-Topic-
Economic Development
By :
Desy Rosnita Sari
P28017016
NCKU
Urban Planning Department
2nd Presentation
Seminar 4th ...
Development Planning as the Only Game in Town
Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein
Published in : Journal of Plan...
1. Classic readings in urban planning
3/31
2. Chapter 6th
 To understand the meaning of economic development and the inte...
Wilbur R. Thomson
Economic Growth and Development;
Processes, Stages, and Determinants
BOOKS
• An Econometric Model of Pos...
Contents of the 1st article
1. The many lines of linkage
2. The stage of urban growth
3. Failure of momentum between stage...
A Preface to Urban Economic
(1965) ….. 49 years ago!
6/31
The Urban Growth Process
Under economy development perspective
*...
Principal Cause of USA dramatic Urban Growth
1. Advance agriculture technology post WW II (percentage labor
engaged to agr...
The conurbation of cities in USA
http://www.geog.nau.edu/courses/alew/gsp220/text/chapters/ch4.html
8/31
urban growth prob...
The urban growth complex by Wilbur R. Thomson 1965
**Arrows point : direction of money flow
9/31
1. Three plants with expo...
10/31 2. The Stage of Urban Growth
1. Export specialization
2. Export complex
3. Economic maturation / Local service secto...
11/31 3. Failure of Momentum Between Stage in Growth
Local economy Large town
Export diversification General industry
manu...
12/31 4. Challenge and Response; A tell of 3 cities
• Hit by economic stagnation prior-outbreak of WW II because factories...
Pittsburgh
Ohio River
Monongahela River
Allegheny River
13/31
http://www.brooklineconnection.com/history/Facts/images/Poin...
14/31 5. The urban size ratchet
A. Growth and size come from industrial diversification that
produce local rates (perhaps ...
6. Management as the scarce factor in urban growth15/31
Absolute size as a brake for the growth of urban area, to consider...
QU0TATION16/31
“Urban growth after achievement of some threshold size is
simple power politics. With a large population co...
Development Planning as the Only Game in Town
Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 5 (1985)
-- Classi...
Contents of the 2nd article
1. Introduction
2. The city and development planning
3. The planning process
4. Human Services...
19/31 Development Planning as the Only Game in Town
Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein
The purpose of the Artic...
20/31 1. Introduction
Development planning Planning for Business
To produce a city environment in which private/profit-
ma...
21/31 2. The city and development planning
Boston
• Working class bedroom community which are citizens work outside the ci...
22/31 3. The planning process
To understand the logic of development planning is
from its center = Development package
Com...
23/31 4. Human Services planning
Planning division at Boston city government in 1960’s
(during the “reformer” Mayor)
Profe...
24/31 5. Land use and housing; A contentious terrain
Development Planning is not only representing a choice among competin...
25/31
6. Issue Politics
Comments for a certain development project represent a very
different way of looking at planning, ...
QU0TATION26/31
“In theory, economic recession might dictate as a surge of interest in the
basic issue of jobs and income. ...
Converting the Military Industrial Economy: The Experience at Six Facilities
Published in : Journal of Planning Education ...
Contents of the 3rd article
1. The context: Military builddown
2. The conversion nexus: supply and demand when government
...
29/31 1. The context: Military builddown
The cut-back budget in America Military
during last 10 year (1990s-2000s),
affect...
31/31
2. The conversion nexus: supply and demand when government are the market
30/31
3. Four Adjustment models
Author exa...
4. Facility conversion – An evaluation
6 conversion efforts in the 1980s
a. Quincy Shipyards-Boston
b. Blaw-Knox Foundry -...
Xie Xie Ni
Thank You
Terima Kasih
http://observers.france24.com/fr/content/20110726-job-
nettoyer-maquette-miniature-shang...
Presentation NOTE ^____^
1/31 (slide)
2/31 Articles discuss more about development in economic perspective. That all of th...
13/31 Pittsburgh’s Golden Triangle
14/31 growth mechanism similar to ratchet(slides)
15/31 Thompson try to warning of some...
