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Read Me Closely
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Read Me Closely

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A guide to support text selection and close readings at the secondary level …

A guide to support text selection and close readings at the secondary level

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  • Even though the emphasis of this presentation is on secondary-level literacy, the example included here really illustrates the potential of young learners to engage in thoughtful text-based discussions.Visit http://readingandwritingproject.com/resources/common-core-standards/ccs-videos.html to watch this discussion and others like it.
  • Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), 2010
  • Transcript

    • 1. read me closelyHow to Select Works that have text AppealDes Floyd
    • 2. Researchers have attended to features of different genres of text thatmight shape people’s comprehension but we know less about howtexts are actually used in different domains (e.g., homes, communities,churches, etc.).In the dark-The Role of Text in Disciplinary Learning (2010)
    • 3. Text: organized networks of meaning that people generate oruse to make meaning either for themselves or for others.Defined- Wade & Moje (2000)
    • 4. Multimodal viewExamples Aural Visual Gestures Letters/print Symbols Internet Television Video
    • 5. ON CHOOSING PRINTStoriesHistoricalfictionMysteriesMythsSciencefictionRealisticfictionSatireGraphicnovelsPlaysPoemsEssaysSpeechesOpinionpiecesBiographiesMemoirsHistoricalaccountsScientificaccountsTechnicalaccountsJournalism
    • 6. TEXT SELECTION3 FACTORS TO CONSIDERPotential for readerengagement/interactionLevels of meaningFeatures of the text
    • 7. #1 The potential for engagementQuestion: Does the text offer opportunities forknowledge-use, knowledge-building, and/or personalconnection?
    • 8. {Read meworks that have text appeal
    • 9. “The preacher preached a wonderful rhythmical sermon, all moansand shouts and lonely cries and dire pictures of hell, and then hesang a song about the ninety and nine safe in the fold, but one littlelamb was left out in the cold. Then he said: "Wont you come?Wont you come to Jesus? Young lambs, wont you come?" And heheld out his arms to all us young sinners there on the mournersbench. And the little girls cried. And some of them jumped up andwent to Jesus right away. But most of us just sat there.”- Excerpt from SalvationLangston Hughes
    • 10. The Fire Made its Own Draft“By Wednesday afternoon, inside of twelve hours, half the heart of the city wasgone. At that time I watched the vast conflagration from out on the bay. It wasdead calm. Not a flicker of wind stirred. Yet from every side wind was pouring inupon the city. East, west, north, and south, strong winds were blowing upon thedoomed city. The heated air rising made an enormous suck. Thus did the fire ofitself build its own colossal chimney through the atmosphere. Day and night thisdead calm continued, and yet, near to the flames, the wind was often half agale, so mighty was the suck.Wednesday night saw the destruction of the very heart of the city. Dynamitewas lavishly used, and many of San Franciscos proudest structures werecrumbled by man himself into ruins, but there was no withstanding the onrush ofthe flames. Time and again successful stands were made by the fire-fighters,and every time the flames flanked around on either side or came up from therear, and turned to defeat the hard-won victory.An enumeration of the buildings destroyed would be a directory of SanFrancisco. An enumeration of the buildings undestroyed would be a line andseveral addresses. An enumeration of the deeds of heroism would stock a libraryand bankrupt the Carnegie medal fund. An enumeration of the dead will neverbe made. All vestiges of them were destroyed by the flames. The number of thevictims of the earthquake will never be known.”Excerpt fromThe Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco EarthquakeBy Jack London
    • 11. From the Testimony of Jeanne LevyAbout Wanting to Live and Wanting to Die in Auschwitz-Birkenau“Now, this "rivier", that was kind of "Dantes inferno". There was a little bit fartheraway was a girl lying that was a neighbor of Greet of Amsterdam, in the Jewish quarter.And she was lying there and she was crying, "I would like to die, I would like to die. Iwill not live." And Greet spoke to her and said to her also in Dutch, "Mariege, you are sonice, you are so beautiful. The boys were standing in rows. You have to be strong, youhave to go through that."....(not clear) Now Greet got better and was sent out, so I triedto speak with Mariege and said, "I heard from Greet how the boys stood in a row andreally, Mariege, you have to be strong and to try to be better. You will get better." Shesaid, "Ah, what do you know? What do you know? I lie here in my own dirt already daysand I would like to die and I have to die. I cant live any longer." And that went on andthen she didnt stop saying "I will die, I will die, I will die." And suddenly it stopped andwhere she lay they broke through. The beds there were only some wooden planks andsome instead of one were three or five only lying and there we were lying on. And thenthe second went - she was in the upper bed - the second broke down and then the thirdand I thought arent I lucky that I was not lying there, but the nurses didnt like to bringher outside - those who died they put outside and the "dead commando" came to fetchthem in the morning...”
