 5. User-focussed – Broad user-based research – Appropriate for green-field development and major redesigns – Needed for excellent UX Agile UX & UCD 79 (See www.uie.com/articles/five_design_decision_styles)
    • syntagmsyntagm MVP – The Lean Startup • The goal of a startup is to figure out the right thing to build − the thing customers want and will pay for as quickly as possible – Eric Ries The Lean Startup Agile UX & UCD 80
    • syntagmAgile UX & UCD 81
    • (radoff.com) Agile UX & UCD 82
    • syntagmsyntagm Minimum Viable Product • Enough features to allow the product to be deployed and no more • An alternative to extensive market research / user testing • Popularized by Eric Reis in The Lean Startup • But beware of the technology chasm Agile UX & UCD 83
    • Agile UX & UCD 84 Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority Late Majority Laggards The technology chasm (Adapted from Geoffrey Moore’s Crossing the Chasm and Everett Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation) Minimum Viable Product
    • syntagm Personas and Persona Myths
    • syntagmsyntagm Users in Design • We need to identify who we are designing for (and who we will be doing usability testing with) • While we could build profiles, we also need to get our team thinking like and identifying with users (empathy) • We must also design for what users really need and do (descriptive models) rather than what we think they should need and do (normative models) • Otherwise, our user stories are works of fiction Agile UX & UCD 86
    • syntagmsyntagm Personas • People are much more positive towards individuals than groups • Personas are fictitious (but credible) individuals who represent the main users of a solution, based on user research • Must be developed and agreed by the team – you cannot promote empathy by forcing solutions on key players • Personas form the basis of all discussions about features and user stories Agile UX & UCD 87
    • syntagmsyntagm Psychology of Personas • The Person-Positivity Bias (Sears, 1983) – David Sears found that attitudes towards individuals were significantly more positive than groups with the same characteristics • The Scope-Severity Paradox (Nordgren & McDonnell, 2010) – Nordgren and McDonnell established that reactions to a fraud were more severe when it was presented with 3 victims rather than 30 Agile UX & UCD 88
    • syntagmsyntagmAgile UX & UCDPhoto by James Cridland 89
    • syntagmsyntagm Personas Jane Soames is a 28-year-old London graphics designer who has moved into special effects. Her experience with graphics packages has helped her a lot with the 2-D modeling but she still struggles a bit with 3-D. Her current job role has her moving between 2-D and 3-D work, so having a lot of similarities between the two kinds of software makes her life a lot simpler. … Agile UX & UCD 90
    • syntagmsyntagm Persona Guidelines • Based on user research • Typically one primary persona for a product or service - secondary personas have minor differences from primary • Personas must be believable and liked by team members – They should have specific characteristics (for example, age 28, not 25-35) – Names and photos agreed by all Agile UX & UCD 91
    • syntagmsyntagm 8 Persona Misconceptions 1. Personas are made up 2. Personas are about demographics 3. We can use the same personas across all of our solutions 4. Personas come from market research 5. Personas are unscientific 6. Personas are for the user experience people 7. We only need to research our personas once 8. Personas will guarantee good UX Agile UX & UCD 92
    • syntagmsyntagm 1. Personas are made up • The name and backstory for a persona are made up, but the behaviours and needs a persona represents have been researched in the field Agile UX & UCD 93
    • syntagmsyntagm 2. Personas are about demographics • No, personas are about important behaviours and needs you have identified in your user communities • Demographics given in the backstory are just to make the persona real • Demographics are used in the recruitment process but these are part of the user profile behind the persona Agile UX & UCD 94
    • syntagmsyntagm Persona (Front) • A persona is the face of a user community • But make sure that designing for this persona will not disadvantage other users Agile UX & UCD Age, education, experience Products/services used (how often?) Name, specific age, realistic photo Backstory, interests, motivations Goals in using your solution 95
    • syntagmsyntagm • Behind every persona is a user profile • These are used for – Recruitment (research and usability testing) – Sales and marketing • They include the demographics of the user group a persona represents Agile UX & UCD Age, education, experience (ranges) Products/services used (how often?) Behaviours and recruitment questions 96 Persona (Reverse)