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Economic Development --- Chapter 6th "Classic readings in urban planning"

  1. 1. -Topic- Economic Development By : Desy Rosnita Sari P28017016 NCKU Urban Planning Department 2nd Presentation Seminar 4th course May 16th 2014 1/31
  2. 2. Development Planning as the Only Game in Town Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 5 (1985) -- Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 242 Keywords : Development planning, Planning process, Planning for business, City planning, Boston. ARTICLES : Converting the Military Industrial Economy: The Experience at Six Facilities Catherine Hill, Sabina Deitrick, Ann Markusen Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 11 (1991) – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 258 Keywords : Conversion economic development , USA Military asset conversion, USA Military industrial economic. Planning process. Economic Growth and Development; Processes, Stages, and Determinants Wilbur R. Thomson Published in : A Preface to Urban Economic (1965), Johns Hopkins Press. – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 229 Keywords : Urban economic, Urban growth, Urban development., Boston, Pittsburgh, Detroit. 2/31 ?
  3. 3. 1. Classic readings in urban planning 3/31 2. Chapter 6th  To understand the meaning of economic development and the interpretation of economic development problems in the planning practice.  To capture the idea of howeconomic development occurs at each level of development (national, regional, and local), with all the emerging approaches including; process, actor, and planner's roles from United States economic development planning and implementation process through all contemporary issues presented in the chapter 6th REASONS :
  4. 4. Wilbur R. Thomson Economic Growth and Development; Processes, Stages, and Determinants BOOKS • An Econometric Model of Postwar State Industrial Development (2012), • A Community Development Work Plan for the City of Jacksboro, Texas (2000) • An Economic Development Strategic Vision for Texas City (1999) • Cross-hairs Targeting Approach to Local Economic Development: An Application to Tarrant Country, Texas (1995) • The Five Paths to Local Economic Development Project (1988) • Long Range Economic Development Strategy (1984) • Detroit Area Economic Opportunities Project (1980) • An Econometric Model of Postwar State Industrial Development (1973) • State Industrial Development: An Econometric Model of Postwar (1959) • An Economic Study of the City of Detroit …….etc 4/31 ? Published in : A Preface to Urban Economic (1965), Johns Hopkins Press. – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 229 Keywords : Urban economic, Urban growth, Urban development, Boston, Pittsburgh, Detroit. • Professor Emeritus of Economic – Wayne State University • 1985-1986; Chairman at Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs. Cleveland State University • Focus: Economic development issue (strategy in economic development, economic development goals, stage of development….ect 1st ARTICLES :
  5. 5. Contents of the 1st article 1. The many lines of linkage 2. The stage of urban growth 3. Failure of momentum between stages in growth 4. Challenge and response – A tale of three cities 5. The urban size ratchet 6. Management as the scarce factor in urban growth 5/31 “Economic Growth and Development; Processes, Stages, and Determinants” Wilbur R. Thomson
  6. 6. A Preface to Urban Economic (1965) ….. 49 years ago! 6/31 The Urban Growth Process Under economy development perspective *USA tends to be a country of very large cities. Which are growth and development, stability, opportunity equality, and the pursuit of good life might become “Urban Problems” Baltimore-Washington region http://landcover.usgs.gov/luhna/chap5.php 2013's Best Performing American Cities http://www.theatlanticcities.com/jobs-and- economy/2013/12/2013s-best-performing-american-cities/7887/ Economic Growth and Development; Processes, Stages, and Determinants Wilbur R. Thomson
  7. 7. Principal Cause of USA dramatic Urban Growth 1. Advance agriculture technology post WW II (percentage labor engaged to agriculture drop from 12% in 1950 to 6% in 1960) 2. Farm birth rate above the urban (lack of employment in countryside resulted urbanization) 3. Manufacturing and service in urban side absorbed intensive labor 4. Urban demographic and urban size simultaneously growth Shifting from green rural into City Detroit River Corridor San Francisco Bay Region http://landcover.usgs.gov/urban/detroit/intro.php http://sfbay.wr.usgs.gov/general_factsheets/urban_growth.html 7/31
  8. 8. The conurbation of cities in USA http://www.geog.nau.edu/courses/alew/gsp220/text/chapters/ch4.html 8/31 urban growth problemresulted from Interurban competition for growth and the development of the national system of cities. Which is the size of distribution and the spatial pattern of cities lies the vitality of urban economic Economic Growth and Development; Processes, Stages, and Determinants Wilbur R. Thomson (1965) The purpose of the Article is : Trans-border conurbation (United States and Mexico) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_agglomeration