    • 12. How Mark Twain Conquered Stage Fright“It was dark and lonely behind the scenes in that theater, and I peeked through the littlepeek holes they have in theater curtains and looked into the big auditorium. That wasdark and empty, too. By and by it lighted up, and the audience began to arrive.I had got a number of friends of mine, stalwart men, to sprinkle themselves through theaudience armed with big clubs. Every time I said anything they could possibly guess Iintended to be funny, they were to pound those clubs on the floor. Then there was a kindlady in a box up there, also a good friend of mine, the wife of the governor. She was towatch me intently, and whenever I glanced toward her she was going to deliver agubernatorial laugh that would lead the whole audience into applause.At last I began. I had the manuscript tucked under a United States flag in front of mewhere I could get at it in case of need. But I managed to get started without it. I walkedup and down--I was young in those days and needed the exercise--and talked and talked.Right in the middle of the speech I had placed a gem. I had put in a moving, pathetic partwhich was to get at the hearts and souls of my hearers. When I delivered it they did justwhat I hoped and expected. They sat silent and awed. I had touched them. Then Ihappened to glance up at the box where the Governors wife was--you know whathappened.”Excerpt fromHow I Conquered Stage Frightby Mark Twain (1835-1910)
    • 13. Help me to remember…
    • 14. Help me to forget…“Pleasure and action make the hours seem short.”~William Shakespeare~
    • 15. Through texts, we can extend our communitiesand learn from the experiences of others.“I am a reflection of my community.”-TUPAC SHAKUR
    • 16. When we see ourselves inwhat we read, we are hooked.
    • 17. ReadingandRespondingHISTORICAL FICTIONSchool: PS 6Title: Book Club Conversationmeeting Common CoreexpectationsSynopsis: A video of a fifthgrade book club from PS 6engaging in accountable talkaround historical fiction atgrade-level text complexity.
    • 18. Grade 05 Video: Text-based Discussion(next slide)Narrated by Lucy Calkins
    • 19. #2 Levels of MeaningQuestion: Does the text offer multiple levels ofmeaning (e.g., readily accessible, moderate challenge,sophisticated) as readers progress from decoding tomeaning-making and ultimately to meaning-use?
    • 20. Factors that influenceaccess to meaningLow HighSimple, conventional structures Complex, implicit structuresEvents relayed in chronological order(literary)Frequent flashbacks/forwards(literary)Common genres/subgenres(informational)Variety of structures, discipline-specific(informational)Literal, conversational language Figurative, archaic/unfamiliar languageShallow cultural/literary/disciplinaryknowledge necessaryDeep cultural/literary/disciplinaryknowledge necessary
    • 21. {Read meWorks that have text appeal(even as levels of meaning are considered)
    • 22. Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,To the last syllable of recorded time;And all our yesterdays have lighted foolsThe way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!Lifes but a walking shadow, a poor playerThat struts and frets his hour upon the stageAnd then is heard no more.- from Macbeth (Act5,Scene5)William Shakespeare
    • 23. “Upon this a question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared orfeared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but,because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to befeared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. Becausethis is to be asserted in general of men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, false,cowardly, covetous, and as long as you succeed they are yours entirely; theywill offer you their blood, property, life, and children, as is said above, whenthe need is far distant; but when it approaches they turn against you. Andthat prince who, relying entirely on their promises, has neglected otherprecautions, is ruined; because friendships that are obtained by payments,and not by greatness or nobility of mind, may indeed be earned, but theyare not secured, and in time of need cannot be relied upon;”Excerpt from Chapter XVIIIs it better to be loved or feared?Machiavelli
    • 24. “It was dark when I awoke; I felt cold also, and half frightened, as it were, instinctively,finding myself so desolate. Before I had quitted your apartment, on a sensation of cold, Ihad covered myself with some clothes, but these were insufficient to secure me from thedews of night. I was a poor, helpless, miserable wretch; I knew, and could distinguish,nothing; but feeling pain invade me on all sides, I sat down and wept.Soon a gentle light stole over the heavens and gave me a sensation of pleasure. I started upand beheld a radiant form rise from among the trees. [The moon] I gazed with a kind ofwonder. It moved slowly, but it enlightened my path, and I again went out in search ofberries. I was still cold when under one of the trees I found a huge cloak, with which Icovered myself, and sat down upon the ground. No distinct ideas occupied my mind; all wasconfused. I felt light, and hunger, and thirst, and darkness; innumerable sounds rang in myears, and on all sides various scents saluted me; the only object that I could distinguish wasthe bright moon, and I fixed my eyes on that with pleasure.”Excerpt from Chapter 11FRANKENSTEINMary Shelly
    • 25. Food for ThoughtSelecting texts for studentreading should not onlydepend on text complexitybut also on considerationsof quality and coherence.
    • 26. Quantitative Features of Texts:Measures Both Useful and Imperfect
    • 27. #3 Features of the TextQuestion: Consider the quantitative features of the text(features difficult to evaluate without using computersoftware). How might certain textual features help orhinder reading comprehension?