    • syntagmsyntagm 3. We can use the same personas across all our solutions • Personas represent the behaviours and needs of users as they relate to the problem(s) you’re solving • Different behaviours and needs will be relevant to different problem domains – For example many users might be interested in a cloud music service – But their needs may be substantially different depending on whether they prefer classical music or hard rock Agile UX & UCD 97
    • syntagmsyntagmAgile UX & UCD 98 Handel and Jimi Hendrix shared an address (23 Brook Street, London) but would probably have had different needs for a music service
    • syntagmsyntagm 4. Personas come from market research • Marketing personas can be a good starting point for design personas if they are behaviour based • Marketing personas based primarily on demographics will not be helpful Agile UX & UCD 99
    • syntagmsyntagm 5. Personas are unscientific • Personas make use of well-established principles from cognitive psychology – The Person-Positivity Bias (Sears, 1983) – The Scope-Severity Paradox (Nordgren & McDonnell, 2010) – Decisions for Others Are More Creative Than Decisions for the Self (Polman and Emich, 2011) Agile UX & UCD 100
    • syntagmsyntagm 6. Personas are for the user experience people • The primary role of personas is to make users more real to the development team • They will be researched and created in collaboration with UX practitioners but they need to be accepted by the whole team Agile UX & UCD 101
    • syntagmsyntagm 7. We only need to research our personas once • In fast-moving domains, personas should be updated before a major refresh or new projects • For example, the popularity of tablets significantly changed users’ needs for web site interactivity (and partially drove the rush for apps) Agile UX & UCD 102
    • syntagmsyntagm 8. Personas will guarantee good UX • Not on their own. Well-researched personas, collaboratively developed (see Guerrilla UCD session 14), will help keep the focus on real users, but there are many more components – Early and frequent usability evaluations (session 6) – Persona-driven user stories (session 15) – Clear goals & conceptual model (session 16) Agile UX & UCD 103
    • syntagmsyntagm Activity 3 • Organize into small groups with someone to take notes • Await further instructions! Agile UX & UCD 104
    • syntagm User Stories vs Persona Stories 105
    • syntagmsyntagm User in Design Agile UX & UCD User stories written without user research are just wishful thinking 106
    • syntagmsyntagm User Stories • In Agile projects user stories replace earlier forms of requirement specification (such as use cases) • They are really placeholders – detailed design is done much closer to implementation (just- in-time design) • For UX design, user stories need to be accompanied by prototypes (at implementation) Agile UX & UCD 107
    • syntagmsyntagm User Stories • User stories are very brief – typically a single side of a index or post card • Large stories (called ‘epics’) should be split into more manageable chunks • Do not get too specific on how the interaction should work in early stages (avoid premature design) Agile UX & UCD 108
    • syntagmsyntagm Persona Stories • User stories are not ideal for user experience • They’re not really about users at all; the Agile- recommended form is – “As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> [so that…]” • For user-centred design, stories should be about personas and avoid the first person – “Jane updates contact preferences” – (<persona> <goal/desire>) Agile UX & UCD 109
    • syntagmsyntagm Persona Stories • This form is much easier to write and read. It also emphasizes that the development team is not the user, which has benefits including – Decisions for Others Are More Creative Than Decisions for the Self (Polman and Emich, 2011) • See my article User Stories Don’t Help Users: Introducing Persona Stories, ACM Interactions, Nov+Dec 2013, www.personastories.com Agile UX & UCD 110
    • syntagm Agile Usability Testing
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile Usability Testing • Early and often – Part of each cycle, ideally weekly – Test whatever you have ready • Don’t be afraid of remote (supervised) testing – Desktop sharing, audio & video – Recording usually easy (LiveMeeting, WebEx, GotoMeeting…) • Consider user surrogates for brief ‘revolving door’ sessions – Colleagues not involved/familiar with the project but similar to users in other respects • Make use of central UX or external resource for recruitment – Time-consuming and specialist: don’t rely on team UX role • Engage the rest of the team – Encourage live viewing (in-person or streaming video) – Make videos readily available – Organize usability/UX events around test sessions – Involve developers directly with the RITE method Agile UX & UCD 112
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile Usability Testing • RITE (Rapid Iterative Testing and Evaluation) – Michael Medlock and Dennis Wixon, Microsoft – Developers involved in usability testing and make repairs in situ • Four categories of issue 1. Obvious cause, obvious solution that can be implemented quickly 2. Obvious cause, obvious solution but not quick 3. No obvious cause, therefore no obvious solution 4. Other factors Agile UX & UCD 113