  9. 9. The urban growth complex by Wilbur R. Thomson 1965 **Arrows point : direction of money flow 9/31 1. Three plants with export objective 2. Mutual advantage from local labor availability 3. Plants attracted foreign suppliers relate manufacture, Increased local exports, generated higher local income, and added local value 4. Adding plants by-product linkage 5. Local business service increased 6. Various local business/service, replaced foreign branch 7. Local business self-sufficient follows by growing complexity requires foreign esoteric business service 8. Good local income enriches consumer service 9. Consumer expenditure rise faster than export payrolls 10. Consumer service rise in number and scale 11. Urban area hierarchy then upgraded. Explicitly recognize by industrial structure 12. Metropolis may extend its growth into large scale 13. Local market attract more branch plant of outside firm 14. Branch plants spun off to reach growing metropolis 1. The many lines of linkage
  10. 10. 10/31 2. The Stage of Urban Growth 1. Export specialization 2. Export complex 3. Economic maturation / Local service sector puberty 4. Regional metropolis 5. Technical-professional virtuosity Local economic is a lengthened shadow of single dominant industry/firm Local production broaden to other product and/or deepens by extending forward/backward in the stage of production, by adding local suppliers/consumers of intermediate products Expansion of local product/activity to replace import by “own-use Local economic turn into a connection and controlling neighborhood cities that once rival then satellite. Export services is the major economic function. Cities with national eminence in some specialized skill/economic function is achieved Detroit; Automotive design….Boston; Education…San Francisco; Culture center…NY + LA; Finance
  11. 11. 11/31 3. Failure of Momentum Between Stage in Growth Local economy Large town Export diversification General industry manufacturing plants with export oriented will move local economic together with harbor, waterway, technology advance to generate sufficient growth force. Local economic rise by export diversification of manufacturing plants, strong surge of local service industry, replacing import by local product, and transportation system enhancement can generate growth of a city into a general Industry stage **If a city fail to add number of plants for export diversification, not strong local service and local market, and no surge of own-use product, the growth of local economic will stagnate between any of stage
  12. 12. 12/31 4. Challenge and Response; A tell of 3 cities • Hit by economic stagnation prior-outbreak of WW II because factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor • Shortly after WW II ended, city rebuilt on a base of superior on higher educational facilities that area spawned a complex of research and development work and manufacturing activity in R&D-oriented industry Boston • Boomed during WWII to supply backlog demand of steel. Hard hit by WW II recession 1949-1954, rebirth during late 55s by Smoke Abatement Programs (physical renewal in Golden Triangle) sponsorship by state co-operation with local universities. • She led innovations and industries in aluminum, glass, shipbuilding, petroleum, foods, appliances, sports, transportation, computing, retail, cars, & electronics. Placed her as 3rd (NY & Chicago) in corporate headquarters employment & 2nd (NY) in bank assets Pittsburgh • Unscathed by post WWII recession in backlog demand for automobile, but in 1960s, automobile industry matured, automated, decentralize into sub-urb, global competition, and demilitarized, generated unemployment in the city (then decline in population) • Too deep thought of harvest more lucrative in automobile business, Detroit missed the chance in aircraft production at least for its engines which is conversely to Los Angeles • Urban decay undermines Detroit into the present day that she has been described by some as a “ghost town” Detroit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit
  13. 13. Pittsburgh Ohio River Monongahela River Allegheny River 13/31 http://www.brooklineconnection.com/history/Facts/images/Point1975.JPG
  14. 14. 14/31 5. The urban size ratchet A. Growth and size come from industrial diversification that produce local rates (perhaps deviated slightly from national/regional average rate). To house a complex linkage local business will demand large urban area B. Urban growth from achievement of threshold size simply for political power (larger population comes greater electoral strength that those to extent federal aids and public work projects) C. Immobile capital in urban area (structures and infrastructures) is low cost of service D. Great size industrial activity is oriented to costumer rather that source of supply. Larger urban area is a mass potential costumer E. Steady supply of industrial leadership At certain range of urban scale, the nature of its hinterland, the degree of its industrial development and various cultural factors, some growth mechanism similar to ratchet
  15. 15. 6. Management as the scarce factor in urban growth15/31 Absolute size as a brake for the growth of urban area, to consider; • Increasing cost of public service (due to density, congestion, and bureaucracy) • Decreasing quality of public service (due to limit budget inversely to density) • Managerial inefficiency (with highly variability between urban areas) **Quality of local public legislator and administrator (government personnel)
