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Ethics, Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals. (2)
 

Ethics, Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals. (2)

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    Ethics, Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals. (2) Ethics, Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals. (2) Presentation Transcript

    • -Topic- Ethics, Environment, and Conflicting Priorities/ Planning Goals. (2) (Justice, Conflict, and the Right to the City) By : Desy Rosnita Sari P28017016 2014.01.10 3rt Presentation
    • Excavating Lefebvre : The right to the city and its urban politics of - the inhabitant -- Mark Purcell-- Published in : GeoJournal 58: 99–108, 2002 Keywords : cities, citizenship, democracy, globalization, governance ARTICLES : Fresh wind or hot Air - Does the governance - discourse have something to offer to spatial planning -- Henning Nuissl and Dirk Heinrichs-- Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 31: 47, 2011 Keywords : governance, governance discourse, spatial planning practice, - empirical analysis of planning Negotiating planning gains through the British - Development Control System -- Jim Claydon and - Bryan Smith -- Published in : Journal of Urban Study 1997 Keywords : planning gains, negotiation, planning authority, The British – planning system ,
    • REASONS for 3 chosen articles : 1. AICP Code Of Ethics and professional conduct - American Planners Association 2005 2. Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities - Scott Campbell 1997 3. Environmental Ethics and Planning Theory - Timothy Beatley 1989 1. The City of theory -- Peter Hall 2001 2. Planning in the face of conflict - John Forester 1987 3. Contested Cities: Social Process and Spatial From - David Harvey 1997 1. Negotiating Planning Gains through the British Development Control System - Jim Claydon and Bryan Smith 1997 2 Excavating Lefebvre: The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant - Mark Purcell 2002 3. Fresh Wind or Hot Air - Does the Governance Discourse Have Something to Offer to Spatial Planning - Henning Nuissl and Dirk Heinrichs 2011 (Planning “Practice” issue in global neoliberalism's influences) 1 2 3
    • 1/27 Jim Claydon Negotiating planning gains through the British - Development Control System Journal of Urban Study 1997 BOOKS (Town Planning Review, Planning Practice, and Research) • Extending sustainably : An article from: Town and Country Planning 2005 • The RTPI's Education Commission: Context and Challenges (Caroline Brown, Jim Claydon, and Vincent Nadin) 2003 • Health and Urban Planning ( Hugo Barton, Jim Claydon, Isobel Daniels) 1999 • Negotiations in planning (Helen Sheldon and Jim Claydon) 1991 • Economic development is small district authorities (Jim Claydon, Jean Hillier) 1989 • Local authority economic development initiatives in South West England (Jim Claydon, Derrick Johnstone) 1986 *2007/8 President of Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) *Technical Director of Terence O'Rourke Planning Consultants founded : 2009 *Head of School of Planning and Architecture at University of the West of England (UWE) with 20 years lecturing experience and 30 years in planning practice Bryan Smith **UK and Ireland Planning profession Association. founded :1914 with over 23,000 members in 2012. BSc MSc Dip TP MRTPI **Defra (marine planning), Bath & NE Somerset Council (strategic planning), CCW and Cornwall Council (maritime strategy)
    • The British Planning System Planning Process Planning Gains Discretionary scope principles (Private – public) negotiation British Planning Frameworks examined 3 cases relate commercial uses Analytical framework • Activity of negotiation • The influences on it • The actors involved 2/27
    • The British Planning Context S70. 1990 Town & Country Planning Act, DoE, 1996, para. 117 Local authority is in principle entirely free to determine the material consideration that is relevant to a particular planning application and impose such condition on planning permission PPG24 (DoE, 1994, para. 2) Planning & Noise To achieve separation in land uses, local planning authorities should consider whether it is practicable to control or reduce noise levels, or to mitigate the impact of noise, through the use of conditions or planning obligations. PPG21 (DoE, 1992, para. 5.32) Tourism Acceptable proposal for tourism related development may raise objections which if unresolved would justify a refusal of permission. In such circumstances the local authority should consider whether its objections can be resolved by