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile Usability Testing • Reported advantages of RITE – The usability issues were “believed”. The decision-makers had often pre-defined what tasks participants should be able to accomplish. In addition, through their constant involvement the decision-makers “believed” issues for which there were no previous tasks (issues they or the usability engineer had not anticipated). – Fixing the discovered issues was planned for and agreed upon prior to testing. – The usability feedback was delivered as soon as it possibly could be –right after the issues occurred. – The team had measurable assurance that the solutions were successfully fixing the problems because the fixes were tested by the subsequent participants. In addition the team caught “poor” fixes for problems and corrected them. Agile UX & UCD (See http://tinyurl.com/RITEmethodology) 114
    • syntagmsyntagm Agile Usability Testing • Other quick approaches – Revolving door testing with on-site proxies – Remote testing (supervised) – Paper prototyping – Card sorting & tree sorting – A/B testing Agile UX & UCD 115
    • syntagm Persuasive Facilitation 11
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation • Persuasive facilitation requires knowing what evidence to present and when – Qualitative data often not seen as scientific – Technologists may not appreciate or understand problems that users have – Different learning/thinking styles may favour quantitative evidence (budgets, timings...) 117Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm Activity 4 • Organize into small groups with someone to take notes • Await further instructions! Agile UX & UCD 118
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation • A staged approach to selling UCD may be needed, particularly in teams having low UX maturity 1. Stimulate 2. Explain 3. Engage (The ‘hook, line and sinker’ approach) Agile UX & UCD 119
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation 1. Stimulate – Stimulate interest in UCD through quantitative evidence such as server traffic analysis, support centre statistics, customer satisfaction surveys Agile UX & UCD 120
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation 2. Explain – Use qualitative research to explain how to improve usability and the user experience (usability tests, card sorting, support transcripts) – Use ‘root cause analysis’ (or similar) to explain how identified usability issues can be addressed (RCA is a key component of quality assurance) Agile UX & UCD 121
    • syntagmsyntagmAgile UX & UCD 122 (Ishikawa diagram created with free Excel tool at www.freequality.org)
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation 3. Engage – Engage the team in UCD techniques that build UX into the development process (personas, paper prototypes, usability testing, design maps) – More on design maps later Agile UX & UCD 123
    • syntagmsyntagm Persuasive Facilitation • The extent to which persuasive facilitation is necessary will depend on the UX maturity of the team (and in some cases, individuals) Agile UX & UCD 124
    • syntagmsyntagm UX Maturity Model Agile UX & UCD 125 (from http://johnnyholland.org/2010/04/16/planning-your-ux-strategy/)
    • syntagmsyntagm The Agile Team Customer / Owner / User Rep Users? 126Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm UX/UCD-Engaged Agile Team Agile UX & UCD 127 UCD Practitioner Users
    • syntagmsyntagm Outsourcing UX/UCD Activities Agile UX & UCD 128 External Supplier Users (Can work if supplier involves team members as observers)
    • syntagm Design Maps
    • syntagmsyntagm Design Maps • In their book The Persona Lifecycle, Pruitt and Adlin describe a tool called ‘design maps’ • Design maps connect personas and user stories to detailed design issues and artefacts such as wireframes, sketches and prototypes Agile UX & UCD 130
    • syntagmsyntagm Design Maps Agile UX & UCD 131 Who • Personas • Persona-weighted feature matrix What • User stories (including features and constraints) • Scenarios (elaborated stories) How • Design maps • Design artefacts (sketches, wireframes...)
    • syntagmsyntagm Scenarios • Scenarios are elaborated descriptions of user stories, usually focussed on a persona’s goal • The can be written to represent a concept (evocative) or to describe detailed interaction (prescriptive) • Prescriptive scenarios can be accompanied by design artefacts such as wireframes or prototypes Agile UX & UCD 132 (See The Persona Lifecycle for more on scenarios)