  16. 16. QU0TATION16/31 “Urban growth after achievement of some threshold size is simple power politics. With a large population come greater electoral strength at both the state and national level and with reference to both executive and legislative bodies ……………….. Thus, to the extent that federal and state financial aids and public work project can be revive faltering urban economies” (Wilbur R. Thomson. 1965) “Greater proportion of industrial activity is oriented to costumer rather than to source of supply, and the larger urban areas amass potential costumers” (Wilbur R. Thomson. 1965)
  17. 17. Development Planning as the Only Game in Town Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 5 (1985) -- Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 242 Keywords: Development planning, Planning process, Planning for business, City planning, and Boston. Lisa Redfield Peattie Stephen Cornell Martin Rein • Emeritus Prof of Urban Anthropology (MIT), PhD from University of Chicago in 1968 • Focus: advocacy planning and peace actions BOOKS :The View From The Barrio-1968, A few facts from Bogota-1974, Living poor: A view from the bottom-1975, Thinking about Development-1982, Women's Claims: A Study in Political Economy-1983, Planning: Rethinking Ciudad Guayana-1987, New politics, the state, and planning-1987, Planners and protesters-1991. • Prof of sociology and of public administration and policy (univ of Arizona) • Focus: economic development, political economy&cultural sociology, Indigenous affairs, collective identity, ethnic & race relations. • 9 years taught in Harvard, moved to Univ of California-1989, then Univ of Arizona-1998 • Co-founded & Director Udall Center (Studies of Public Policy. Co-director of the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development • Professor Emeritus of Social Policy - Dept. Urban Studies&Planning. MIT • Ph.D in Brandeis University, Waltham- 1961, Master in Columbia University- 1954, Bachelor in Brooklyn College-1950 • Focus: Social science and public policy. BOOKS; The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence, What Can Tribes Do? Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Economic Development, Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World BOOKS; Social Benefits after Communism: The Role of Enterprise - 1996, Enterprise and the Welfare State 1996, Reflection: Exploring New Approaches to the Resolution of Policy Controversies, Rethinking the Welfare State: The Change in the Public-Private Mix 17/31 2nd ARTICLES :
  18. 18. Contents of the 2nd article 1. Introduction 2. The city and development planning 3. The planning process 4. Human Services planning 5. Land use and housing; A contentious terrain 6. Issue Politics 7. Discussion 18/31 “Development Planning as the Only Game in Town ”Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein
  19. 19. 19/31 Development Planning as the Only Game in Town Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein The purpose of the Article is : By examining development project in Boston City, the article tends to explain why“Development Planning” or “Planning for Business” becomes a primary concern in American city government. **The author also show how the interest of different constituencies converge to support development planning. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston
  20. 20. 20/31 1. Introduction Development planning Planning for Business To produce a city environment in which private/profit- making enterprise can successfully function and to introduce kinds of enterprise to be located in the community Fact: A problematic process to be implemented but the obvious thing to do **Require multi actors collaboration : Federal & state government, city hall, local business- elite, outside investors, aldermen, and ordinary residents **Diverse interest agenda from actors upon development planning -- Business interest (original purpose) -- Human service (drive by politician during election time) Howdevelopment planning should be done by planners? simply doing the plan upon their professional prestige? simply under state or federal control upon the funds? simply in the best interest of the voters? Research Course MIT & Harvard : How the system operate in the development planning process relate to dominance of particular policy- agenda-development that worked out through specific actors and institution Source of paper Game
  21. 21. 21/31 2. The city and development planning Boston • Working class bedroom community which are citizens work outside the city • 3 major ethics (Irish, Italians, and Portuguese) • 1940s was most densely city in USA……since 1945 hit by population declining • 1958, Ford assembly plant sited in Boston with 1800 jobs but 1977 left (costing the city with 1.000 jobs) • Before 1960’s, substrate of city politic was a set of interlinked family group with connection to the government • After 1960’s, progressive reform from conservative reaction into “clean government” • Late 60’s, new Mayor (with civil right background and “revolutionary spirit”) set up “service center” in the City Hall Boston late 60’s New Mayor Revolutionary “service center” “Plan for yourself” citizens Various Projects Conservative group “Save the city” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_City_Hall **Major project: Mall on the ex-Ford plant land under UDAG City Hall http://bostinno.streetwise.co/2013/12/09/boston-events- married-in-boston-mayors-office-of-new-urban-mechanics/