imposing a planning condition PPG17 (DoE, 1991, para. 22) Sport & Recreation In built up areas, opportunities for creating new public open space may request local authorities to enter planning obligations PPG6 (DoE, 1996, para. 3.16) Town Center & Retail Developments PG1 (DoE, 1997b, para. 36 ) General Policy & Principle Planning obligations are useful instruments, fairly and reasonably related in scale and kind of development… Planning obligations directly related to the proposed development….Planning permission can not be bought and sold; local planning authorities can not allow their decisions to be affected by the offer of extra inducements …(parking provisions of town-center & superstores……it can play a dual role, servicing superstore as well town center…it can be achieved by imposing/seeking agreement. 3/27
    • Case Studies 1. Superstore, ten-pin bowling center, public park and road improvements at Bexleyheath, in south-east London in the London Borough of Bexley Horizontal axis : Negotiating stages in the planning application process (pre-submission-post-decision) Vertical columns : Activities, the influences upon them and the involvement of key actors at each stage Framework used to analyze the evidence in case studies Development control process Pre-application Submission Consultation Recommendation Outcome Activity Influences Actor Table : Development Control as a negotiating process 2. Superstore, football stadium and highway works at Weymouth, on the south coast of southern England 3. Supermarket, industrial units, housing and highway improvements in the Liverpool suburb of Woolton in north-west England 4/27
    • 1. Bexleyheath, south-east London a) As major suburban shopping center in the London Borough of Bexley a) Being identified as a strategic center in the Greater London Council Development Plan. Development control process Pre-application Submission Consultation Recommendation Outcome Activity *Superstore 60.000 sq ft gross floor area *Replace the bowling center with ice rink Improve the environmental quality Additional size of land for parking load *Adjoined design/physical fabric to Parish church of Bexleyheath (building mass and grounds) *Ten-pin bowling center preservation (near by the site) *Local authority *Land extension Influences Major suburban shopping center *(Local politician concern) risk for small individual shop *Supported by LPA *Asda’s ground- level parking *Agreement among many landowners *Conservation act *Politicization of the proposal *Subsequent local publicity *Carters’ negotiation & mediation among landowners Actor *Carters’ *LPA, *Borough Council, *Local Politician, *Carters’ (consultant) *LPA, *Borough Council, *Carters’ (consultant) *Borough Council, *LPA, *Carters’ (consultant), *Relevant committee (Church) *City planning division, *Carters’ (consultant) CASE in 1985 Bargaining 5/27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bexleyheath
    • 2. Weymouth, south coast of southern England Development control process Pre-application Submission Consultation Recommendation Outcome Activity *Superstore in the site of Weymouth town football club *Relocation football club into urban fringe *Clear land purchase agreement *Scheme for new stadium *Re-negotiation between Club & Carters over additional cost implications of stadium safety features *Local authority *Permission over a protracted period over new stadium site Influences *High number of inhabitant *New stadium site integrated with local community *Fringe zone may reduce club’s ambience *Supported by LPA *Future planning to secure new stadium *Different local authority for new stadium site *Fire disaster at Bradford stadium *Negotiation was political Both local & national levels over stadium safety Actor *Carters’ *Weymouth & Portland Borough Council, *Football club committee, *Carters’ *LPA, *Weymouth & Portland Borough Council, *Football club committee, *Carters’, *Representatives of the adjoining District Council *Football club committee, *Carters’ *Carters’, *LPA, *Development Company, *Local politicians, *Community representatives, *Representatives of the adjoining District Council CASE in 1985 a) As popular holiday resort in southern England with 60.000 inhabitants b) A naval base and an origin for a ferry service to the Channel Islands and Brittany. Bargening & Mediating 6/27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weymouth,_Dorset
