Justice, Conflict, and the Right to the City


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Justice, Conflict, and the Right to the City

  1. 1. -TopicEthics, the Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals (Justice, Conflict, and the Right to the City) By : Desy Rosnita Sari P28017016
  2. 2. ARTICLES : AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct --APA (American Planners Association) -Published in : APA, Adopted March 19, 2005, Effective June 1, 2005, Revised October 3, 2009 Keywords : Code of Ethics, Planning Profession Principle, Professional Conduct, Code Procedures http://www.planning.org/aicp/ Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development --Scott Campbell-Published in : Journal of American Planning Association. Summer 1996 Keywords : sustainability, Planner's Triangle, environmental, conflict in planning, Environmental Ethics and Planning Theory --Timothy Beatley-Published in : Journal of Planning Literature Vol 4. No 1. Winter 1989, By Ohio State University Press Keywords : Environmental ethic, moral obligation, environmental protection, nature life
  3. 3. Presentation Outline 1. The Ethics of Profession 2. Ethics Between Priorities 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation
  4. 4. AICP Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct APA and AICP ? APA-- American Planning Association. - APA Website : https://www.planning.org/ An independent, non-profit educational organization that provides leadership in the development of vital communities / Planning profession, includes a professional institute for certification (professional planners, ethics, professional development, planning education, and the standards of practice) – AICP (American Institute of Certified Planners) Founded : On October 1, 1978, unification of the American Institute of Planners (AIP) and the American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) Membership 40,000 national members, and more than 15,000 (nearly 40%) are certified planners. William Anderson, FAICP Present APA President Board of APA elected by members in each 4 years :http://www.planning.org/apaataglance/leadership/apaboard.htm Function : 1. Setting up board policy for the Association and governs its affairs 2. Four-year serving terms
  5. 5. APA Bases : D.C. is home to the Partnerships, Outreach, and Policy functions, including Government Affairs and Public Information, as well as the Professional Development functions of AICP. (Policy and Managerial activity) Chicago is home to the Education, Research, Publications, Website, Conferences, Membership (including AICP membership), Marketing, Leadership and Component Programs, as well as Operations (administration, finance, human resources, and information technology). (Operational activity) CHICAGO WASHINGTON, D.C. American Planning Association 205 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1200 Chicago, IL 60601 Phone: 312-431-9100 Fax: 312-786-6700 American Planning Association 1030 15th St., NW Suite 750 West Washington, DC 20005-1503 Phone: 202-872-0611 Fax: 202-872-0643 APA e-mail : customerservice@planning.org.
  6. 6. Presentation Outline 1. The Ethics of Profession 2. Ethics Between Priorities 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation
  7. 7. 1/18 W 1. The Ethics of Profession hy should planners talk about ethics ? 1. Planning involves decisions on public resources 2. Planners interact with the public sector, then operate within the consent of society (including who will benefit or/and who will be harmed by their decisions) 3. Public expect planner’s integrity in those decisions 4. Ethics calls on planner’s integrity to evaluate alternatives and consequences before making those decisions 5. Written ethics codes and the consequences for violating them offer protection to planners and others (public/clients/employers/ colleagues/….) “AICP Code” as an example
  8. 8. 2/18 1. The Ethics of Profession The AICP “Code” 1. Aspirational principles 2. Rules of conduct 3. Procedures
  9. 9. 3/18 1. The Ethics of Profession The AICP “Code” 1. Aspirational principles Planners’ primary obligation is to serve the public interest; aware to interrelatedness of decisions, seek social justice, and independent judgment Discussion : 1. What is “the public interest” and how to determine it ? 2. How to differentiate the scale of “public” from multi-fragmentation of Urban stakeholders (social justice) ? 3. In order to uphold “integrity” in decisions (independent judgment), how to recognize the boundaries of “neutral” of planning profession, while planning is a product/toll of a sector in achieving its goals ? 4. Are “aspirational principles” binding all planners?…YES/NO – WHY?
  10. 10. 4/18 The AICP “Code” 1. The Ethics of Profession 2. Rules of conduct Composed into 25 rules Ex: 1. We shall not deliberately or with reckless indifference fail to provide adequate, timely, clear and accurate information on planning issues. 8. We shall not, as public officials or employees, engage in private communications with planning process participants if the discussions relate to a matter over which we have authority to make a binding, final determination if such private communications are prohibited by law or by agency rules, procedures, or custom 9. We shall not engage in private discussions with decision makers in the planning process in any manner prohibited by law or by agency rules, procedures, or custom…………….etc Discussion : How do you determine what is “reckless”? How do you determine what a “custom” is?....”Subjective”
  11. 11. 5/18 1. The Ethics of Profession The AICP “Code” 3. Procedures 8 Steps of Code Procedures : Informal / Formal advice (from Ethics Officer of AICP Ethics Committee), Published Formal Advisory Rulings, Filing a Charge of Misconduct, Investigation, Hearing, Settlement, and Annual report Discussion : 1. How objective “Informal / Formal ethics advices” from Ethics Officer of AICP in handling misconduct that sometime require practical efforts instead of theory normative in planning ?