  22. 22. 22/31 3. The planning process To understand the logic of development planning is from its center = Development package Components of Development package: 1. Land 2. Political support 3. Public fund (federal or/and state) 4. Private investment Planners Jobs : Entrepreneurial Unified all components into physical outcome a. Locating physical opportunity for development b. Obtaining public fund and potential investor c. Drumming up political support Community participation Served to keep planning process open to outside developers and prevent a takeover by local political insiders Leaded planner into a better design Major project: 1. School re-use development of commercial center 2. Boy’s Club 3. Squares / commercial nodes for metro subway 4. Sub-urban shopping mall supported by UDAG
  23. 23. 23/31 4. Human Services planning Planning division at Boston city government in 1960’s (during the “reformer” Mayor) Professional : Office of planning and community development (located in the 3rd F of City Hall) Concern with physical reorganization of the city “development planning” Political : Office Human service (located in the basement of City Hall, Linked the Mayor with federal/state funded social service agency, and also citizens who is seeking help. With the major piece equipment is telephone) Concern in maintaining individual voters and outside agencies' connection with the mayor. And have been active in the Mayor’s electoral campaign (in fact, the head office was Mayor's campaign manager) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:People _in_small_discussion_group_meeting.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:People _in_small_discussion_group_meeting.jpg
  24. 24. 24/31 5. Land use and housing; A contentious terrain Development Planning is not only representing a choice among competing agendas, it has the inherent potential deep social conflict beyond the issue raised by particular projects Boston’s Gentrification program (1960s - 1980s) Arguments : 1. The decline of industry, real estate become biggest business in the city 2. Rents are rising in the private sector, but not for subsidized housing 3. Working class families was dominate the city’s population, but lately many left the city to response the shift of jobs market or other reasons 4. To response the real estate trend, gentrification was implemented 5. Two groups in conflict that pro and contra to the program pro : improvement of living environment and real estate interests contra : replacement of the low income resident and rents rate issue that beyond students or working class family can afford
  25. 25. 25/31 6. Issue Politics Comments for a certain development project represent a very different way of looking at planning, not in terms of programs or institutional arena, but as issue based on politics that tends to be confronting in the development planning process The organizers of issue politics differ sharply from planner and politician’s mainstream in seeing specific development planning objective as mean rather than ends 7. Discussion In planners professional culture : logic of tax base, investor’s interests, federal funds, professional pride in design of build environment, all support and feed on each other Planner’s role in development is essentially entrepreneur that capable to interpret provide project as serving public use
  26. 26. QU0TATION26/31 “In theory, economic recession might dictate as a surge of interest in the basic issue of jobs and income. But in the practice, the effect has been the reverse. Federal funds get less, private investment dries, and development planning looks more important than ever, simply as a way to keep the city going” (Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein - 1985) “The planner’s role in development is essentially an entrepreneur………………… the rule of planner is, in part, to interpret private project as serving public use” (Lisa R. Peattie, Stephen Cornell, Martin Rein - 1985)
  27. 27. Converting the Military Industrial Economy: The Experience at Six Facilities Published in : Journal of Planning Education and Research 11 (1991) – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p; 258 Keywords : Conversion economic development , USA Military asset conversion, USA Military industrial economic. Planning process Catherine Hill Sabina Deitrick Ann Markusen 27/31 3rd ARTICLES : • Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Public & International Affairs. University of Pittsburgh. • PhD in city and regional planning in University of California, Berkeley • Focus: economic & community development, urban planning, and regional policy, • Vice president of research at AAUW (The American Association of University Women) • PhD in public policy from Rutgers University • Focus: study for Women's Policy BOOKS :Mom's Retirement Security (2006), Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus (2006), Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap (2005), and Tenure Denied: Cases of Sex Discrimination in Academia (2004). • Professor and director at Humphrey School public affair. University of Minnesota • Focus : Arts, culture and economic development; regional economics and planning; industrial organization; economic development, local, state, regional; industrial and occupational planning; economic impact of high technology, military spending
