History, Science, and Trade<br />Desiree Hopkins<br />
What is History?<br /><ul><li>History is often remembered as that boring first-period class we slept through that forgettable introduction to important people and significant dates. At various times, history has been considered as the necessary knowledge of a responsible citizen, as truth to right former wrongs, as propaganda, or as vacuous opinion.
Knowing such stories realizing how the past causes the present and establishing the truth about events can be significant for government leaders, a city council, a jury, an investment group, or an individual. People do want to know where they came from and why present conditions are as they are.</li></li></ul><li>History<br /><ul><li>The facts of history are verifiable in the sense that one can often bring other records, reliable witnesses, and acceptable logic to prove an event happened at a particular time and place, was done by certain people, and caused unambiguous effects.
Historical facts can be based on at least two kinds of sources: primary and secondary. Primary means a comment made by someone who was a witness or a participant in an event. An example is a letter or an interview can be because a person who has observed or a contributor when something happened. A secondary source is a record made by someone not present at an event, but who uses primary and other secondary sources as evidence. Most history books are secondary records.</li></li></ul><li>Spencer Wells<br />Spencer Wells is a leading population geneticist and director of the Geographic Project from National Geographic and IBM. His fascination with the past has led the scientist, author, and documentary filmmaker to the farthest reaches of the globe in search of human populations who hold the history of humankind in their DNA. By studying humankind's family tree he hopes to close the gaps in our knowledge of human migration.<br />Wells became committed to studying genetic diversity in indigenous populations and unraveling age-old mysteries about early human migration.<br />
The Journey of Man <br />Spencer Wells has concluded that all humans alive today are descended from a single man who lived in Africa around 60,000 years ago. <br />Well's take on the origins of modern humans and how they came to populate.<br />The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, and a National Geographic documentary of the same title. In a straightforward story, he explains how he traced the exodus of modern humans from Africa by analyzing genetic changes in DNA from the y-chromosome. <br />human ancestors originated in Africa, and eventually made their way out to the rest of the world. Analysis of the Y chromosome is one of the methods used in tracing the history of early humans early. Thirteen genetic markers on the Y-chromosome differentiate populations of human beings.<br />
Catastrophe<br />15 hundred yrs. Ago something extreme happened to the climate. The sun became dark, rain poured red as is tinted by blood, clouds of dust enveloped the earth, cold ripped the land for 2 yrs., then came drought, famine, plague, death. <br />Whole cites were wiped out, civilization crumbled there is evidence of a catastrophe it effected the world and history.<br />The mid sixth century catastrophe was the most important date in the history of the past 2000 yrs. It did lay the foundation of the world we live in today.<br />
Comet/ Asteroid<br /><ul><li>To cause a major catastrophe that would last decades, we would need an impact by a rather larger asteroid, say 4 kilometer across.
A 6 kilometer across would have to affect our atmosphere . There is no evidence of a crater left by an impact from the sixth century however, dinosaurs may have been affect by a asteroid.</li></li></ul><li>Erickson and Balée<br /><ul><li>Clark Erickson and William Balée, the archaeologists.
Erickson and Balée belong to a cohort of scholars that has radically challenged conventional notions of what the Western Hemisphere was like before Columbus. When I went to high school, in the 1970s, I was taught that Indians came to the Americas across the Bering Strait about 12,000 years ago, that they lived for the most part in small, isolated groups, and that they had so little impact on their environment that even after millennia of habitation it remained mostly wilderness. My son picked up the same ideas at his schools. One way to summarize the views of people like Erickson and Balée would be to say that in their opinion this picture of Indian life is wrong in almost every aspect. Indians were here far longer than previously thought, these researchers believe, and in much greater numbers. And they were so successful at imposing their will on the landscape that in 1492 Columbus set foot in a hemisphere thoroughly dominated by humankind.</li></li></ul><li>Christopher Columbus<br />In 1492 the world beyond Europe was not a sleeping beauty waiting to be awakened.<br />The "ocean blue" into which Christopher Columbus's small craft sailed seethed with activity. The Caribbean Tainos paddled canoes from island to island. Polynesians skillfully navigated catamarans from speck to speck, traveling hundreds of miles across the Pacific.<br />Europeans believed that the globe was arranged in parallel belts of climate zones, from the frigid poles to the torrid equator-the latter supposedly too hot for human life.<br />
Columbia Exchange<br />The Columbian Exchange was a dramatically widespread exchange of the animals, plants, culture and human populations (including slaves), communicable, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World and New World). It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture and culture in all of human history. <br />Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-scale contact between the old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.<br />