    • 28. The quantitative dimension of text complexity refers tothose aspects—such as word frequency, sentence length,and text cohesion (just to name a few)—that are difficultfor a human reader to evaluate when examining a text.These factors are more efficiently measured by computerprograms.MEASURE
    • 29. ATOS by Renaissance Learning takes into account threevariables: words per sentence,average grade level of words(established via the GradedVocabulary List), and characters perword.Flesch-Kincaid (public domain) uses word and sentence length asproxies for semantic and syntacticcomplexity respectively (i.e., proxiesfor vocabulary difficulty and sentencestructure).The Lexile® Framework For Readingby MetaMetricsLexile® measures are expressed asnumeric measures followed by an “L”(for example, 850L), which are thenplaced on the Lexile® scale formeasuring reader ability and textcomplexity (ranging from below 200Lfor beginning readers and beginning-reader materials to above 1600L foradvanced readers and materials).
    • 30. Degrees of Reading Power® (DRP®) byQuestar Assessment, Inc.The DRP Analyzer employs a derivation of aBormuth mean cloze readability formula based onthree measureable features of text: word length,sentence length, and word familiarity. DRP textdifficulty is expressed in DRP units on acontinuous scale with a theoretical range from 0to 100.Reading Maturity by Pearson Education The Pearson Reading Maturity Metric uses thecomputational language model Latent SemanticAnalysis (LSA) to estimate how much languageexperience is required to achieve adult knowledgeof the meaning of each word, sentence, andparagraph in a text.SourceRater by Educational TestingServiceSourceRater employs a variety of natural languageprocessing techniques to extract evidence of textstanding relative to eight construct-relevantdimensions of text variation: syntactic complexity,vocabulary difficulty, level of abstractness,referential cohesion, connective cohesion, degreeof academic orientation, degree of narrativeorientation, and paragraph structure.
    • 31. {Read meWorks that have text appeal(consider quantitative text features)
    • 32. A quick revisit
    • 33. Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,To the last syllable of recorded time;And all our yesterdays have lighted foolsThe way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!Lifes but a walking shadow, a poor playerThat struts and frets his hour upon the stageAnd then is heard no more.- from Macbeth (Act5,Scene5)William ShakespeareLexile score = 950
    • 34. “Upon this a question arises: whether it be better to be loved than feared orfeared than loved? It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but,because it is difficult to unite them in one person, it is much safer to befeared than loved, when, of the two, either must be dispensed with. Becausethis is to be asserted in general of men, that they are ungrateful, fickle, false,cowardly, covetous, and as long as you succeed they are yours entirely; theywill offer you their blood, property, life, and children, as is said above, whenthe need is far distant; but when it approaches they turn against you. Andthat prince who, relying entirely on their promises, has neglected otherprecautions, is ruined; because friendships that are obtained by payments,and not by greatness or nobility of mind, may indeed be earned, but theyare not secured, and in time of need cannot be relied upon;”Excerpt from Chapter XVIIIs it better to be loved or feared?MachiavelliLexile score = 1170
    • 35. “It was dark when I awoke; I felt cold also, and half frightened, as it were, instinctively,finding myself so desolate. Before I had quitted your apartment, on a sensation of cold, Ihad covered myself with some clothes, but these were insufficient to secure me from thedews of night. I was a poor, helpless, miserable wretch; I knew, and could distinguish,nothing; but feeling pain invade me on all sides, I sat down and wept.Soon a gentle light stole over the heavens and gave me a sensation of pleasure. I started upand beheld a radiant form rise from among the trees. [The moon] I gazed with a kind ofwonder. It moved slowly, but it enlightened my path, and I again went out in search ofberries. I was still cold when under one of the trees I found a huge cloak, with which Icovered myself, and sat down upon the ground. No distinct ideas occupied my mind; all wasconfused. I felt light, and hunger, and thirst, and darkness; innumerable sounds rang in myears, and on all sides various scents saluted me; the only object that I could distinguish wasthe bright moon, and I fixed my eyes on that with pleasure.”Excerpt from Chapter 11FRANKENSTEINMary ShellyLexile score = 810Where does this fall within theCCSS grade bands?
    • 36. Remember, quantitative measures ofcomplexity are both useful and imperfect.
    • 37. WHEN SELECTING TEXTSCONSIDER ALL 3 FACTORSPotential for readerengagement/interactionLevels of meaningFeatures of the text
    • 38. Fair Use“Fair Use” doctrine gives teachers more latitude than others when itcomes to copyright for educational purposes (Aufderheide & Jaszi, 2011).Search for Texts OnlineGoogle BooksBartlebyLiteraturePoetryGutenberg
    • 39.  National Governors Association Center for BestPractices, Council of Chief State School Officers,Washington D.C., 2010. www.gutenberg.org (sample public domainworks) http://www.readingonline.org/articles/handbook/wade/ http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/standard-10-range-quality-complexity/range-of-text-types-for-612 http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/holocaust/resource_center/item.asp?GATE=Z&list_type=2-24&type_id=5&total=N http://www.lexile.com/using-lexile/lexile-measures-and-the-ccssi/text-complexity-grade-bands-and-lexile-ranges/ http://readingandwritingproject.com/resources/common-core-standards/ccs-videos.htmlREFERENCES

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