  28. 28. Contents of the 3rd article 1. The context: Military builddown 2. The conversion nexus: supply and demand when government are the market 3. Four Adjustment models 4. Facility conversion – An evaluation 28/31 “Converting the Military Industrial Economy: The Experience at Six Facilities ”Catherine Hill, Sabina Deitrick, Ann Markusen The Article focus on : Enormous challenge of converting military facilities in USA into civilian use and differentiating demand side from supply side approaches
  29. 29. 29/31 1. The context: Military builddown The cut-back budget in America Military during last 10 year (1990s-2000s), affected : 1. Job market relate military sector 2. Military dedicated plant (own by government) 3. Defense manufactures 4. Direct an indirect impact public infrastructure as supplement in military community (housing, school, highway, ….ect) ***For the reality of cut-back budget, task of economic conversion in military sectors have been considerable interested and debated by the late 1980s, and yet the conversion in military sectors already implemented http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/01/will- cutting-the-defense-budget-leave-america-at-risk/252010/
  30. 30. 31/31 2. The conversion nexus: supply and demand when government are the market 30/31 3. Four Adjustment models Author examine four alternative models of conversion that organized around a different target and lead actors. 1. converting the company (corporate diversification) 2. converting the economic development model (economic base community) 3. converting the individual employee (worker adjustment model) 4. converting the facility /alternative use model (most difficult but most attractive in terms of retaining jobs and stabilizing communities) The relationship between the military industrial sectors and the state : demand (state) ----- supply (private sector) **defense manufacturers can sell abroad, marketing to foreign governments remains tied to the foreign policy.
  31. 31. 4. Facility conversion – An evaluation 6 conversion efforts in the 1980s a. Quincy Shipyards-Boston b. Blaw-Knox Foundry - Chicago c. Philadelphia Naval Yards d. McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft –California e. Lockheed Shipyards – Seattle f. Unisys Defense Computer Systems -Minnesota 31/3131/31 Conclusion 1. worker participation and unity enhance prospects for success 2. To be success, requires early warning and financial disclosure on the part of the company and government is needed for job training, planning assistance, and financial support None has succeeded in the narrow sense of preserving jobs common obstacles unsuitability of current business in the commercial markets competition for the ex- defense workers
  32. 32. Xie Xie Ni Thank You Terima Kasih http://observers.france24.com/fr/content/20110726-job- nettoyer-maquette-miniature-shanghai-2020-chine-metier
  33. 33. Presentation NOTE ^____^ 1/31 (slide) 2/31 Articles discuss more about development in economic perspective. That all of them based on American’s cities in urban planning experiences 3/31 Why chapter 6th ? Need to understand the meaning of economic development and the interpretation of economic development problems in the planning practice. And also, want to capture the idea of how economic development occurs at each level of development, with all the emerging approaches including; process, actor, and planner's roles from America experiences through its contemporary issues presented in the chapter 6th 4/31 author background (among the 1st scholar to recognize that urban economics is important to be studying, His analyses relate to urban growth process in this article still stand as a useful and accurate analysis even almost 49 years after this article was written) 5/31 This article sections all interlinked to express the urban growth process, including success and failure story of some American cities 6/31 At the beginning, Thomson expressed about America tends to be a country of very large cities. Which are growth and development might become “Urban Problems” 7/31 He led us with a common sense about the principal reason why American’s cities experience dramatic growth. He stated, by the time the 2nd world war come to end, advance agriculture technology immerged, requires less human power. People in the rural area move into urban side, where manufacturing and service activity absorbed intensive labor. 8/31 With the reality that America tends to be a country of very large cities that “growth” of the city might become an urban Problem. Then, Thompson tried to explain urban growth problem, resulted from Interurban competition, that size of distribution and spatial pattern of cities is a vital element of urban economic 9/31 Thompson provided an illustration of how a city able to extent it “growth process”, Figure (arrows point out the money flow)For example, (1, 2, 10) if a city with adequate population for labor accepted some plants with export objective built in the area, (3,4,5,6,7) this plants will attract outsider suppliers relate manufacture, generated higher local income, and added local value, or even another plants by-product linkage will soon built in the city (8,9,11,12) Various local business and services increased, then lately will replace foreign branch. The self-sufficient of local business will follow the growing complexity of business service. Good local income then enriches consumer service, and rise in number and scale. (13,14) Urban area hierarchy of this city then upgraded…perhaps recognize by industrial structure in regional or national level. City change into Metropolis and may extend its growth into large scale because local market keep attract more branch plant of foreign firm that spin off to reach growing metropolis 10/31. Thompson, there are 5 stages that a city might experience during her growth (slides). 