    • syntagmsyntagm Anatomy of a Design Map • Design Map: Megan Delivers the Presentation Megan logs on to the presentation system Megan sees the presenter page Megan sees that her slides are ready and she does a last- minute flip through Megan sees the audience members are starting to arrive Should we let Megan log on if Ivan hasn’t set everything up yet? The presenter screen should reassure her that the streams are started and the preso is ready What if an audience member tries to connect before Megan, or even before Ivan? Megan has already uploaded all of her slides Let’s create a way for her to flip through her slides without any audience members seeing Map Title Step Question Comment Design Idea Key step comment question idea Design Map: MaryAnn finds a place to work for a few hours MaryAnn arrives at the corporate headquarters at 10:30 am. MaryAnn knows she needs a space to work until 1 pm, and maybe after that as well. Are there particularly busy times for hoteling check-in today? MaryAnn has not signed up for hoteling space for today. Let’s create a way for her to book a space ‘tentatively’ and then ask her to confirm with a mobile app! What happens if there are absolutely no spaces left for her? MaryAnn sees several ‘places you can work today’ options. MaryAnn can preview the spaces using photos...and maybe see if colleagues are working nearby! MaryAnn arrives at the space and ‘badges in...’ Slide courtesy of Tamara Adlin (see Pruitt & Adlin, The Persona Lifecycle) 133Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagmsyntagm MaryAnn schedules a catered breakfast meeting Slide courtesy of Tamara Adlin (see Pruitt & Adlin, The Persona Lifecycle) Agile UX & UCD 134
    • syntagm Logical steps and actions from Design Maps go together to form single pages in a wireframe 135Agile UX & UCD Slide courtesy of Tamara Adlin (see Pruitt & Adlin, The Persona Lifecycle)
    • syntagmsyntagm Collaboration Tools • Code/Defects/Project – Atlassian: broad range including Jira & Bitbucket – Microsoft: Application Lifecycle Management – Huddle: enterprise PM collaboration – Wrike: All-in-one collaborative PM • Visual collaboration – Conceptboard – GroupZap – Mural.ly – Stormboard Agile UX & UCD 136
    • syntagmsyntagm Design map created using online visual collaboration tool (conceptboard.com) Design Map: MaryAnn finds a place to work for a few hours Agile UX & UCD 137
    • syntagmsyntagm Design map created using online visual collaboration tool (mural.ly) Agile UX & UCD 138
    • syntagmsyntagm Collaboration Tools • General – Scribblar – GotoMeeting/GotoWebinar – Adobe Connect – Webex – Microsoft Live Meeting Agile UX & UCD 139
    • syntagmsyntagm Design Maps Activity • Organize into teams of 3-5 • Await further instructions! Agile UX & UCD 140
    • syntagm Appendix
    • syntagm Number of Times Methods Used Per Year Survey of 217 participants in Usability Week 2008 (Courtesy of Kara Pernice, NN/g) 15.2 Server traffic log analysis 11.0 Search log analysis 4.1 User testing 3.3 Surveys 3.3 Heuristic evaluation / expert review 2.9 Low-fidelity/paper prototyping 2.5 Participatory design 2.2 Measurement studies 2.1 Remote testing 2.1 Field studies 2.0 Card sorting 1.5 Competitive studies 1.4 A/B testing 1.0 Eyetracking 0.8 Diary study 142Agile UX & UCD
    • syntagm Bibliography and Further Reading
    • syntagmsyntagm Bibliography and Further Reading • Agile Software Development – Cockburn, A. (2002). Agile software development: software through people, Addison Wesley. – Cohn, M. (2009). Succeeding with Agile: Software Development Using Scrum, Addison Wesley. • Agile UCD – Nodder, C. N., Jakob (2009). Agile Usability: Best Practices for User Experience on Agile Development Projects, NN/g (www.nngroup.com/reports/agile/) – Sy, D. (2007). "Adapting usability investigations for agile user-centered design." Journal of usability Studies, 2(3): 112–132. Agile UX & UCD 144
    • syntagmsyntagm Bibliography and Further Reading • Contextual Design – Beyer, H. and K. Holtzblatt (1998). Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems. San Francisco, CA, Morgan Kaufmann. – Holtzblatt, K., J. Wendell, et al. (2005). Rapid contextual design: a how-to guide to key techniques for user-centered design, Morgan Kaufmann. • Design Maps – Pruitt, J. and T. Adlin (2006). The persona lifecycle: keeping people in mind throughout product design, Morgan Kaufmann. Agile UX & UCD 145
    • syntagmsyntagm Bibliography and Further Reading • Empathizing/Systemizing – Baron-Cohen, S. (2008). Autism and Asperger Syndrome (The Facts), Oxford University Press. – Hudson, W. (2009). Reduced empathizing skills increase challenges for user-centered design, ACM. – Wray, S. (2007). SQ Minus EQ can Predict Programming Aptitude, PPIG. Agile UX & UCD 146
    • syntagmsyntagm Bibliography and Further Reading • Personas – Pruitt, J. and T. Adlin (2006). The persona lifecycle: keeping people in mind throughout product design, Morgan Kaufmann. – Goodwin, K. (2009). Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services, John Wiley & Sons. • Qualitative Research – Kvale, S. (1994). "Ten standard objections to qualitative research interviews." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 25(2): 147-173. Agile UX & UCD 147
    • syntagmsyntagm Bibliography and Further Reading • User Stories – Cohn, M. (2004). User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development, Addison Wesley. Agile UX & UCD 148
    • syntagm149 www.syntagm.co.uk/design Agile UX & UCD