    • 3. Woolton. north-west England Development control process Pre- application Submission Consultation Recommendatio n Outcome Activity *Supermarket 40 000 sq *Rejected by LPA & Liverpool City Council *Carters’ appeal submission *Mixed-use proposal approved *Local authority *Planning permission in conservation area Influences *Prosperous suburb *Conservation policies *Mainly for industry & housing with modest retail *Autumn 1996 Inspector acting on behalf of the Secretary of State *Relate to planning and highway matters (range of highway works in and around the conservation area *The outcome of the appeal *Low political involvement *Inspector had effectively acted as an arbitrator imposing a binding solution on the participants. Actor *Carters’ *LPA , *City Council, *Carters’ *Technical officers of the City Councils, *Carters’ consultants, *Local politician *Inspector, *Planners for both Carters’ & City council *Inspector, *City council, *Carters’ CASE in 1994 A prosperous suburb with relatively deprived conurbation, Arbitrating (State function) 7/27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolton
    • Influences on Negotiation 1. Developer’s organizational structure 2. Developer’s Interest and concern 3. Political culture of the local authority (manner of negotiation between parties) 4. Planning gains on offer and being sought 5. The relative merits of planning conditions and planning gains. Local Planning Authorities Developer Conclusion 1. Discretionary scope of development principles (open to negotiation) 2. Bureaucratic arrangements & political hierarchy (bureaucratic & judicial procedure) 3. Range of potentially involved actors (democracy : equality consequence) 8/27 Summaryof 3 Case Studies No “set formula” for securing planning gain (despite in a certain level of government guidance)
    • 9/27 • The Down-Deep Delight of Democracy (2013) • To Inhabit Well: Counterhegemonic Movements and the Right to the City (2013) • The Right to the City and Contemporary Urban Movements (2011) • Hegemony and difference in political movements -- New Political Science (2009) • Resisting neo-liberalization: Communicative Planning or Radical Democratic Movements? --Planning Theory (2009) • Recapturing Democracy: neoliberalism and the struggle for alternative urban futures (2008) • City-Regions, Neoliberal Globalization, and Democracy: A Research Agenda. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2007) • Urban Democracy and the Local Trap -- Urban Studies (2005) • Citizenship and the right to the global city: reimagining the capitalist world order -- International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (2003) BOOKS AND ARTICLES Excavating Lefebvre : The right to the city and its - urban politics of the inhabitant Published in : GeoJournal 58: 99–108, 2002 Keywords : cities, citizenship, democracy, globalization, governance Mark Purcell, MA, PhD *Associate Professor, Urban Design and Planning. University of Washington Urban Geography, Urban Politics and Planning, Urban Democracy and Citizenship, Globalization and governance change in cities, Political and Social Theory, Urban political movements (especially Los Angeles and Seattle), The politics of scale and the re-scaling in the global political economy 1995 MA, 1998 PhD University of California (USA) 1992 BA Duke University (Russian)
    • 1. Articulate a detailed statement of Lefebvre’s "right to the city" entailed Henri Lefebvre : The right to the city ’Le Droit à la ville’1968 *Right to change ourselves by changing the city (freedom to make & remake our cities). The transformation inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power to reshape the processes of urbanization The critique of everyday life. 1968, 1973, 1996 *Capitalism is surviving and reproducing itself in everyday-lives that continue to diminish the quality of everyday life, and inhibit real self-expression **Individuality, Mystifications, Money (fetishism & economic alienation), Needs (psychological & moral alienation), Work (alienation of worker/man), Freedom (man’s power over nature & over his own nature) 10/27 Excavating Lefebvre : The right to the city, & its “urban politics of the inhabitant” Purpose : 2. Examine the neoliberal restructuring’s consequences for urban democracy
    • Democracy City Neoliberal restructuring processes „Right to the city‟ 11/27 Globalization Neo-liberal Economy Capitalisms City laissez-faire Potential to be disenfranchisement Equality City new shape **Globalization of Large corporations by capitalism power/ neoliberalism will increase disenfranchisement of citizenship and imperiled democracy.
    • 12/27 Globalization Laissez-faire Economy capitalism Neo-liberalization Disenfranchisement Authoritarianism The right to the city Domination Democratic challenge “Urban politics” http://theoccupiedtimes.org/?p=11978 ?