11/31 Thompson indicate that not every city that have original growth able to keep the speed of growth, For a city with export-oriented production, it will require structure and infrastructure development in order to generate sufficient growth force into the stage or large town. Or, even for a city which has diversification manufacture for export-oriented. Without replacing import by local product, and structure and infrastructure upgrading, this city might fail to growth as a general Industry city 12/31 3 cities took as an example of success and failure story of some American cities (slides), Boston growth had reach into as a Metropolitan scale (10th largest metropolitan in USA) and a home for 4.5 million inhabitant. Pittsburg, similar to Boston, had maintain her growth up to metropolitan scale 2,6 million population, 20th largest city in USA. A little bit different to Boston and Pittsburgh, Detroit (I found that : USA government has declared bankruptcy of Detroit city on December 3th 2013 with 18.5 billion debt)
  34. 34. 13/31 Pittsburgh’s Golden Triangle 14/31 growth mechanism similar to ratchet(slides) 15/31 Thompson try to warning of some disadvantages if we put urban area into infinite growth. 16/31 Quotations (important of urban population from economic development perspective. Where before I though urban population is nothing but problems for physical urban development) 17/31 2nd article (slides) 18/31 sections describe the development planning process based on its issue section in Boston city during late 1960’s until early 1980’s 19/31 (slide) 20/31 (slide) 21/31 (slide) Boston’s background. Service center received critics from conservative group for their aggressive planning programs 22/31 explain how to understand the logic of development planning process, in which they argue, can be understood from understanding the development package which concise 4 components. It is planner’s jobs to unify all components into physical outcome and promote it to obtain public fund and private investor, as well as drumming-up the idea to have political support. In other hand, community participation will keep the planning process in democracy stage even for outsider developer and also leaded planners into a better design. In the case of Boston City, there were 4 major planning projects mentioned in the article and describe how the planning process went on, in which authors describe their planning process as the arena of the game 23/31 mentioned in the introduction section(diverse interest agenda of multi actors and city government is not an exception) For his “human service” agenda, the “reformer” Mayor, who served in the early 1960’s set up 2 different Planning division at Boston city government (slide) 24/31 (slide) issue of social conflict during Boston’s Gentrification rise-up by the author in this section It is implicitly shown that implementation process of Development Planning program is not enough if only depending on development package. Planners need to anticipate some issues or conflict rise during or after some particular projects have done. 25/31 In this section, personally I feel that authors try to convince us as planner that critics addressed to a certain development project mostly its purpose was not to improve the quality of project, but rather than based on political game that tends to confront some decision. 26/31 quotations that I think important from this article. 1st had opened my perspective horizons wider relate to planning profession, 2nd quotation had gave me pretty much clear understanding about how the system operate in the development planning agenda 27/31 (slide) 28/31 (slide) 29/31 (slide) background; in the bigger frame will also effected state economy stability with a serious recession 30/31 relationship between the military industrial sectors and the government (slide) state stand as buyer, where supplier is the private sector (firms and plants in the military market sell the product to a government bureaucracy). 3rd sub-tittle (slide) 31/31. 4th sub-tittle, Authors examine 6 conversion efforts implemented in 1980s, From The 6 conversion efforts, authors found that none has succeeded in the narrow sense of preserving jobs but as a group, the cases demonstrate the ability and willingness of defense workers to plan for civilian work. The conversion efforts share a common obstacles in aspect of unsuitability of current business in the commercial markets competition for the ex- defense workers. To be success, it is requires early warning and financial disclosure on the part of the company and government is needed for job training, planning assistance, and financial support XIE XIE NI
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