  12. 12. 6/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development --Scott Campbell-Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning Coordinator of Doctoral Studies in Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Michigan Taubman sdcamp@umich.edu •www-personal.umich.edu/~sdcamp/ Co-editor of Readings in Urban Theory series, The Rise of the Gunbelt: The Military Remapping of Industrial America. His writing on sustainable development won a National Planning Award from the American Planning Association. Keynote speaker at "Future of Metropolis" in Vienna, Austria. Campbell has a Ph.D. and Master of city planning from the University of California, Berkeley and a B.A.S. from Stanford University.
  13. 13. 7/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities How are we going to get into “sustainable” What are the negative consequences? https://www.google.com.tw/search?q=sustainable+devel opment&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=DDlfUrWeLY WllAXFrYHoBQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1092&bih=499 #facrc=_&imgdii=5tecLuqv4sZzkM%3A%3BxFbWNzn8qNu CRM%3B5tecLuqv4sZzkM%3A&imgrc=5tecLuqv4sZzkM%3 A%3BDUdIV1KccS1noM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww .lynascorp.com%252FSiteCollectionImages%252FSustaina ble_Development.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.ly nascorp.com%252FPages%252Fzero-harm-andsustainable-development.aspx%3B465%3B421
  14. 14. 8/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities The cost of city development IS natural resources ! sustainable development : long-term goal of a balanced
  15. 15. 9/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities Campbell’s triangle of conflicting goals for planning Capital vs labor Man vs nature X1 X3 X2 No point can exist alone. The nature of the three axial conflicts is mutual dependence based not only on opposition, but also on collaboration
  16. 16. 10/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities The cost of city development IS natural resource ! Just city Planner Growing Cities Green Cities
  17. 17. 11/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities Does “sustainability” important? • • • • What is sustainability--actions or goal ? Is sustainability important in planning ? What corner of development should “a planner” stand on ? How is planner’s ethics in responding sustainability idea ?
  18. 18. 12/18 2. Ethics Between Priorities Chance of new roles and ethics ? • Planner becomes “negotiator” between conflict of interests • Neutral “moderator” • Act as “translator but not translation” (Understand Linguistic Differences) • Combine negotiation skills of planner and substantive vision • Skillful in any kind of communication and aspect • Avoid binary vote, to arrange procedure of decision making
  19. 19. 13/18 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation Environmental Ethics and Planning Theory --Timothy Beatley-The Teresa Heinz Professor of Sustainable Communities, in the Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, School of Architecture at the University of Virginia. Focuses on : Sustainable communities, and creative strategies by which cities and towns can fundamentally reduce their ecological footprints. Author or co-author of : Ethical Land Use, Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities (recently translated into Chinese), Habitat Conservation Planning, Native to Nowhere: Sustaining Home and Community in a Global Age, Planning for Coastal Resilience. Co-authored of : Resilient Cities and Green Urbanism Down Under: Learning From Sustainable Australian Communities. PhD in City and Regional Planning from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, MA in Political Science from UNC, a Masters of Urban Planning from the University of Oregon Bachelors of City Planning from UVA.
  20. 20. 14/18 1. Base upon what ethics criteria of principle should individual and society make decision about the use of environment ? 2. What are the acceptable level of environmental risk or degradation ? 3. Does society have an obligation to protect individual from risk ? 4. How should conflict between society justice and environment protection be resolved ? 5. Do we have moral obligation to non-human form of life ? 6. Do we have environmental obligation to future generation ? 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation
  21. 21. 15/18 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation Human’s Ethics toward Environmental Conservation & preservation Capitalism & profit motive Market efficiency Free market Risk assesment Non-human life forms right Environmental obligation Biocentric perspective Human right Cost benefit
  22. 22. 16/18 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation What is the Environmental Ethics ? Attitudes or values of an individual /society towards environment
  23. 23. 17/18 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation Planner Ethics 1. 2. 3. Environmental Ethics Which Codes can lead us to environment ethics?..... How Binding the code for planner’s decisions to protect environment?..... Influences from individual background…(culture, religion, education, ect)
  24. 24. 18/18 3. Ethics = Moral Obligation Planner Ethics MORAL DILEMMA Environmental Ethics Complex assemblage principles, theories, concepts “pluralistic approch”
  25. 25. XIE XIE NI Thank You Terima kasih