    • Sao Paolo, Brazil https://coto2.wordpress.com/2009/12/ 13/27 41,901,219 in 2012
    • Jakarta - Indonesia http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1579066&page=4 14/27 9,588,198 inhabitant in 2013
    • 15/27 Lefebvre’s “right to the city” New urban politics “Urban politics of the inhabitant” Social & Spatial structure of the city desirable/undesirable outcomes spatial social **Offers radical alternative, directly challenges & rethinks to current structure of capitalism & liberal-democratic citizenship, that seems disconcerting because we don’t understand what kind of a city these new urban politics will produce
    • Problem: Global restructuring and declining enfranchisement in cities “Right to the city” Geography / spatial Social (democracy & enfranchisement in cities) 16/27 3. Transferred state functions (Goodwin & Painter 1996; Jones 1999) Post-1970. Cities’ global restructuring --in the way cities are governed-- : 1. Re-scaled City 2. Re-oriented policy into non-state & quasi-state bodies (shifting government to governance) (from redistribution toward competition)
    • 17/27 Solution : Right to the city? “Right to the city” Lefebvre : A call for radical restructuring of social, political, and economic relationship 1. Liberal-democratic citizenship relations (right to participation in the face of governance change) 2. Capitalist social relations (inhabitants participate centrally and directly in decision-making) Purcell : Scalar politics (scale /degree of participation/empowerment) 1. Rescaling of the present structure of democratic participation 2. Rescaling of how political membership is defined.
    • Urban Regional National Global Urban Regional National Global Figure: Alternative scalar relationships for defining political membership Current relationship National hegemonic Right to the city Urban hegemonic 18/27 Conclusion
    • Fresh wind or hot Air - Does the governance - discourse have something to offer to spatial planning Henning Nuissl Dirk Heinrichs Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 31: 47, 2011 Keywords : governance, governance discourse, spatial planning practice, - empirical analysis of planning Professor at Applied geography & town planning department Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Research fellow of Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research— UFZ in Leipzig, Germany. interest : urban sprawl, land use change, social geography, and urban and regional governance. Teacher at the Technical University of Berlin and the Vietnamese-German University. Ho Chi Minh City Senior researcher at the Institute of Transport Research of the German Aerospace Center. Berlin-Germany. Interests : governance of climate change, linkages between land use change, housing policy, and social-spatial segregation. 19/27
    • Controller & regulator structure societal actors /Politician governmental Type of governance concept : 1. Governance as the opposite of government 2. Governance as a normative set of rules 3. Governance as a comprehensive analytical category pertaining to the regulation of publicly relevant affairs at the interface of state, market, and civil society. (Spatial planning as one of its products) 20/27
    • Article discussion : 1. What constitutes “good governance” and its potential assumptions for “good planning” 2. Aspects relates governance concept (understanding how actors, relationships, and formal and informal norms that shaped real “planning situations” and outcomes. 21/27
    • 22/27
    • 23/27
    • Potential “Governance Concept” for Spatial Planning 24/27 1. Reflecting on Normative Principles of “Good” Planning 2. Reflecting on the Practice of Spatial Planning
    • The Governance Concept : as a Tool for Exploring Planning Processes 25/27 1. Actors 2. Relationships 3. Institutional Framework 4. The Decision-Making Process 5. Summary
    • Conclusion26/27 Type of Concept of governance has potential to inform and support spatial planning in several ways : 1. It provides orientation for the contemporary role of spatial planning in the wider context of society 2. Encourages systematic reflection on current planning practices, 3. As base concept for empirical analysis of planning processes 4. May appear as normative device for planning profession
    • Reflection Bargaining Carters‟ 3 cases Mediating Arbitrating “Negotiation” New urban politics everyday life Governance Concept 27/27 How Planner should react and act in this kind reality ?
    • Xie Xie Ni Thank You Terima Kasih http://twistedsifter.com/2013/11/aerial